The first massive use of kamikaze tactics noted during the battle for the Philippine Islands, when the Americans lost 132 of the ship.
The main target of attacks by kamikazes were aircraft carriers, but their strong defense is not always allowed to the pilots of the bombers to break through to the desired goal, and then they chose another ship. Especially suffered from kamikaze radar picket destroyers which the Americans had put away from the order of the main forces for the early detection of approaching Japanese aircraft.
The closer the American forces to the Japanese home Islands resistance and fanaticism of the Japanese had increased. The end of the war expected no earlier than 1946, and projected losses from the United States during the landing in Japan has millions of soldiers. In addition to these disappointing forecasts, some concerns have command of the American fleet called intelligence reports about the development of enemy cruise missiles, controlled by pilots and suicide bombers.
It was about the aircraft-shells 11 Oka (cherry blossom) stirrup gunpowder engines and a warhead weighing 1200 kg. To the launch site Oka 11 was delivered by a G4M2e bomber Mitsubishi. For 50-80 km from the target at an altitude of about 8000 m Oka 11 was discharged with the carrier, and the pilot of the bomber, including engines, continued flight independently. In 10 seconds the plane-projectile was accelerated to a speed of 650 km/h (according to the project of up to 800 km/h) and then did the flight planning. 4-5 km from the destination, the pilot began to dive at the target. To intercept flying with great speed at an altitude of 100-150 m doodlebug sizes 6×5 m was virtually impossible. To deal with such a cruise missile the us Navy required a fighter-interceptor with high speed, high climb rate and is optimized for actions at low altitudes.
The development of new aircraft required a lot of time, and in the Bureau of aviation of the fleet decided to choose the characteristics of any fighter of an already built experimental aircraft. The choice of the military stayed on the modification of the fighter CORSAIR — F4U-1WM XR4360 with engine power of 3000 HP, which commissioned the Bureau in March 1943 he built the firm Vought and Pratt & Whitney. On engine power the new aircraft was superior to the serial CORSAIR last modification on 800 HP that promised unprecedented flight characteristics.
The prototype aircraft with the serial number 12992 gave Goodyear the city of Akron (Ohio) for testing and upgrading. Goodyear already engaged in the production of the CORSAIR fighter modification of the FG-1, so the launch of a series of new aircraft does not require large capital investments. In February 1944, the Goodyear has received an order for production of 418 low-altitude interceptor under the designation F2G. The contract provided for the construction of the aircraft in two versions — F2G-1 for the marine corps and F2G-2 carrier-based aircraft. The first serial fighter firm Goodyear was to deliver before the end of 1944.
Difficulties with the fine-tuning of the engine R4360 Pratt & Whitney arrested the flight of the prototype XF2G-1 until the end of summer 1944.
On 26 August 1944, the test pilot D. Armstrong flew on the first experimental sample XF2G-1 with serial number 13471. The pilot was amazed at the power unit and generally praised the car positively. But significant changes to the design of the bow has worsened the directional stability of a fighter (especially at low speeds), that the deck was completely unacceptable. Moreover, the fighter F4U CORSAIR that served as the basis for F2G was not easy to pilot. The tendency of the aircraft to the lowering on the right wing as a result of the generated propeller large reluctance torque was the main reason for the delay it’s arrival to the armament of aircraft carriers. But with the increase of engine power, this disadvantage of the fighter has become particularly noticeable.
The designers managed to partially neutralize unfolding moment by increasing the height of the keel at 304,8 mm. between the lower part of the rudder and the fuselage was installed the additional section of the rudder, which started to operate simultaneously with the release of the flaps when landing. But these improvements only appeared in the pre-production aircraft and the first prototype flew with the usual keel of the F4U. During the tests the machine was dubbed the SUPER CORSAIR.
A serious drawback of the original CORSAIR fighter that the designers and the Goodyear succeeded when upgrading to eliminate it completely, was a bad view from the cockpit. Starting with the third prototype XF2G-1, the car began to install a canopy from a jet fighter P-47D THUNDERBOLT.
It was built four copies of the prototype: XF2G-1 with serial number 13471 With the R4360 engine, painted in the standard for carrier-based aircraft Navy blue color with a yellow hood and a blue number “5”; XF2G-1 (No. 13472), almost no different from the flight number 13471; XF2G-1 (No. 14091) — the first aircraft with a teardrop lantern with 132800 engine and three-blade propeller and, finally, the XF2G-1 (No. 14092), identical plane No. 14091.
