(Continued. The beginning in № 3 2005)
Supersonic strategic bomber CONVAIR B-58 HUSTLER. Not waiting for the completion of flight tests, August 1, 1960 the U.S. air force has adopted a strategic bomber b-58A HUSTLER. Probably, this decision was more political than military. And it was associated with adopting in the summer of 1960 the first Soviet supersonic bomber Tu-22. By the way, his prototype under the designation “105” first took to the air on June 21, 1958, a year and a half later American aircraft.
For the successful development of the line HUSTLER bomber pilots, the firm has developed its training modification TV-58A. However, on 15 September 1959 it was decided a new training aircraft not to build and remodel in training a few cars of the 30 pre-production samples. 25 February 1959, the air force gave Convair the firm four machines for appropriate upgrades, which included a rework of a crew cab and increased glass area of the first and second cabins. Training aircraft did not have ACS, DISS, sighting and navigation complex, systems of electronic warfare and guns, but the ability of the suspension and discharge of the container was saved.
Flyby of the first TV-58A was held on 10 may 1959. In total, he made eight such training planes. The rescue capsule was not established.
14 August 1960, the first production b-58A (tail number 59-2428) equipped with combat systems, flew to the Carswell airbase where he was received by representatives 43BW (Bomb Wings — bomber wing). Two weeks later he was joined by an educational TV 58A. Arriving aircraft was reduced to three squadrons: 63BS(M) (Bomb Squadron (Medium) squadron, medium bombers), 64BS(M) and 65BS(M). The development of the planes were hard, they are constantly fine-tuned with representatives of the company trying to deliver cars from a variety of airborne equipment. In the spring of 1961, the 43rd wing was inspected, the Commission and the NAO concluded that its combat readiness leaves much to be desired.
The distribution of airflow in the nacelle of the engine J79-GE-5:
1 — exit cooling air; 2 — ejector; 3 — heat exchanger of the air conditioning system; 4 — air inlet to the engine; 5 — cooling air intakes; 6 — adjustable cone air intake; 7 — cooler; 8 — reverse the flow of cooling air; 9 — sash antisurge; 10 — box units; 11 — outlet of the cooling air; 12 — air flow of cooling air between the motor and the inner casing; 13 is the outlet of the cooling air; 14 — nozzle afterburner
In August 1962 it reached operational readiness and on alert bombers CONVAIR b-58 HUSTLER began to intrude in September. The second part of the received service In-58, became 305BW from the base of bunker hill.
Here the first aircraft entered service on 11 may 1961. Up to this point retraining of pilots was based on the 43BW. The first training aircraft pilots 305, the wing received only in two months.
At the turn of the 1960 — 1961 b-58 set six world records confirmed by the FAI. January 12, 1961, the bomber twice flew on the closed route length of 1000 km, reaching in the forward direction the average speed 1931,5 km/h, and back 1708,8 km/h. two days later, three of the six records were broken on another bomber b-58A (59-2441 )— the average speed of the flight was 2067,6 km/h and a maximum of 2300 km/h.
May 10, 1961 on the b-58A majors E. Murphy, Y. Moses and Lieutenant D. Dickerson won the prestigious prize of world importance — Prize Berio: in flight on the closed route, the pilots maintained an average speed of 2096 km/h for 30 minutes, and 42 seconds.
Unfortunately, two weeks later, this famous car and its entire crew was killed, returning on 3 June 1961 from France, with the exhibition in Le Bourget.
Raising the car up to 500 m, the pilot decided to perform a right barrel with a further climb, however, gaining about 1000 m, the aircraft suddenly entered a steep dive. After a few seconds the explosion occurred. The crew to eject before…
While several b-58 won the records, the remaining machines were used in parts for its intended purpose. By the end of 1962 they made 10 of 500 flights, flew 5300 hours. The pilots of the b-58 spent 375 hours at speeds corresponding to the numbers M greater than 2 units.
During this time revealed several shortcomings of the machine. Special criticism hanging containers of MV-1 and their modification of MV-1S in which the warhead is located between the compartments filled with fuel. When part of the fuel was produced, kerosene wave with such force beat on the walls that could not withstand no sealing, with the result that fuel flow into the warhead and took it down. In addition, the W39 warhead was considered to be outdated, it is still in March 1959, withdrew from the production.
