MIG-15 — THE LEGEND OF SOVIET AVIATION

MIG-15 — THE LEGEND OF SOVIET AVIATIONThe history of the MiG-15 began after the Soviet trade representatives in 1946, Britain was able to purchase from the company a Rolls-Royce turbojet engine the most advanced of its time Derwent 5 with a thrust of 1,590 kg, Nene I with a thrust of 2040 kg and Nene II with traction 2270 kg. In the USSR, these engines received the designation RD-500, RD-45 and RD-45F, respectively. After that, it became possible to create a fighter with a flight speed of about 1000 km/h and a ceiling in excess of 13 000 m.

 
In March 1947, the Kremlin held a meeting at which Stalin tasked fighter KB to create a new fighter with the following characteristics: maximum speed of 1,000 km/hour, the duration of the flight at least one hour, a ceiling of 14 000 m. the aircraft was to be established cannons of caliber from 23 to 45 mm. the next day came the resolution of Council of Ministers No. 493-192 in which was formulated the task to design a new fighter. In addition to the Mikoyan design Bureau, the same tasks were issued by the Lavochkin design Bureau, Yakovlev and Sukhoi. April 30, 1947 chief of the air force air Marshal ka Vershinin approved tactical and technical requirements for the new front-line fighter, which mostly repeated the words of Stalin.
 
The first did the job for Yakovlev. In August 1947, the aircraft received the designation Yak-23 was ready and on September 12 ended his test. First reported to Stalin about the execution of the task Yakovlev failed to please the chief characteristics of the aircraft. The set requirements were not fulfilled. The maximum speed did not exceed 940 km/h and the range was 900 km, the aircraft was launched into serial production. He was in service in the USSR and some Warsaw Pact countries.
 
Sukhoi did not meet Stalin in the allotted time and was subsequently disbanded.
 
Planes created by Lavochkin and Mikoyan, have approximately equal characteristics, and both were recommended for serial production. But the fighter Lavochkin received serial designation La-15, 1955 was withdrawn from service, the reason for this was difficulties in manufacturing (low-tech) and complaints of front-line pilots to the difficulty to control the aircraft on takeoff and landing. The plane was down a fairly narrow track chassis, which required the pilot’s great attention and high precision piloting.
Thus, the actual leader in the creation of the first mass-produced jet fighter in the Soviet Union became Mikoyan.
 
Naturally, the success of the design team has not appeared out of nowhere. Mikoyan and Gurevich started to design a new aircraft even before the announcement of the competition in January of 1947. About how responsibly they approached the design of the aircraft, is the fact that considered many possible schemes of the new fighter, including the fighter with two engines installed in the wing, a fighter with an engine being transferred to the scheme, like the MiG-9, and even a plane two-beam scheme according to the type of English DH.113 Vampire. But they stopped on the most optimal scheme, which for decades has become a classic for fighters all over the world spindle – shaped fuselage of circular cross-section with the Central location of the air intake, wing with a sweep of 35°, a swept empennage and a canopy.
 
The prototype of the MiG-15 before the flight
 
The prototype of the MiG-15 before the flight
 
High flight characteristics of the MiG jet was provided by the Nene engine. Although this KB is risked, as in the USSR engines Nene Nene I and II are conventionally attributed to the bomber, and fighters offered to establish a lighter, though less powerful Derwent 5 engines.
 
The management of design and engineering works on creation of the MiG-15 was assigned to the Deputy chief designer A. G. Brunov and engineer A. A. Andreev. The solution of problems of aerodynamics of a swept wing was entrusted to the specialists of TSAGI C. A. Khristianovich, G. P. Svishev, J. M. Cerebrectomy, V. V. Struminska and others. Their great merit is that the machine is “turned” once, but this is for the new aerodynamic layout an extremely rare case.
 
When creating a high-speed fighter was the issue provide the pilot with reliable means of recovery, allowing him, if necessary, to safely exit the plane. This complex task is solved by a small group of engineers in the composition of the test engineer F. E. E., candidate of technical Sciences and the master of parachuting V. A. Stasevich, doctors Komendantova G. L., V. V. Levashov, and P. K. Isakov. Led a team of rescue equipment, Sergey lyushin.
 
Due consideration in the design of the aircraft was placed on maintainability. An operational connector of the fuselage dividing it into bow and tail parts, was developed in the form of meghrashen joints for easy Assembly and disassembly of the engine. This division of the fuselage was later used on all aircraft of Mikoyan and Gurevich, until the MiG-27, inclusive.
 