After prototypes of the machine were followed by five pre-production fighters XF2G-1. XF2G-1W (No. 14691) became the first aircraft equipped with additional section of the rudder; the engine it was used on the prototype fighter No. 14091. The color is dark blue with a yellow hood and a blue number “9”. Was tested on the airfield at Patuxent river from October 1944 to June 1947. XF2G-1 (No. 14692) — crashed during a test on 12 Dec 1945 in Akron. The aircraft was not recovered and was scrapped. XF2G-1 (No. 14693) — the first aircraft with a long air intake of the carburetor. Raced Thompson (no. 94). XF2G-1 (No. 14694) — tested at Patuxent river from October 1945 to may 1947. Raced Thompson (no. 18). XF2G-1 (No. 14695) — the last pre-production aircraft F2G with the keel of the larger area. After crash landing in Akron corrupted by a crane and put on the scrap.
Carrier-based fighter GOODYEAR F2G SUPERCORSAIR:
1 —compressor inlet; 2—hour radio station; 3 — sight; 4 — sliding part of the lantern; 5 — the radio antenna; 6 — keel; 7 — rudder; 8 — marker ANO; 9 — brake hook; 10 — tail wheel; 11 — the inlet duct of the compressor; 12 is a modified light; 13 — flashing AHO; 14 maintenance access doors control system; 15 — trimmer of the rudder; 16 — fairing tail wheel; 17— fold shirts release of the cooling air; 18 — removable operating panel of the engine; 19 — modified the air intake of the compressor; 20 — protivokapotazhnoy frame; 21 — whip antenna; 22 Kil is larger; 23 — tripping (closed spring-loaded flap); 24 — locks of a cowl of the engine; 25 — front of the main chassis; a 26 — struts of the rack; 27 — the screw is four-bladed Hamilton standard, diameter 4125 mm); 28 — the canopy is in the open position; 29 — brake hook to a released position; 30 — the tail wheel is in the released position; 31 — front tail wheel; a 32 — fold niche of cleaning the main wheel (in open position); 33 — wheel main landing; 34 — a Cup of the seat (for laying rescue parachute); 35 — the backrest of the seat; 36 — inlet oil cooler; 37 — cylinder retract strut main landing gear; 38 — attachment points of the chassis; 39 — trimmer of the Elevator; 40 — handlebar height; 41 — section flaps; 42 — Aileron; 43 — trimmer Aileron; 44 — wing of ANO; 45 — rod LDPE; 46 — Luke’s access to guns; 47—propeller hub; 48 — hatches, ammunition boxes; 49 — stabilizer; 50 — cylinder retract tail wheel and brake hook; 51 — plug swiveling tail wheel; 52— damping cylinder, the main strut of the wing; 53 — kinematic node stand; 54 — slotted for release liners; 55 — landing light; 56 — fold niche of cleaning wheels (closed position); 57 —combatant lights; 58 console wing (folded); 59 — 12.7 mm machine-guns Browning MG-53-2; 60 — engine Pratt & Whitney R-4360-4 Wasp Major; 61 — supplementary section of the rudder
The first production aircraft F2G-1 rolled out of the Assembly plant on 15 July 1945. However, by this time, the Navy has lost interest in the fighter aircraft shells. The effectiveness of kamikaze decreased, the most dangerous missile and aircraft type Oka 11 was seldom used — the Japanese missed the carriers. Even if their bombers G4М2е hanging from them with cruise missiles and flew, most of the Americans were intercepted before the launch of the “cherry blossoms”. Therefore, the U.S. Navy has reduced its order for the first F2G to 63 fighters (50 — F2G-1 and 13 — F2G-2), and then to 18 (5 — F2G-1 and 13 — F2G-2). In may 1945, ordering the firm to manufacture Goodyear F2G was completely abolished. The firm only managed to build ten airplanes.
After the Second world war the organizers of the National air races Thompson decided to resume the competitions and have planned for them in Cleveland in 1946. During the war, none of the former participants in these races, which were held in Cleveland in 1929, a special aircraft has been developed. The pilots decided to use a normal combat fighter with minor modifications.
On the first post-war race the honor of the Navy defended a former pilot of carrier-based aircraft K. Cleland the fighter FG-1D CORSAIR with the hull number 92. During the war Cleland served on the USS Lexington: was a pilot of a dive bomber SBD DAUNTLESS. On account of his four downed Japanese plane and a direct hit by a bomb on a Japanese aircraft carrier. After the war, Cleland felt captured Japanese aircraft. Once in the reserve, Cleland acquired a small airport in the suburb of Willoughby in Ohio and engaged in Charter services.