Firm Convair proposed to solve the problem by using a new composite container of TSR, consisting of two parts — upper and lower. The lower (large) was a solid fuel tank, and the upper contained a warhead from a bomb MK.53 capacity of 9 MT and a bit of aviation fuel. During combat use first, reset the lower part of the container, and in the target area is the upper part of it. The plane could take on Board and one on top.
Planned production Cepoi range hanging containers has not been implemented. In the 1960-ies on the basis of MV-1 released a limited batch of containers photo-reconnaissance LA-1, in the bow of which stood the camera KA-56. They were used rarely. Early on in my career To-58 on the basis of the MA-1 wanted to make a guided missile MA-1, but the complexity of the guidance system and the emergence of more promising projects buried this idea. Under more promising meant work on ballistic missile ALBM air-launched (Air-Launched Ballistic Missile), which was conducted from the beginning of 1950-ies.
In 1958 the firm Convair and Lockheed proposed the USAF to arm b-58 such a missile. Consent from the military has received fairly quickly, because the air defense of the Soviet Union has recently taken anti-aircraft missile systems s-25 and s-75 with a range of up to 45 km and a height of lesions for about 30 000 m. the flight Speed of the missiles reached 3500 km/h. Thus, speed and altitude popeta b-58 was no longer a guarantee of invulnerability.
In June, the U.S. air force has contracted with two firms to conduct tests of the rocket project WS-199C. Lockheed assigned the construction of a rocket, a Convair developed a special on-Board systems and the pylon for the suspension of the missile under the fuselage. To save time and money, Lockheed used ready systems and parts — body parts from the XQ-5 Kingfisher, X-17, side system UGM-27 Polaris and solid engine from the MGM-29 Sergeant. The resulting hybrid was named High Virgo.
Supersonic strategic bomber IN the CONVAIR-58A HUSTLER:
1 maintenance access doors; 2 — stabilizing surface; 3 — rod LDPE; 4 — fold niches nose landing gear; 5 — nacelle inner motor; 6 — pole internal engine; 7 nacelle internal engine; 8 — operating hatches; 9 — elevon; 10 — thermonuclear bomb Mk43; 11 — fold compartment of the braking parachute; 12 — fold niches main landing gear; 13 — wing sock with a honeycomb core; 14 — fold niche cleaning the nose landing gear; 15 — taxiway lights; 16 — the mechanism of the retract nose landing gear; 17 — a nose landing gear; 18 — dvuhsvetny; 19 — wheel nose landing gear; 20 — turning mechanism of the front wheels; 21 — the apparatus, equipment, wire; 22 —air-conditioning system; 23 chairs; 24 — the Windows of the compartments of photographic equipment; 25 — front door; 26 — Windows; 27 — stabilizing surface; 28 maintenance hatches; 29 — fuel; 30 — sealed passenger compartment; 31 — registered equipment; 32 — vermouzek registered test equipment; 33 — breaking mechanism, main landing gear; 34 — fold niche of cleaning the main landing gear, the 35 — breaking cylinder; 36 — main landing gear; 37 — truck main landing gear; 38 — paired main wheels; 39 — swivel-compensating gear; 40 — fairing strut main landing gear; 41 — breaking brace; 42 radio-transparent Radome of the radar; 43 — unit radar antenna; 44 — control radar; 45 — block frequency Converter of radiation; a 46 — unit filter control frequencies; 47 unit fire control system; 48 — computing unit (computer); 49 — unit voltage regulator; a 50 — line attaching swivel the tail fairing; 51 — wilsonbrian; 52 — moving section of the fairing; 53 — 20-mm six-barreled gun T-171E; 54 — turning unit radar antenna; 55 — a protective cover in the retracted position; 56 — guides; a 57 — foot grips; 58 — fold are shown; 59 — arm ejection; 60 — protective glazing sash; 61 — headrest; 62 —webbing harness system
The rocket has four tail stabilizer aerodynamic control surfaces and a plastic nose cone that covers the return system of registration of parameters of flight. The launch was to take place at high altitude and supersonic speed, the ignition of the rocket engine was made a few seconds after separation from In-58. The first test launch took place on 5 September 1958, the missile control system is not included and High. had to undermine. The second launch was held on 19 December 1958. Rocket fully completed a program of flight: reached the height 76200 m and at a speed corresponding to the number M=6, flew about 300 km Before the third start on 4 June 1959 at a rocket mounted inertial guidance system. The launch was successful.
