Ask the pilots of the postwar era, the Canon of the plane, they learned the alphabet flying up in the skies first with the instructor and then independently. “Yak-18”, — unanimously they will answer. It is at this is a reliable and safe single-engine monoplane opened their way into aviation Gagarin, today’s supersonic test machines, aces of the air force and the commanders of multi-seat aircraft of Aeroflot.
More than two dozen years, the Yak-18 was a Soviet Aviator, name the “plane of initial training” and “training machine”. All these years, the aircraft is rapidly gaining momentum. Other steel and requirements for the methods of training of pilots. This was the impetus for the creation of a new machine.
Yak-18T — light multipurpose aircraft. He exhibited at the exhibition of economic achievements and was awarded a diploma and a gold medal. The double version of the Yak-18T allows to perform the full range of aerobatics. For all these invaluable qualities of the Yak-18T has gained the reputation of “flying the Desk”.
The first training aircraft in our country were-1, which was built some time in the sample of captured English biplane “Avro-504К”. In 1928 appeared the U-2 design N. N. Polikarpov double training aircraft with domestic engine M-11. “The heavenly slow mover” was extremely successful and for many years was the main aircraft in our flight schools.
In the mid 30-ies of the Air Force and Aeroflot began to receive high-speed aircraft. Their piloting required relevant skills. Therefore, flight schools, and combatant units took more than speed training and training aircraft. Soviet designers have created several types of such machines, including UT-2 and UT-1, developed under the leadership of Alexander Yakovlev.
In the postwar period were created new educational and sport aircraft Yak-18. Since 1946, when the first Yak-18 engine M-11, and until 1971, when it was built the last Yak-18PM, serial plants produced thousands of these planes.
Traditionally, all training aircraft cabin cadet and instructor were placed one after the other. But for the training of pilots of Aeroflot more comfortable when the seats of both pilots are close by, as on all civil aircraft. And in 1967 came a training aircraft with the new layout of the cockpit. It was a Yak-18T.
In the new car, designed in KB General designer A. S. Yakovlev youth group, embodied the best ideas accumulated in the creation of aircraft Yak-18 of previous versions. At the same time, this is a fundamental step forward. Suffice it to say that instead of two places located “in tandem”, the Yak-18T appeared quadruple the cab car type with soft Creoles and sofa. Significantly improved the equipment of modern aircraft equipment. It is possible to expand the scope of the Yak-18T is to use it in passenger, messenger, health and transport options.
The new aircraft has passed all of the stages of testing and was launched into serial production at the Smolensk aircraft factory. And today, the initial training of cadets of flight schools and colleges of civil aviation is conducted in this plane.
Light multipurpose aircraft Yak-18T. Under the scheme Yak-18T — monoplane with low wing and retractable landing gear.
The FUSELAGE of semi-monocoque all-metal aircraft of conventional design. In the rear part of the casing with a reinforcing set of frames and stringers are connected by spot welding. To log in quadruple cabin on both sides of the fuselage there are wide doors. Required by their emergency discharge.
Front seat is available in two versions: parachute training aircraft and a conventional, soft — for all others. Rear sofa can accommodate two passengers. In the ambulance version instead of the right pilot seat and sofa are set to standard medical stretchers and seat for an accompanying doctor.
Behind the sofa provides a Luggage compartment with a large hatch in the left side of the fuselage. On the floor of the trunk, there are brackets that the cargo is secured with nylon mesh. Through the Luggage hatch and loaded the stretcher with the patient. The cabin trim is done in bright colors of flame-retardant synthetic materials.
The WING consists of two consoles and center section. Wing profile CLARK UNIVERSITY to 14.5% at the root and 9.3% at the end. Console — weaned for the most part have a fabric covering over the aluminum frame; the leading edge hard. Only at the root of the consoles, where is located the fuel tanks, plating dural.
The center section is integral with the fuselage and has a conventional frame and cladding of duralumin sheet. In the rear of the center section bottom throughout the scale is hung from a landing flap, deflected two pneumatic cylinders at the angle of 55°. On the lower surface of center section are the hatch of the battery compartment and operated the sash channel of an oil cooler. Each console fits in the center section front and rear spars on the four bolts. On the trailing edge of the wing near the fuselage on the left there step to enter the cabin, to the right — there are hooks for hanging removable footrests. The upper skin of the center section at the entry door has a corrugated surface — anti-slip ladder.
The TAIL of the aircraft is conventional, strut-braced. The shape of the keel and rudder are traditional for Yak-18. The frame of the tail — dural lining — fabric. On the top of the keel mounted red alarm beacon.
NINE-cylinder M-14P with a capacity of 360 l, p is fixed on the motor frame. The whole power plant compartment closed by a hood, which consists of two halves — top and bottom. In the frontal part of the hood are controlled blinds, to regulate the cooling of the cylinders of the engine.
CHASSIS of three racks of telescopic scheme with attnamespace dampers. The size of the tires of the main landing wheels 500X150, front — 400×150 mm Main landing gear wheel brake with a pneumatic actuator from the trigger on the helm control. To parry possible errors of the cadet at the helm of the instructor has a button control electrical valve release of the wheels. A differential valve associated with control rod with pedals, allows for separate braking of the wheels for turns of the aircraft while taxiing.