The experience gained in solving problems related to location artillery faced by the OKB in the process of testing the MiG-9 had not been in vain. The MiG-15 the placement of weapons was chosen so rational that made it possible not only to minimize the impact of powder gases on engine performance, but also significantly simplifies maintenance. Ease-of-use of weapons has been achieved thanks to the good approaches to the guns and their units, are placed on a special carriage, which was included in the power circuit of the forward fuselage, and, if necessary, could be omitted with the integrated winches. Removal and installation of all guns, including the opening and closing of the hood, raising and lowering the mast, it took just 15 -20 minutes of work from two people.
 
MiG-15
 
MiG-15:
 
1 – shot-method s-13; 2 – door radiodata; 3 – canopy canopy; 4 – movable part of the lamp in open position; 5 – cable radio antenna; 6 – section of the rudder; 7 – brake; 8 – antenna radio altimeter; 9 – wheel main landing gear; 10 – shield niche of cleaning the wheels of the main stand; 11 – wheel nose landing gear; 12 – gun HP-23; 13 – Kiel; 14 – pin radio antenna; 15 – antenna; 16 – movable part of the lamp in the closed position; 17 – gun N-37Д; 18-aerodynamischen; 19-maintenance hatch motor; 20 – trimmer of the rudder; 21 – section of the stabilizer; 22 – landing flap; 23 – Aileron; 24 – LDPE; 25 – taxiway spotlight; 26 – ANO; 27 – machine gun A-12,7 (UBC-12,7); 28 – of the movable part of the lamp; 29 – movable part of the lamp; 30 – trimmer of the Elevator; 31 – handlebar height; 32 – trimmer; 33 – operational wing hatches; 34 – PTB capacity of 300 liters; 35 – front of the main chassis; 36 – cylinder retract landing gear; 37 – bow front

 
The first copy of the MiG-15 (the designation KB-01) was transferred to the flight test on 19 December 1947 Weather conditions for a long time were not allowed to raise the plane into the air, and only on 30 December, the last day of the established Stalin period, the test pilot V. N. Yuganov made on the new fighter’s first flight.
 
Factory tests continued until may 25, 1948. Was performed on 38 flights in the first instance, and 13 on the second (P-02). But even before their completion, by the Council of Ministers No. 790-255 dated March 15, 1948, fighter launched into serial production under the designation MiG-15 with RD-45 (Nene Soviet designation).
 
After the end of the stage of factory tests, both prototypes passed the state tests in GK NII VVS.
During state tests, held from 27 may to 28 August, 1948, the MiG-15 got a good evaluation of pilots and engineers. It was noted that this is the best ever used in GK NII VVS fighters. Test pilots pointed out that in piloting the MiG-15 does this and can be easily mastered by flight crews combat units. Land service of the MiG-15 is not difficult for technical staff who had experience of operating jet aircraft. As disadvantages, which needed to be addressed was the lack of brake flaps, the lack of efficiency of the ailerons, and several others, which were supposed to fix before launch aircraft in the series. In General, the MiG-15 was tested with a satisfactory rating.
 
August 23, 1948 issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers № 3210-1303 of acceptance of the MiG-15 into service and start its mass production in three factories. However, KB has demanded to eliminate the drawbacks of the fighter and to provide an improved machine for testing by July 1, 1949.
 
The first production MiG-15 was transferred to military trials in the 29th GvIAP at Moscow air base Kubinka, which took place from 20 may to 15 September. Drill the pilots highly appreciated the new car. It was noted that: “the MiG-15 in its flight and combat characteristics is one of the best modern jet fighters”. Positive feedback received the plane and from the technical staff. The report stated: “the Ground operation of the aircraft MiG-15 with RD-45F simpler than the operation of jet aircraft Yak-17 and piston aircraft La-9 and Yak-9”.
 
MiG-15 - marching machine
 
MiG-15 – drill machine
 
Preparing to fly the MiG-15bis of the 351-th fighter wing. Korea, 1952
 
Flight preparation of a MiG-15bis of the 351-th fighter wing. Korea, 1952
 
Training fighter-interceptor UTI MiG-15P (CT-7) with a radar RP-1
 
Training fighter-interceptor UTI MiG-15P (CT-7) with a radar RP-1 “Emerald”. The instructor’s (rear) cockpit placed (put together) by reducing the length of the first fuselage fuel tank
 
The instrument panel of the MiG-15bis with a white stripe to facilitate the pilot finding the neutral position of the handle control plane
 
The dashboard of the MiG-15bis with a white stripe to facilitate the pilot finding the neutral position of control sticks
 
However, the design of the aircraft was recommended to make some changes. In particular, to establish a system of starting the engine in the air, to establish a system of Autonomous engine start on the ground, to finalize the fuel system and emergency escape system, providing at ejection automatic separation of the pilot from the seat and opening of the parachute. It was all done in the shortest time. After these upgrades, the MiG-15 became a full-fledged jet fighter Soviet air force and the air forces of friendly countries.
 