The fourth and final flight of the WS-199C scheduled for September 22, 1959. This time a converted missile decided to try it as an interceptor of satellites, calling it King Lofus IV. The separation of the missile from the b-58 was successful, but after 30 seconds, the communication with the rocket was lost. After some time, program High Virgo was closed and the money transferred to the Skybolt project.
With the aim of increasing the number of ammunition ordnance under the wing-58A secured two mnogoshagovykh beam holder for suspension of four nuclear bombs of the type MK.43 with adjustable capacity from 70 Kt to 1 MT. The bomb had a special streamlined body, detachable tail fairing and two parachute first slowed the bomb after the reset, and the second was used as a hoist if the reset was done from a low height.
The greatest pride of the pilots superautomatica of the aircraft caused the device, which has no analogues in the world of aviation, — clothesline, stretched between two pulleys. The first was fixed at the pilot and the other gunner. If the crew had to remove the fuse a nuclear weapon to a rope tied to a small pouch, in which the commander put his part of the coded resolution. Stretching the rope through the pulleys, the bag was moved to the Navigator, who laid in his own code, then the turn arrow. When all three were together the correct code, the Navigator-Bombardier had removed the fuse.
In 1962, the air force refused to purchase previously ordered In 30-58. It was in the price of the aircraft, it reached as much as 14 million dollars. In 1965, the U.S. Secretary of defense Robert McNamara announced the removal of-58 from service in the coming years.
In an effort to improve the image and characteristics of your aircraft firm Convair constantly sought ways of modernization of the bomber. However, all the proposals of the company on the modernization of the b-58 was not supported by the military.
In April 1964, the U.S. air force decided to try a b-58 as a strike aircraft for use in Vietnam. One b-58A from 43BW ferried to Eglin air force base in Florida, had a camouflage color and had a series of flights bombing with conventional bombs. Bombing was done from low altitudes at speeds up to 1,200 km/h. At the end it turned out that almost all the exits on the goal of the crew was made visually without the use of Prnc Q-42, the aircraft was very vulnerable to fire small-caliber antiaircraft artillery and could suffer from the explosion of their own bombs. It is clear that such a result did not suit the military. From the use of b-58 in Vietnam refused. In the period from October 27, 1969 to 16 January 1970, b-58 was withdrawn from service.
Total built 119 aircraft b-58, 26 cars were lost in accidents and disasters. Eight aircraft were sold to museums.
Supersonic bomber b-58 HUSTLER was built on the aerodynamic configuration “tailless” with mid-Delta wing and single-fin tail. Crew — three persons, accommodation — scheme “tandem”. Cabin total, sealed. The fuselage is designed in accordance with aerodynamic area rule.
The constructive scheme of the fuselage — semi-monocoque. The power set consists of 19 power and 56 forming the frames. The space between the first and fifth power frame is the crew cabin and compartments with on-Board equipment. Between the fifth and sixth frame is the fuel tank capacity of 12 to 120 L. the Space between the sixth and the eighth frame is expendable fuel tank capacity 2309 L. Between the eighth and ninth frame mounted inertial platform and astrocourier navigation system.
Between the ninth and twelfth frame is the large fuel tank, containing 22 305 l of fuel (this includes capacity of the wing tank). The next Bay is occupied balancing fuel tank 4614 l, under which there are units of the EW system, DISS and altimeter. In the area of nineteenth bulkhead aft compartment starts infantry unit and braking parachute. Fuselage is made of duralumin, double-layered laminated panels with a honeycomb core.
The wing of bomber beznervyurnaya, mnogopikselnoy design. In fixing elevons, engine nacelles and landing gear set to the power chord of the wing walls. The sweep of the wing leading edge is 60°. The wing skin is made of aluminium and steel sandwich panels. The entire free internal volume of the wing is a fuel tank, the walls of which form the supporting structure of the wing center section. The fuel does not flow from the left wing to the right when flying with a roll, the tank is divided into two parts by a partition with a valve that is opened only during refueling of the aircraft.
The keel of the aircraft trapezoidal shape. Keel design similar to the design of the wing. The ending of the keel of the radio waves, are made of fiberglass. The rudder attached to the keel spar eleven joints. In the root of the keel is the radar view to the rear.
The controls of the airplane consist of elevons and rudder. The elevons are deflected 10° down and 23° up. Covering the elevons are made of steel panels.
Tricycle landing gear with controlled nose strut. The basic rack is equipped with vosmiklasnica carts with four wheels on each axle. Between the pairs of wheels mounted on one steel wheel without Pneumatics. Tire wheel tubeless. Disc brakes.
