During the development of the new fighter appeared some of its shortcomings, the main of which was the buffeting of the ailerons at high speed, the tendency to lowering of the left wing on takeoff and landing, and unexpected stalling of the aircraft in some flight modes. But all this could easily fend off a well-instructed by the pilot.
It was built about 30 planes the BF-109B-1. In 1937 rose in the air following the modification of the fighter — BF-109B-2. The prototype for it was the BF-109V-7 with the engine Jumo-210G.
The new fighter was fulfilled direct fuel injection into the engine cylinders, allows to keep stable its energetic combat maneuvering aircraft, as well as two-speed supercharger and an automatic gas control.
The new engine has not yet reached the stage of test and production aircraft are not yet established — ВМ09В-2 was powered by Jumo-210D and engines Jumo-210G were equipped with only the last aircraft of this series. Released fighters almost immediately sent to Spain, the first squadron of the 88-th group of the Legion “Condor”.
The first official presentation of the new German fighter of world aviation community took place in late July 1937 at the IV International air meeting in Zurich. The German team was represented by five prototypes of the Bf-109 and Bf-109V-8 and Bf-109V-9 was the Jumo-210G with direct fuel injection into the cylinders, a Bf-109V-10 and BM09V-13 equipped with engines Daimler-Benz DB-600A.
One of the pilots of the German team was known E. Udet, assuming your Bf-109V-10 to win the contest of combat aircraft. However, during the race, “the Circle of the Alps” his fighter’s engine failed, and E. Adetu had to make an emergency landing. The plane was completely wrecked. But the prize still went to the German major Hans Seidemann, flying the Bf-109V-8. He flew 365-km route in 56 minutes and 47 seconds at an average speed of 385 km/h. the German team took home the prize for best team race and individual time trial (four laps on a closed 50-mile route). Karl Franke on the Bf-109V-8 won the competition for the climb and dive he scored a height of 3 thousand meters and dived to a height of 150 m for 2 min to 5.7 s. After these brilliant victories at the international air rally of manufacture of the Bf-109 was dramatically increased. Licenses for the production of fighter V. Messerschmitt was also sent to several German aircraft companies.
A few months later — November 11, 1937 year pilot G. Wurster on the Bf-109V-13 set a world speed record for land planes — 607 km/h. the Pilot made two passes at the distance of 3 km and an altitude of about 75 m. To achieve this speed, the Bf-109V-13 was equipped with an uprated engine Daimler-Benz DB-601 power 1650 HP
Set the record and the successful use of fighter in Spain brought the Messerschmitt international fame. The firm began to visit foreign delegations for the purchase of the Bf-109 or Dating with his design.
The following modification of the Bf 109С was created on the basis of the Bf-109V-8, Bf-109V-9 and Bf-109V-10. Machine was a new radiator a larger cross-section, modified exhaust pipes and two additional wing guns with ammunition 420 rounds per gun, located close to the niches of the main wheels of the chassis. Test firing wing machine guns revealed the need to strengthen the leading edge of the wing. Production aircraft began to establish the radio station FuG-7 R/T, which allowed pilots to improve communication in the air. The radio was also on some copies of the earliest versions of the fighter.
New Bf-109C-1 in July 1938, was sent to Spain, where they were incorporated into the third squadron 88 th aviation group. At the same time with the BF-109С-1 in 88-th group did Not-112V-0. At the airport of Teruel aircraft overflew known as Franco G. Morato, which gave the plane V. Messerschmitt higher than car E. Heinkel. The opinion of the Asa was crucial — Franco asked Germany for its air force that fighter Bf-109С-1.
The first country that was allowed to buy new German fighters, was Switzerland. The first Bf-109B, equipped with an engine Jumo-210D, was sent to the customer in December 1938. The equipment and weapons mounted on fighter in Switzerland.
In the autumn of 1937 received an order for a series of planes with a 12-cylinder DB-600A. The aircraft was assigned the designation Bf-109D-0. The main external difference between the new modification was the replacement of the wooden screw of the metal pitch, which is produced in Germany under license and has already been installed on the BF-109B-2. The aircraft of this modification had better characteristics than previous versions. It was seriously strengthened its armament — two synchronized machine guns were added to 20-mm cannon MG FF/M ammo-160 rounds, combined with the engine into a single structure; the barrel of a gun was located in the hollow shaft of the screw.
On the modification of D-1 from the gun had to be abandoned because it was not too reliable. The vacated space was used to increase the ammunition of machine guns 1000 rounds each. Option D-2 were produced with two additional wing guns. The increased aircraft weight adversely affected its maneuverability — in particular, slightly increased the radius of the bend. Another unpleasant feature was the increase in stall speed.
Changes in alignment after the installation of the heavier engine was offset adjustable stabilizer angle relative to its neutral position can be varied from +3 to – 8 degrees. However, the mechanism of the stabilizer control was unreliable and frequently refused in flight when exposed to large overloads, especially at the exit from the dive. In all there were about 200 fighters Bf-109D with engines DB-600.
In late 1940, the aircraft began to retire. The most radical modification of the Bf-109 period of the Spanish war was the fighter of the series “E”. It was an airplane cleaner in aerodynamic respect. Large radiator liquid cooling system of the engine in the nose of the car lost his seat a little cooler, for cooling the engine used two small radiator, located in Palautordera position under the wing.
The design of the wing of Bf-109E has been strengthened. Good maneuverability was provided by a high wing loading and a powerful engine. On a new modification set engine DB-601 power 986 HP, geometrical and connection dimensions of which coincide with the size of the DB-600. Is the carb on the DB-601 was used direct injection of fuel into the cylinders, increasing the compression ratio in the cylinders of the engine from 6.5 to 6.9. Was also strengthened supercharged, and the supercharger equipped with an automatic control system of pressurization with hydraulic drive. The air intake of the supercharger brought over the exhaust pipes on the left side. The capacity of the fuselage fuel tank was brought to 400 l. the Engine spun a three-blade metal propeller to be modified electrically step.
The cabin of the new model was a close as the first Bf-109, with a closed review back and poor forward visibility on landing. Chassis with a narrow track often led to accidents on the ground when you run and run. Like all the previous Bf-109, the machine tended to crash during the run on the left wing. Pilots have complained that they can not control the trim tabs from the cockpit (the trimmers were unbent on earth) and, as a consequence, to control the plane had to make quite a big effort.
Specifications of fighters Bf-109 first modifications
In a dogfight the plane behaved steadily and was quite maneuverable for a monoplane. At low speeds approaching stall speed started light buffeting. The release of the flaps, and pushes the critical speed by 20-25 km/h.
Ten pre-production Bf-109E-0 armed with two wing and two synchronized machine guns, was built at the end of 1938 . On the first series of the BF-109E-1 instead of wing machine guns mounted two guns MG FF ammunition of 60 shells per gun. Now the pilot could water the enemy lead with a speed of 132 kg/min there was a possibility of a suspension plane four 50-kg bombs or one caliber 250 kg.
Fifteen first BF-109E-1 was in Spain in the late spring of 1939, when a civil war is almost over.
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN
(To be continued)