Participation in the Korean war was a major event in the biography of the MiG-15. In fact, from this moment, Mikoyan and Gurevich received a well-deserved world recognition. Happened the same thing with Polikarpov after the war in Spain.
 
The first part, armed with the MiG-15 arrived in Korea in late October 1950.
 
On 8 November 1950, the first battle between jet aircraft. Four 28-th GvIAP had a fight with four F-80S. MiGs, using the superiority in speed and climb, broke away from the F-80 and executing the combat turn, attacked the enemy from the sun. In the end, at least one Shooting Star was shot down. In the battle were damaged, and one MiG, but he returned to Mukden, was renovated and later again engaged in battle.
 
The Americans, who always tried to “sugarcoat” unfavorable historical facts, was forced to admit defeat in this battle. Edward Smith described this battle in his book “the Tactics and strategy of fighter”: “the First aerial combat between jet aircraft occurred in November, when the American F-80 Shooting Star was chasing a MiG-15, which went into Manchuria beyond the Yalu river. Then the MiGs turned over Manchurian territory against the sun, again crossed the river at a high altitude and shot down a Shooting Star. American pilots ejected. It became clear that the MiGs have more speed than the F-80, and can exceed their agility.”
On 9 November there was the first battle the MiG-15 carrier-based aircraft of the United States: 18 MiGs 139 GvIAP was found with fifty fighters F9F-2 Panther and F4U-4 Corsair and attack aircraft A-1 Skyraider. The MiGs managed to destroy six planes, and the prize was won by one pilot – commander of the 1st squadron Mikhail Grachev, however, Grachev himself in this battle was shot down and killed.
 
The first fights with the UN aviation showed that the MiG-15 is much superior to the F-51, F-80 and F9F in almost all settings, except horizontal manoeuvrability.
 
A deadly adversary of the MiG-15 was for the “Flying fortress” b-29 – the main strike force of the U.S. air force. The air force and the U.S. Navy, formed the basis of aviation United Nations, have lost their unchallenged dominance in the air, which they had almost from the beginning of the Korean war.
 
Only the emergence in the air “sabres” – F-86 aircraft saved the UN from a complete rout. In the face of the F-86 MiGs got a worthy opponent. In fact, from that moment the outcome of the air battles were decided by the training of pilots and competent management of the air battle from the ground.
 
MiG-15 Colonel E. G. Pepelyaev (19 victories) of the 196 th fighter aviation regiment. December 1951
 
The MiG-15 Colonel E. G. Pepelyaev (19 victories) of the 196 th fighter aviation regiment. December 1951
 
MiG-15 bis of the hero of Soviet Union Lieutenant Colonel V. I. Kolyadina (5 victories) commander of the 28th guards fighter aviation regiment. Spring 1951
 
MiG-15 bis of the hero of Soviet Union Lieutenant Colonel V. I. Kolyadina (5 victories) commander of the 28th guards fighter aviation regiment. Spring 1951
 
MiG-15 bis of captain N. And. Ivanova (8 victories) of the 726 th fighter aviation regiment. July 1953
 
MiG-15 bis of captain N. And. Ivanova (8 victories) of the 726 th fighter aviation regiment. July 1953

 
The participation of Soviet fighter jets in the Korean conflict can be considered quite successful. They fought with the enemy on equal terms, and in the period from April 1951 to February 1952, in its area of responsibility, possessed superiority in the air.
 
On the Soviet data, during the fighting, pilots of the 64th corps completes 63 229 sorties. Conducted 1683 day air battles and 107 at night. Our pilots shot down 1106 planes. Including 651 F-86, 186 F-84, 121 F-80, 32 F-51, 35 “meteors”, 3-26, 69-29. Their losses amounted to 120 pilots and 335 aircraft.
 
Fighters of the United Air Army (China and the DPRK), had 366 air battles, which shot down 271 enemy aircraft, including 181 F-86, -84 27 F, 30 F-80, 12 F-51, 7 “meteors”. Their losses amounted to 231 126 aircraft and pilots.
 
American statistics are sharply different from ours. According to them, the downed 954 Soviet, Chinese and North Korean aircraft, including 827 MiG-15. Official us data give the following figures of the losses. Shot down in aerial combat: 78 F-86, 18 F-84, F 15-Of 80.12 F-51, 17-29.
 
THE MAIN MODIFICATION OF THE AIRCRAFT
 
And-310 – the prototype of the MiG-15. Up in the air 30 December 1947, with test pilot V. N. By ganovim. On the plane I felt a big loss of traction. At the suggestion of engineer Kligman shortened nozzle and the fuselage. At the same time made changes to the design of the controls, tail controls and wing. As a consequence, the prototype differed from the production of MiGs. The company has built three prototypes: the C-01, C-02 and C-03.
 
