METAMORPHOSIS BOMBER

METAMORPHOSIS BOMBERHISTORY OF PS-35 (ANT-35). At the end of 1930-ies in the Soviet air force began to penetrate American airliner DC-3, launched in Khimki under designation PS-84. Later this machine became widely known as Li-2. “American” quickly moved “in the shadow” of the passenger aircraft of national design, including the Tupolev PS-35. The history of the past is very interesting. Almost all know that A. N. Tupolev managed to significantly speed up the creation of the first Soviet passenger jet Tu-104, using units of long-range bomber Tu-16. But such a trick the designer had done in the past – a shining example of this was the PS-35. The basis for it was the famous high-speed bomber SB.

 
The first mention of a passenger car on the basis of the SB (ANT-40) are found in documents of the end of 1933, when, Tupolev did only the first outline in very high-speed bomber. “The passenger version of SB” were laid out in the plan of experimental aircraft, completed in December 1933 At this stage intended to use the wing, empennage, engine and undercarriage of the bomber, replacing it with a very narrow fuselage with a new, designed to accommodate 10 to 12 passengers. With motors of clarity was not, since the issue is not settled to the base of the ANT-40. The original relied on a few American radial engine of air cooling Wright R-1820 “Cyclone” (which we were going to release under the designation M-25), then preference is given to French V-neck Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs (we – M-100).
 
An additional incentive to the creation of the new machine was announced in may 1934 by the society “Aviaunit” the competition for the project of high-speed aircraft to carry 5-12 passengers. He was required: the minimum speed of 420 -450 km/h, flight range – up to 1250 -1500 km, Such requirements at that time were very high as 430 km/h was achieved on the second prototype ANT-40 (SB-2ИС) only in January 1935, the Projects were required to submit by may 1, 1935
Design of ANT-35 started at TSAGI in August 1934, General guidance was provided by A. N. Tupolev, but directly the machine is engaged in team A. A. Arkhangelsky. Apparently, at the end of the year came to the conclusion that to use the SB engine will fail. By this time it has decided to bet on bomber engines M-100 and was very afraid that a massive series of them is not enough. So, to be sure, the third prototype SB got French engines Gnome-Rhone 14Kdrs – 14-cylinder two-row radial air-cooled.
 
They have purchased a license and was going to release to us as M-85. This car was assembled not as a bomber but as a heavy fighter D-8. Here from DI-8 and has inherited the entire power system of the ANT-35.
 
PS-35 of the 7 th transport regiment, 1944
 
PS-35 of the 7 th transport regiment, 1944
 
PS-35 with the tail number Л2483 waiting for permission to takeoff, 1940
 
The first prototype ANT-35 during joint testing, Moscow, October 1936
 
The first prototype ANT-35 during joint testing, Moscow, October 1936
 
The first prototype ANT-35 during joint testing, Moscow, October 1936
 
The first prototype ANT-35 before departure to Paris
 
The first prototype ANT-35 before departure to Paris
 
As design degree of commonality with SB gradually decreased. Very narrow fuselage SAT for the passenger car does not fit – mount the seat simply was nowhere. Therefore, for the ANT-35 was designed a new fuselage almost circular cross-section. The pilot’s cockpit was moved far forward, placing her cabin with ten seats. Passenger seats set in two rows along the sides. As and SB, the desire to reach a top speed led to the fact that the fuselage is “compressed” to unimaginable limits. Passengers had to reach their seats, literally curled up. Even a man of small stature had to bend down, moving down the aisle between the rows of seats. In the cabin provided for thermal and sound insulation, heating and ventilation. Entered the plane via the rear door on the left side. In the rear part of the fuselage had a toilet and a Luggage compartment. To compensate for the increased lateral area had to be done and a new vertical tail.
 
Wing and retractable landing gear borrowed from the SB. The fuselage relative to the wing lifted up, so that the main landing wheels began to seem too high.
 
By marking the ANT-35 was also not clear. Rooms were given in TSAGI in chronological order. Base security was called ANT-40. As a passenger vehicle based on it could get the number “35”? Perhaps there was an earlier project of passenger aircraft, based not on SB, but on something like e-3 or LC-4. Here he was the first ANT-35 made to the plans and other guiding documents. After successful SB in TSAGI “shuffled maps”, replacing one option others – such precedents were. In documents CAF is found in the second marking – C-6, and it refers specifically to the “full” ANT-35, unlike the temporary “passenger security” (probably refers to PS-40).
 