Racing at Thompson, where it was necessary to show the maximum speed, Cleland was not able to catch up on my FG-1 D famous P-3IR AIRCOBRA and P-51D MUSTANG. It took only the sixth place, showing the average speed 574,413 km/h. Prize went to pilot Alvin Johnston (AIRCOBRA), disperse your fighter to 600,2 km/h.
After the race a frustrated American Admiral Halsey, the legendary commander of the 7th fleet in the Pacific, asked Cleland that he needs to win, to which the pilot responded very briefly: “F2G, sir.” After a few days in Cleland sent three fighter F2G. Pilots of the two other fighters SUPER CORSAIR became the test pilot of the Navy D. Becker and the pilot of the Navy reserve So Janazzo.
To increase the maximum flight speed of the aircraft is carefully plastered the joints and skin, and fixed the flaps in the retracted position. And the next races, 1947, the immense power of the R4360 engines installed on the aircraft did their job. K. Cleland on F2G-2 with hull number 74 won the race, showing the speed 637,2 km/h D. Becker on the F2G-1 with the number 94 ranked second.
Unfortunately, the joy of this victory was marred by the death of T. Janazzo. His fighter with the number 84, flying for more than half of the route, all of a sudden crashed into the ground. The true cause of the tragedy to install and failed. All the experts were of the opinion that the pilot was poisoned with exhaust gases of the engine and lost consciousness.
For the race the following year Cleland planned a new, more impressive win. He partners wanted to win all three prizes. The main “weapon” F2G was to be the new fuel—triptan.
Triptan, or trimethylbutane was first synthesized in 1922 in Belgium, but in large quantity it was to make a Shell just after the war. This fuel can truly be considered unique. Tests have shown the increased power of the engine on triptone, almost in half. Triptan, is absolutely not prone to detonation, can only be compared with gasoline with an octane rating of 300 units. Only a broad introduction to aircraft jet engines stopped using triptone as the main fuel for aircraft engines.
However, racing fighter SUPER CORSAIR race to finish failed: Cleland and Becker dropped out of the race due to problems with engine cooling. Defeated a air force pilot Aronson on fighter P-51 D, which showed the speed 616,3 km/h In 1949, Cleland again went the distance races for the prize of Thompson. His team again was a third pilot on a private F2G-1 was the pilot Ispytatel Navy R. Puckett. All three machines have shown excellent results. Cleland on the plane with the number 94 ranked first (speed muah 638.8 km/h), Puckett (tail number of his plane 18) received second and third place went to B. Mackillop the fighter F2G with the number 57. Thus, Cleland became the first post-war pilot, winning races at Thompson twice.
Fighter F4U-1WM and FG-1 (right)
In 1950, the next race was postponed and then cancelled due to the outbreak of the Korean war. K. Cleland was again called up for military service. After returning from the Korean war, Cleland sold his F2G-2 with hull number 74 private collector Olof Soplata, which a few years his carefully stored and then resold Crawfordone Museum. The race resumed in 1951 in Detroit, but they involved only jet planes.
Description of the design of the fighter GOODYER F2G SUPER CORSAIR
Fighter F2G is a single-seat, single-engine all-metal aircraft with a wing type of “reverse gull”. The fuselage — semi-monocoque with aluminum shell, supported by frames and stringers. It consists of four parts: motor, front, middle and back. The lining is attached to the frames and stringers are spot welded.
In the engine compartment is placed a reducer, engine fire extinguishing system, supercharger and oil tank. To the first power frames (fire partition) is mounted front of the broadcast antenna.
The front part of the fuselage has a steep section. In it are located the main fuel tank on 897, l, backup fuel tank 189l and the cockpit. The canopy teardrop shape provides excellent visibility. The movable part of the lamp was moved back on the flight Front fixed part of the lamp is made of glass with a thickness of 38 mm. Back of the head and shoulders of the pilot covered back.
In the middle part of the fuselage is a compartment with radio and navigation equipment. Rear fuselage carries the tail unit, wheel and brake hook.
The all-metal wing design, the front view has the shape of a letter W, which allowed to use the shorter uprights of the main chassis with a large screw diameter. Wing profile NACA 230018 at the root and NACA 23009 at the end of the.