The MiG-15, serial – the main type of aircraft, produced a large series in variants slightly differing in equipment and armament, and for several years was the main fighter of the Soviet air force and a number of countries. In the first series of the plane had no power steering, automation, engine and brake pads had less space. Since 1949, the aircraft began to enter service with combat units. On serial MiG-15 was conducted experiments on water injection on the inlet to the compressor to increase thrust of the engine, experiments on the use of boosters, as well as start with a mobile catapult. At the speed the aircraft had limitations in at 0.92 M. in addition to the Soviet Union serial production of the MiG-15 was established in Czechoslovakia, Poland and China.
 
MiG-15P – interceptor, installed in the nose of the fuselage (above the intake) of the radar.
 
MiG-15C fighter escorts, with the possibility of a suspension discharged fuel tanks with a capacity of 250 l Tanks of metal with a mass of 22 kg or fibre with a mass of 15 kg With the use of external fuel tanks range fighter was increased by more than 400 km.
 
MiG-15СВ – altitude escort fighter similar to the MiG-15S, but with a modified armament. Cannon NS-23 replaced by HP-23, who had a greater rate of fire and muzzle velocity.
 
MiG-15UTI (in the entire model documentation was designated the UTI MiG-15) two-seat training fighter. The cabin is divided, equipped with telephone (SPU), the light cover at the front of the cab hinged to the right, the rear – sliding back. Control of lift and with landing gear and flaps-flaps stood in both cabins, but the student is automatically switched off when it is controlled by the instructor. Both cabs are equipped with ejection seats and lights, throw in an emergency situation with the help of squibs. Armament: one machine gun UBK – e (ammunition 150 rounds), sometimes had another gun HP-23 (ammo 80 rounds), individual instances of standing radar (the forward fuselage).
 
The MiG-15 to fly unmanned were equipped with homing equipment. Purpose – the doodlebug and the maneuvering air target.
 
MiG-15U (SU), partially movable in a vertical plane rifle installation under the nose of the fuselage. Armament: two cannons NR-30 (ammunition 55 rounds). Subsequently, cannon NR-30 was applied on the MiG-19 and MiG-21 f-13 and also on airplanes Sukhoi.
 
MiG-15ЛЛ (“Flying laboratory”) – with the increased height of the keel and the amplitude of the stabilizer, at the expense of some reduction of the chord of the tail. The aircraft was used to study the ways of dealing with feedback of roll when turning.
 
The MiG-15 (SP-1) with the engine VC-1 and radar “Thorium-A” compass ark-5 and MRP-48. Night and all-weather interceptor. Armament – one gun NS-37 (45 shells) and even the NS-45. Intended to be used in air defense. Released in 1949
 
The MiG-15bis. Had the same size and design as the MiG-15. Work on the design of the MiG-15bis was conducted in accordance with the resolution of Council of Ministers No. 1839-699 may 14, 1949. Engine RD-45F (2270 kgf) was changed to VK-1 (2700 kg). State tests began on 13 September 1949. In addition to the installation of the engine 1, which caused a change in the rear fuselage, the aircraft was equipped with a hydraulic rig-1, to reduce the stresses on the control stick, increased aerodynamic compensation of the Elevator to 22%, the socks of the Elevator and rudder thickened. The forward fuselage also has undergone small changes caused by the installation of guns NR-23. The aircraft also has increased the area of brake flaps to 0.5 m2, and the axis of rotation set at an angle of 22° to the vertical, to reduce pitching moment when you open. In addition, the strength of the aircraft was aligned “with the Norms of strength of aircraft 1947”.
 
Flight characteristics of the MiG-15
 
Flight performance of the MiG-15
 
Tests showed that compared to the MiG-15 with RD-45F installing a new engine and a range of improvements has led to a significant improvement in almost all characteristics except range, which has decreased as a result of increasing fuel consumption. The plane was mass-produced and became the most massive modification of the MiG-15.
 
MiG-15rbis scout with additional photographic equipment. In the lower part of the fuselage mounted camera AFA-and AFA-BA/40.
 
MiG-15bis (SP-5). Night all-weather fighter with radar “Emerald”. Testing was completed in March 1952. Radar “Emerald” was recognized as the most suitable to be installed on the fighters in terms of reliability and efficiency.
 
MiG-15bis (MiG-15S)bis – altitude escort fighter with the possibility of a suspension of two PTB capacity of 600 liters.
 
MiG-15bis 45° (SI-2) – prototype with a redesigned wing sweep of 45°. The aircraft was tested in the second half of 1949 and became the prototype of the MiG-17.
 
MiG-15bis (ISH) fighter-attack aircraft. Intended for attacks on ground targets. To solve this problem for planes mounted on two beams, which could accommodate bombs and missiles. Testing of the aircraft took place in 1958 – 1964.
 
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN

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