The construction of the prototype ANT-35 at the Factory of experimental designs (ZOK) TSAGI began in January 1936 and In August it was transported in parts to a Central airport where he collected and unavaliable. First flew on the crew of M. M. Gromov on 20 August, he conducted and further testing. In the following days carried out the withdrawal of the basic flight characteristics, assessment of stability and control in different modes. The actual maximum speed was 376 km/h, service ceiling 8500 m range from 1200 to 2000 km on 15 September on the new machine made a flight Moscow-Leningrad – Moscow. The average speed was 350 km/h.
 
Even before the completion of the tests, the ANT-35 decided to show abroad as an achievement of Soviet aircraft. He was sent at the XV international air show in Paris. Departure from Moscow on 4 November. Along the way we made two stopovers – in Konigsberg and Cologne. The plane shown in the pavilion, in the air didn’t show it. Evaluation of machine French specialists was rather low-key. In the first place, criticized the closeness of the cabin. Progress on a long passage in a contorted condition they found unacceptable.
 
After returning from France, the ANT-35 was returned to the factory for revision for the test results. On July 28, 1937, the car passed the CAF.
 
The second prototype, called ANT-35бис (it is also called “double”), was considered standard for the series. It made three important changes: increased the height of the fuselage to 150 mm, redid the tail and replaced the engines with American Wright R-1820-G3 “Cyclone” with a capacity of 1000 HP. the Hood, of course, also had to be changed. Before the motors are mounted winter frontal shields, regulating the cooling.
 
Passenger aircraft PS-35
 
Passenger aircraft PS-35
 
This machine was also built at the plant № 156 (former ZOK). “Double” was completed in June 1937, and at the end of July already introduced in the fleet of CAF. On 18 August it was shown at the air show in Tushino.
 
By order of the Council of labor and defense dated 26 December 1936, series production of the ANT-35 was planned for 1937, the Plant No. 22 in Fili, where did SB, had to build 50 cars. Most of them are going forward in civil aviation, but a certain percentage of the claimed and the military need aircraft for fast and comfortable transportation of senior officers. The series then wanted to match motors M-85, which is released during the transition of production of bombers DB-3 on M-86 M-87.
 
But from America at this time there arrived purchased passenger aircraft DC-3. With the same engines “Cyclone” they are little inferior to the ANT-35 in speed, but fairly won load capacity, Seating capacity and efficiency of transportation. The Americans entered in civil aviation and the air force. The firm “Douglas” has acquired the license for DC-3, which was going to start mass production in Soviet factories. This machine later became known as the PS-84 or Li-2. However, the extent of release of the ANT-35 was much less than originally planned.
 
In 1937 at plant No. 156 began to manufacture two more of the ANT-35. They differed from the first sample, and from the “backup”. Compared to the last finalized the connection of the fuselage center section, reinforced chassis (ANT-35, compared to SB, up by about a ton), redid the tail, modified ventsistema, management of the aircraft itself and engines. Finish building these machines already in 1938 at the production plant No. 22. There ANT-35 was called “plane D”. In fact, ANT-35, he was not. The fact that in October 1937, Tupolev was arrested, declaring the enemy of the people. All the aircraft they created, renamed. ANT-35 was the PS-35.
 
In 1938, the plant № 22 was finished two machines, the nodes of which are delivered from the factory No. 156, and produced four more. But it failed to pass only the first two, for which there were imported engines R-1820-G2. The rest had to stand, pending the receipt of the Soviet engines M-62IR, roughly corresponding to the us. One plane passed in 1939 and three in 1940, along with three cars, laid down in 1939 the production of the PS-35 is stopped. Thus, only produced 11 aircraft of this type. They all came to civil aviation. Of the air force, receiving the most part purchased in the United States “Douglas”, these machines are no longer claimed.
 
In mass-produced cars flight data was slightly lower than that of the first prototype. The maximum speed amounted to 372 km/h, service ceiling 7200 m.
 
The intention to further develop the design remained unrealized. In 1936, the Main Department of the CAF demanded to create a float version of the aircraft. But TSAGI from this work refused, citing the fact that the military in this modification are not interested.
 
In 1937 he performed the calculations by variant with motors m-25, and increased fuel capacity. Such a machine would be used to implement round-the-world flight. But then the simplest estimate is not gone.
 