The R4360 Engine-4
Structurally, the wing consists of a center section and two consoles. The center section has an integral pairing with the fuselage. The main spar is attached to the front power frames. In the front view of the center section has a transverse “V” — 25 degrees. Wingtips have a transverse “V” +8.5 degrees. In the center section installed MyParameter with a diameter of 300 mm and the guide device of the inlet of the supercharger. The outer part of the wing has a metal set, and dural lining. Modifications for the F2G-2 wing folded hydraulic mechanism, and the F2G-1 manually. Flaps-the flaps (on the wing and parts of consoles) have dural lining. Square flaps-flaps 3,38 m2. The angle of deflection of flaps 50 degrees. The ailerons in a big way 2304 mm and an area of 1.68 m2 are suspended at three points, deviating upwards at an angle of 19 degrees and down at an angle of 14 degrees. The trimmers are on each Aileron. On the left Aileron has an adjustment trimmer which is on the ground.
Maximum wing chord 2688 mm, minimum mm. 1776 On the left console includes a receiver air pressure and speed indicator landing light. On the upper parts of each console are access doors to access the guns, and the bottom slot to eject the cartridges. The internal volume of each console is busy nepaterizovanny fuel tanks with a capacity of 235 L.
Tail unit all-metal, duralumin covering. Stabilizers metal construction. The installation angle of the stabilizer is 1.5 degrees. The deviation of the rudders height 23.5 degrees up and 17 degrees down. The keel is also of metal construction, is mounted on a 2 degrees left, relative to the axis of the aircraft to compensate for the reactive torque of the screw. The rudder is deflected by 25 degrees in both directions. Under the rudder is a small additional section of rectangular shape, which deviates synchronously with the main wheel after release of the flaps.
Landing gear tricycle tailwheel. Basic racks are cleaned in the center section on the flight with the rotation of the wheels 90 degrees. Track chassis 3792 mm, wheel diameter 813 mm, width 203 Wheelbase 7430 mm. the Tail wheel with all-rubber tyre with a diameter of 317 mm and a width of 114 mm retracted into the fuselage back on the flight and kinematically connected with the brake hook. The system of harvesting and the landing gear hydraulic.
28 engine-cylinder, radial, air-cooled Pratt & Whitney R-4360-4 Wasp Major with a takeoff capacity of 3,000 HP at 2700 rpm and 3650 HP at altitude. The engine features two-stage two-speed supercharger, followed by cooling of the air and direct water injection. Propeller Hamilton standard four-bladed metal variable pitch diameter 4125 mm.
Built-in armament consists of 6 12.7 mm machine guns Browning MG-53-2 outside the square, sweeping the air screw. Machine guns installed in the wing at a distance of 2510 mm 2690 mm and 2860 mm from the axis of the aircraft. The mass of the machine gun 29 kg rate of fire 750 rounds per minute, bullet weight 43 grams bullet speed at the muzzle of 800 m/min. Total ammunition is 2350 cartridges (400 for each of four internal and 375 for each of the two external). Under the wing can be suspended two bombs 454 kg or eight unguided rockets HVAR caliber 127 mm. Under the fuselage, the aircraft can carry one 725-kg bomb.
Performance characteristics F2G-2
Wingspan, mm……………………….. 12 490
Length, mm ………………………………….. 10 310
Height, mm……………………………………. 4900
Wing area, m2……………………….29,17
Empty weight, kg……………………………4653
Takeoff weight, kg………………………… 6074
Maximum takeoff weight, kg…..7016
Wing loading (normal
weight), kg/m2…………………………….. 208,23
Wing loading (at max.
weight), kg/m2…………………………….. 240,52
Maximum speed, km/h……………724
at an altitude of 5000 m, km/h…………………..694
Maximum speed on level
The take-off speed, km/h…………………… 306
The rate of climb
at sea level, m/s…………………….22,35
The rate of climb
maximum, m/s………………………. 57,9
the altitude of 9150 m, min……………………….4
Practical ceiling, m………………11 826
Range popeta, km…………………….. 1915
The ferry range with drop tanks, km …………….3146
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was
Noticed mistape? Highlight it and press Ctrl+Enter, to inform us.
Recommend to read
- MAN-MADE “PHOENIX”
The main ships of the U.S. Navy aircraft carriers are always ready not only to strike at the enemy, but also to reflect the Vietnam War revealed the limited capabilities of us...
- THE WAR CAUGHT THEM IN THE AIR
Pikirayi bomber SBD DAUNTLESS. In 1934, the US Navy announced a competition for the creation of new carrier-based dive bomber, according to the American classification —...