The front landing gear equally fluent. In the neutral position before cleaning it centered special Cam bushings. For damping oscillation of the “shimmy” on the front rack of the chassis has a special damper. The main racks are cleaned along the wing span to the axis of the plane, front — back stream.
MANAGEMENT of Yak-18T double wheel. It also approximates the learning environment of students to the situation common to any civil aircraft. On the dashboard you have installed all necessary flight instruments, controls, and test instrumentation systems of the aircraft. On the middle console located between the pilot’s seat, are the levers of the motor, screw, oil cooler and heated the carb.
At night the dashboard and console are covered with a red flood light. To exclude glare on the glass canopy over the instrument panel includes a visor, and covered with Matt black leatherette.
Light multipurpose aircraft Yak-18T:
1 — cross section at the toe of the Elevator and rudder; 2 — a signal beacon (red); 3 — brace stabilizer; 4 — the words “NOT TAKEN”; 5 rocking of the rudder; 6 — inspection hatch (only on the left side); 7 — the inscription “AIR 50 ATM”; 8 — the inscription “power SUPPLY”; 9 — rear hatch (only on the left side); 10 — handrail (polerowany metal); II — the inscription “PLACE LIFT”; 12 — landing light (left only); 13 — fold blinds (white); 14 — leash folds; 15 — the oil tank; 16 is a metal mesh dust filter (light gray); 17 — LDPE (left); 18 — propeller spinner (red); 19 — blade of the screw (the back side is dark blue, exterior white with red stripes and gray trim; 20 — the inscription “GASOLINE”; 21 — the inscription “SBES” (benzinger); 22 — the words “NOT to BE”; 23 — node linkage outer wing front spar; a 24 — node sample outer wing rear spar; 25 — tripping; 26 — rod Aileron; 27 — pneumatic cylinder control mounting plate (2 PCs); 28 — rubber grommet; 29 — landing flap; a 30 — node model hinge the Elevator and rudder; 31 — node, fortified cylinder flap; 32 — tape-stretching stabilizer; 33 is a movable fold oil cooler; 34 — oil cooler; 35 — cover of the fuel tank; 36 — the root node of the hinge of the Aileron; 37 — exhaust pipes of the engine; 38 — air intake of the engine; 39 — antenna radar altimeter; 40 antenna ^direction; 41 — antenna marker radio; 42 — the word “OIL”; 43 — passenger sofa (red leather); 44 — windshield wiper (left only); 45 — fan 46 — cabin floor (dark green); 47 — pilot’s seat parachute (cover backrest — red skin); 48 remote control engine and aircraft units (black); 49 — brake lever (polished metal); 50 steering wheel (black with red logo trim and emblem “bird” — white); 51 system start the engine and control panels navigation equipment (dashboard — black); 52 — flight-navigation instruments and devices for control of engine operation; 53 — remote control of the radio compass; 54 — tap and release the landing gear; 55 — the machines protecting the network and switches aircraft units; 56 — fireplug (red); 57 charging tap of the pneumatic system; 58 — curtain (white cloth); 59 — pane; 60 the visor over the instrument panel (covered in black leather); 61 — the magnetic compass (black); 62 — handle trimmer of the Elevator (left); 63 — knob emergency release door (red); 64 — the decorative trim of the cabin (artificial leather: top — white, bottom — light gray); 65 — “soldier” (mechanical index released position) of the main landing gear (white with red stripes); 66 — nodes sample available; 67 — pneumatic cylinder cleaning the main landing gear (light gray); 68 — “broken brace” the main stand (light gray); 69 castle retracted position the main rack. 70 — main landing gear (light gray); 71 — “soldier” of the front pillar; 72 — chair with spring return; 73 — cable “budenovskoy shell”; 74 is a pneumatic cylinder cleaning-front; 75 — hinge-pillar; 76 — “broken strut” front; 77 — damper “shimmy”; 78 — elektrosetremont; 79 — 400X150 wheel (Rims light grey); 80 — lock the retracted position of the front pillar; 81 — flap main landing (flaps and landing gear from the inside — light gray); 82 — leash; 83 — the brake hose (light gray); 84 wheel 500X150; 85 — inscription and the emblem of the blue (port and starboard); 86 — the inscription on the left and the right side (black); 87 — serial number (blue only on the left side); 88 — the inscription “USSR” on the left wing top, right — bottom (black); 89 — the words “81399” on the left wing bottom, on the right top (black); 90 — the inscription “Yak-18T” (bright red with white trim); 91 — the font for external labels (blue, height 18 mm).
The rudder and elevators are connected to the pedals and wheel through push-pull rods and cables. Serenoa management is completely hard. On both halves of the Elevator are installed trimmers. Wiring of the control cable trimmer. Control the brake plate, brakes, wheels, cleaning and landing gear, engine starting is made by pneumatic system.
Navigation equipment, the Yak-18T allows you to teach the cadets how to operate a modern aircraft. Basic blocks of electronic equipment located behind the cab over the Luggage compartment. This makes it easier to access for maintenance.
The color of the Yak-18T synthetic enamel provides good protection of the structure from weathering. The paint scheme is standard for the aircraft.
BRIEF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Wing area, m2……..18,8
Flight range, km…..600-1000
The length of the run, m…………200
Path length, m…………250