The main landing gear (released position)
 
The main landing gear (released position)
 
Tail wheel
 
The tail wheel

 
The main winter ski chassis
 
The main winter ski chassis
 
Tail ski winter gear
 
The tail ski winter gear
 
Took place and attempt to close the circle, creating a middle bomber based on the ANT-35. In January 1935 the chief of air force Ya. I. Alksnis approved tactical and technical requirements for such a machine, with engines “Gnome-Rhone”. From the passenger plane it had to be the glazed nose with seat Navigator and turret Tur-9 with a machine gun ShKAS. Protection of rear hemisphere was provided as well as SAT – turret Tur-9 top and bottom lukovoy installation (both with machine guns ShKAS). Bomb load of 1050 kg placed partially inside, partially outside. The external suspension is allowed to carry four chemical spray device VAP-4M smoke or two WCT-100 (SB exterior bomb racks at that time was absent). In sealing the fuel tanks was to store the fuel, calculated at a distance of 1500 km But the normal range was determined at 800 km, maximum speed – 360 km/h. All this together almost did not give the new bomber significant advantages over SB. No data on the practical implementation of this task could not be found.
 
Operation the PS-35 of civil aviation began with the end of the summer of 1935 the Most modern at the time of the Soviet passenger planes used then on a few international routes. The first prototype, designated М129, in the autumn of 1937, flew on the route Moscow – Stockholm. There also sent a “double” on Board which had a number of М131. Then they added two PS-35 of the edition of 1938 marked М133 and М134. The reliability of the cars left much to be desired. There were several occasions when the flight is disrupted due to faults. 19 Aug 1938 М131 crashed in Sweden. Everything was over the fact that the machine returned to the factory No. 22 for completion. On international routes replaced them purchased in the United States “Douglas”.
Further, the CAF document mentions only the seven PS-35, delivered to the factory in 1939 – 1940. The first of them passed the state tests in NII GVF in October 1939 – may 1940 Flew this machine, A. I., Kokin and B. K. Kondratiev. During the tests, made flight Moscow – Kiev. The main disadvantage of recognized weakness of the chassis. Serial PS-35 was even harder “understudy”. This forced to limit take-off weight of 7100 kg.
 
May 1, 1940, three PS-35 demonstrated at the may day parade in Moscow, and on June 22 an order was issued stating that the machine is allowed to operate on lines. The last PS-35 included in Park CAF in December 1940, All of these seven aircraft transferred to the Ukrainian office of the GVF. They worked on the lines of Kiev – Moscow and Kiev – Odessa.
 
Operation the PS-35 was conducted with interruptions due to the small resource of motors M-62IR; at that time it was limited to 100 hours of Spare engines is not enough, and planes were idle while fingered available. In the winter of 1940/41 year was faced with hypothermia motors. On 12 January 1941 at the car, making the landing in Odessa, in the planning stood up both engines. PS-35 has not held up the strip of 300 m and was damaged. So later on before the motors began to put frontal shields with controlled blinds.
 
PS-35 took part in the great Patriotic war. In her first days, German aircraft attacked airfields in the Ukraine. On 25 June, the enemy bombed the airfield Brovary, where based PS-35. Information on casualties is contradictory. One document indicates that in the first months of the war the Germans destroyed five SS-35, and another two were broken in the accident. Another one shot down by fighters, one by anti-aircraft gunners, three are broken in accidents.
 
But how to combine this with a summary about the availability of equipment in the Kiev special formations GVF? It stated that, on 1 October 1941, the unit had four SS-35, and they are all serviceable. However, it is not excluded that where-that “emerged” machines returned to the factory No. 22 and whose fate remains a mystery.
 
ANT-35 will take place at the Paris 1937
 
ANT-35 will take place at the Paris, 1937
 
The second prototype, the ANT-35бис, at the airport
 
The second prototype, the ANT-35бис at the airport
 
The accident aircraft PS-35
 
The accident aircraft PS-35
 
In Kiev the group of PS-35 was used as cargo to deliver ammunition, spare parts and medicines. On the same plane in the former passenger cabin mounted extra fuel tank. The crew of the I. Verveyko flew it to the front line to reset the leaflets and shipping reconnaissance parachutists. Summary of Park and CAF on January 1, 1942 suggests that before this date “live” all four PS-35, and in good condition.
 
Over time, the aircraft changed color to pre-war standard Chernozemny camouflage, and received instead a civil registration marks red stars of the air force.
 
At least one of them survived the reorganization of the Kiev group in the 7-th separate transport regiment in 1942 and flew until 1944, when he was broken in the accident.
 
TECHNICAL DETAILS
 
PS-35 twin – engined all-metal cantilever monoplane.
 
The fuselage is of the monocoque type. It was made integral with the keel. The frame of the fuselage consisted of spars, stringers and frames, sometimes reinforced beams and trim of Windows, doors and hatches. All of the above closed smooth plating of aluminum alloys.
 
In the forward Koke was located in the front trunk (40 kg) with a hatch at the top. Under the boot floor housed the batteries. Behind a screen was the cockpit, sitting side by side. The cabin was glazed front, sides and partially on top. Side glass could move. The floor was made of plywood. Over the heads of the pilots was an emergency hatch.
 
Next is the passenger cabin with heat and sound insulation, ventilation and steam heating. The floor is made of wooden panels. Ten chairs where people sat face forward, stood along the sides. The last two seats backless not deviated -interfere with the bulkhead. Each passenger had his window zanavesochki. In the pass we had to cross two thresholds, under which passed the spar center. Into the cabin came from a small compartment with a beautiful name – “the lobby”. There, on the left side had opened the inside door, which was correct to call Luke, because the size of it was small – 1042 mm. mm х704 Man of normal stature to enter into it, was required to be folded almost in half. Opposite the door made a hanger. For partition “lobby” was a toilet, and behind it the rear carrier (160 kg). Download latest produced through rising up the hatch dimensions 650×500 mm on the left side. The Luggage compartment was accessible via a narrow door from the bathroom. A second door led to the back of the plane; it was used for the inspection of control cables. The fuselage ended detachable tail fairing.
The wing is structurally divided into a center section and two consoles. Set the center consisted of two truss (steel pipes) spars, ribs and stringers; closed smooth plating of aluminum alloys. The center section was connected to the fuselage with special units for bottom and top zones of the side members. The detachable part of the wing in plan is trapezoidal with rounded wingtips. The basis of their frame were two truss spar, and adding ribs and stringers. Technologically the console was divided into the toe, middle and tail parts, manufactured separately and then connected at the spars. Paneling everywhere smooth, toe rivet itotal, other parts – rivets with lenticular head. Wingtips were performed removable, on the screws.
 
The mechanization of the wing consisted of flaps and ailerons. The ailerons on each side consisted of two sections connected to each other glasses. On the right Aileron was a trimmer. Flaps Northrop-Shrenk consisted of five separate sections on the fuselage, the center section and consoles. They were issued and retracted hydraulically.
 
The stabilizer was of two-spar construction. Spars and truss: the first – from profiles or from profiles and tubes. Ribs were made of sheet flanging the edges. Elevators and areas had a metal frame and trim, supplied with trimmers.
 
The layout of the PS-35
 
The layout of the PS-35
 
Light cockpit
 
Lantern cockpit
 
Chassis – traditional for that time scheme with a tail wheel. Basic stand design was very close to used on the SB bomber. Each carried one wheel size 900×300 mm. Wheels were equipped with pneumatic brakes, cleaned and released electro-hydraulic actuator. In an emergency it was possible the release cable mechanism. In the retracted position of the main stand were placed in the rear part of the nacelle so that the wheels partially played out. Niche the chassis closed doors, rods connected with the landing gear. Crutch – free guided, non-retractable. All stand – melanosuchus depreciation. In the winter instead of wheels mounted non-retractable wooden skis. The main pillars in this case fastened special truss struts. When transitioning to ski gear was necessary to change the installation angle of the stabilizer.
 
Serial PS-35 is equipped with two motors M-62IR, closed cylindrical hood. The hood had a skirt to control the flow of cooling air. The air intake for the carb was made through the pipe at the bottom. The engine was mounted on Motorama, welded steel pipes. On the exhaust manifolds mounted boilers steam heating. The start of the engine ElectronicIndia starters.
 
The motors rotated dvuhskatnye three-blade metal propellers VISH-2P diameter of 3.47 m. Their hubs are closed by the Koch brothers.
 
Fuel was stored in four tanks: two for 415 l – were in the center section and two 420 l – in consoles. The fuel tanks are welded from sheets of aluminum alloy. Oil tanks of similar design with a capacity of 95 liters was located in the nacelle.
 
The management plane, control sticks and pedals performed by soft scheme (ropes and swings).
 
The electrical system is powered by the generator DSF-1000 on the motor and batteries. At the airport you can connect to the network through an exposed Jack. There was a cabin lighting, heated tubing LDPE, navigation lights, two lights 300 watts (front edge of the wing) and planting torches with elektrozapalom. The torches were inside the wing, when needed, they put forward was heat of the moment, after burn – reset. In the rear part of the fuselage housed the pipes for two parachute rockets PAR-13. Provided radio and radiolucent.
 
Firefighting equipment included two fire extinguisher.
 
V. KOTELNIKOV, V. RIGMANT

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