Bow front two-wheeled. Main legs retracted into the wing, the nose — fuselage. To bow front did not touch the front of the container during the cleaning, she first evolved, and then turn back left into a niche. The main exhaust system-landing gear hydraulic, backup — pneumatic. The procedure of the landing gear takes about 10 seconds.
The bomber was installed four turbo-jet engine J79-GE-5 General Electric company semnadtsatiletnim single-stage axial compressor. The blades of the first six steps of the rotary stator, allowing to achieve constant speed and stable performance for various disturbances at the inlet to the compressor. Three-stage turbine. To reduce the base drag adjustable engine nozzle was made of double. In the nonafterburning regimes of the work of the external nozzle was closed with a taper angle of 15°. After the afterburner the outer nozzle was opened, and internal tapers.
The engine thrust is at maximum capacity — 4450 kg, in afterburner — 6580 kgs. The engines hung under the wing in individual nacelles with covering of steel sandwich structures. The engine air intakes were regulated by moving the Central body.
The fuel system consists of five inner containers and tanks in hanging containers. Capacity of tanks in the container type MV — 15 791 l, and the container re — 14 705 L. To preserve the balancing of the aircraft when you change flight speed or after a reset of the fuel container can automatically or manually pumped into the tail balancing tank.
The bomber was equipped with a system of refueling in the air “flying rod”.
Aircraft equipment consisted of the sighting and navigation system AN/ASQ-42 in the on-Board search radar, inertial platform, astrocalendar AN/ACS-39, system air signals, the Doppler velocity meter and drift angle (DISS) AN/APN-113, radio altimeter and air data system. When making flights over its territory, the pilots could use the system of electronic short-range navigation TACAN. The connection is provided with one high and two VHF radios.
B-58 landing. Under the fuselage hung the container of MB-1
The bomber was equipped with a warning system radar irradiation AN/ALR-12. For the production of noise and interference sighting used electronic warfare system AN/ALQ-16. On the wing in the region of the wedge fairings of the niches of the chassis, was mounted spreaders, chaff AN/ALE-16.
Tail missile installation was managed according to the testimony of the radar protection of the rear hemisphere AN/AMD-7. Communication between crew members was ensured through the aircraft intercom system. In the 1960-ies on all 58 mounted voice informer 50 critical situations (only used 20). Messages like “Weapons unlocked”, “pressure Drop in the hydraulic system”, “first Fire engine,” etc. been said a pleasant female voice.
Automatic control system ensures the piloting of the aircraft in the “Damper”, “Automatic” and “Manual”. In the “Automatic” display plane at a given point of the Earth with a given flight speed and the overload of not more than 1 d. the flight Program could be prerecorded on punched tape and put into Prnk bomber.
To evaluate the results of use of nuclear weapons were AN/ASH-15, which gave the Navigator-scorer data on the situation of the container after the reset. After the explosion, she had received information about the light intensity, altitude of the explosion, air pressure, distance and azimuth of the epicenter.
Defensive armament consists of one six-barreled 20-mm cannon of the T-171E-2 with automatic or manual control. The gun was mounted in the movable tail fairing type “hornet’s sting”, formed by five spring-loaded aluminum rings. The movement of the hydraulic gun, sector of fire is 30°, the ammunition 1200 rounds.
On production aircraft could be hung containers of three types.
The first is military containers MV-1 and MV-1C. The length of each is 17.4 m, the maximum diameter 1.5 m. the empty Weight 3880 kg, curb—16 370 kg. Inside the container was mounted nuclear warhead type W39 capacity of 3 MT. In independent flight, the container is stabilized by rotation.
The second is the combat container of TSR, consisting of two parts. Top — techkilla. Its length is 10.7 m, maximum diameter of 1.07 m. When connecting with the underside of one fin formed. It housed the warhead from nuclear bombs such as MK.53 capacity of 9 MT. In the rear was the fuel tank. The lower part was a fuel tank with a length of 16.5 m and a maximum diameter of 1.5 m. Mass of empty container re — 4355 kg, fused — 17 to 230 kg. the Third is intelligence container LA-1, developed on the basis of MV-1. Instead of warheads it established the panoramic aerial camera of the type KA-56A.
On a combat production aircraft were mounted two mnogoshagovykh beam holder for suspension of four nuclear bombs of the type MK.43 variable capacity up to 1 MT. The mass of the bomb 955 kg, length with tail fairing is 3.7 m, maximum diameter of 0.46 m.
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN