In October 1962, during the armed conflict with China, Indian troops were surrounded. At the end was ammunition and food. It seemed a few days — and the Indians suffer a great defeat. However, this did not happen, to help the troops came air truck An-12, recently mastered the Indian pilots. Thus occurred the first baptism of one of the most famous Soviet military cargo planes.
Development of the An-12 was started in November 1955, immediately after the publication of the corresponding decree of the government. The document envisages the design of two standardized planes: passenger An-10 “Ukraine” and its cargo version of the An-12. The fact is that while special importance was attached to the possibilities of adapting passenger aircraft in wartime for conducting troop transport operations with minimum costs of their refurbishment. In line with this, the design of the An-10 had foreseen the possibility of replacing its rear fuselage is the one that has the An-12.
Unification the An-10 and An-12 was initially reached 86%, but during the production of this indicator was gradually decreasing and calling An-12 modification of the passenger liner was becoming increasingly difficult.
An-12 was designed for the landing and parachute landing of military personnel and various military goods as well as for transporting the wounded and large of various cargoes. Saving scheme An-8, the new machine was significantly different from its predecessor mainly by the size of the cargo unpressurized cabin that allows you to transport the BTR-152, BTR-40, ASU-57, ZIL-157. The an-12 could carry up to 58 to 82 paratroopers and soldiers with individual oxygen devices. When flying at altitudes up to 4000 m was allowed to transport 90 people, not counting the flight in a troop transport equipment.
December 16, 1957 the An-12 piloted by test pilots I. by Vernikova and G. I. Lysenko, first took to the air. Six months later, the prototype machine was going to pass on state tests in NII VVS, but on 26 June 1958 and she crashed during landing at the Central aerodrome named after M. V. Frunze. Repair and finishing of this aircraft was delayed, in may 1959, were completed state tests of one of the first serial An-12 of Irkutsk aircraft factory.
In piloting the An-12 operating modes were available to pilots of average qualification to fly Il-12, Il-14 and Tu-4.
In 1959, the aircraft was accepted into service, and his first mastered the 7th guards division. After the demonstration of the An-12 in 1961 on the air parade in Tushino, NATO has assigned him a code name CUB, which translated to English means “Beginner”.
A significant drawback of the An-12 was considered a small range, the increase of which was one of the main tasks of the Antonov design Bureau. Among the first modifications refers to An-12УД with increased range. On this machine in the cargo compartment mounted fuel tanks with a capacity of 7600 litres, bringing the range to 4,900 km.
In 1961, the factories in Voronezh and Tashkent began serial production of the an-12A, differing increased to 16 000 litres of fuel and a reinforced chassis. The mass flight of the An-12A had risen to 56 000 kg, and has a capacity up to 20,000 kg.
The cabin attendants, depending on the factory who built the plane, were placed from 14 to 20 people, and in the cargo compartment and up to 86 paratroopers. Looking ahead, I note that in some cases the aircraft could carry up to 180 passengers, resembling a crowded tram.
Since 1963 in Tashkent and Voronezh began production of the an-12B with a reinforced center section of the wing and increased to 19 500 litres of fuel. On this plane instead of bomb racks in the left landing gear fairing mounted turbo-generator TG-16. On the basis of this machine is subsequently developed and implemented in serial production of a family of aircraft of different purposes. In the same year there was the An-12BP with additional underground tanks. Following this, the updated and previously released An-12 An-12A An-12B received in the name of the letter prefix “P”. Installation of underground tanks has allowed to increase the amount of fuel up to 28 470 L.
In August 1966 passed the flight tests of the prototype An-12БК with updated equipment and engines AI-20M with a capacity of 4250 E. L. S. the aircraft was fitted with a winch ГЛ500ДП, a gantry crane with a lifting capacity of 2300 kg and a new navigation system with a radar sight “Initiative-4”, paired with a navigation computer, a Doppler and measuring the angle and speed of demolition.
Military transport aircraft An-12B:
1 —the canopy of the Navigator; 2,42—antenna IFF systems; 3 —the canopy pilots; 4—antenna blind landing system SP-50; 5—the radio antenna VHF; 6—antenna HF radio; 7—escape hatch; 8—propeller AV-68И; 9—door; 10—nacelle TMD AI-20A; 11—dorsal fin; 12—antenna system RSBN-2; 13—rudder; 14—trimmer of the rudder; 15—cabin radio operator-gunner; 16-23-mm gun AM-23 aft tower DB-65У; 17—nozzle APU ТГ16; 18—operational cover of the hatch of turbine generator TG-16; 19—doors of the main landing gear; 20—the air intake of the cooling turbine; 21—oil cooler TVD; 22—on-Board air navigation light (green); 23—heating element de-icing system propeller blades; 24—intake cooling of the generator; 25 — “the janitor” glass lantern; 26—strut main landing gear wheel; 27—a four-wheel truck main landing gear; 28—intake for the oil cooler: 29, the air intake TVD; 30—static electricity discharger; 31 —flashing beacon; 32—the top emergency hatch of the cargo compartment; the 33rd Radome radar RBP-2; 34—bow-a non-braking wheel K2-92/1 (900×300 mm); 35—LDPE; 36—the forward hatch of the Luggage compartment; a 37—fold bomb Bay; 38—brake wheel CT 77M (1050×300 mm); 39—cassette flares; 40—trimmer Aileron; 41 —spoilers; 43—stern navigation light (white); 44—stabilizer; 45—maintenance hatches; 46—top escape hatch; 47—the lower escape hatch; of 48.51 —taxiway-landing light; 49—fold of the nose landing gear; 50—hatch cover operating radio equipment; 52—Aileron; 53—double slit flap; 54—side fold of gruzolyukom; 55—posterior fold of gruzolyukom; 56—fold hatch compartment lighting bombs COSAB-100-80; 57 antenna of a radio altimeter; 58—trimmer of the Elevator; 59—lower door radio operator-gunner; 60—the doorway to reset the cartridges to shoot guns AM-23; 61 —left panel; 62—Central panel; 63—right panel
The cabin attendants placed the air cooling system of the radar that reduced the number of seats for them almost doubled. At the same time put a new turbogenerator, to allow starting engines at altitudes up to 3000 m. In the same year the Tashkent aviation plant has mastered the serial production of the an-12БК, which became the basis for a range of machines are highly specialized purposes. For example, in 1969 the air force research Institute the An-12БКВ conducted research on the expansion of its military capability. Bribed a huge carrying capacity of the aircraft, because if it to load the bombs, it will turn into a super-heavy bomber. There were, of course, and opponents of this idea, but to resolve the dispute could only experiment. Imagine: it opened the bomb Bay conveyor one after another powerful roadside bombs, leaving the land is not simply a funnel, and something resembling a lunar landscape. The aviation industry has passed to the customer several An-12БКВ. However, the first experiments confirmed the low precision bombing, but this idea refused.
By analogy with the learning-mate An-12БШ in 1970 in Tashkent was built a few An-12БКШ. In the cargo Bay was equipped with working space for ten students. Two years later one of the cars was converted into a tanker aircraft tactical aviation. In its cargo Bay mounted tanks with total capacity of 19 500 L.
For search and rescue operations at sea has created a complex An-12PS, able to deliver to the disaster area rescue boat “Ruff” or “Loon” with a displacement of 5.2 and 8 t, respectively.
A special place in the family of the An-12 is an aircraft electronic countermeasures (ECM). They can be divided into two categories: individual and group protection. The first include the An-12B-equipped stations RAP “Beans” and An-12БК-IP equipment “Beans” and “lilac”. In their number enters and An-12БК-IP equipment “Barrier” and “lilac”. An-12БК-IP could solve combat tasks characteristic of conventional vehicles.
First among aircraft group protection was An-12ПП built on the basis of the An-12B. Then came An-12БК-PP with automatic passive jamming ASO-2B-126, housed in the aft artillery, and An-12БК-PPP. In 1974, there was An-12БКППС station “lilac”, similar to standing on An-12ПП, but increased efficiency.
In April 1954 the United States began flight tests of the cargo plane C-130 “Hercules”. Externally, the An-12 and C-130 are similar. To talk about some random coincidence is impossible. Most likely, the proximity of the layouts of both machines follows from the generality of their tasks and laws of development of technics. The comparison of these aircraft is not in favor of the An-12.
For example, the weight returns of “American” reached 44%, and the An-12 is about 38% at full load and at normal takeoff weight. The cargo compartment of the C-130 unlike the An-12 is tight. He continues to be manufactured in the United States, and our plane living out their last years.
The first “Hercules” had a takeoff weight of close to the An-12, but later it exceeded 80 T. of Course, this is not the plane that was in the early 1950-ies, but the important fact of deep modernization of one of the most popular in the world of “transport”.
There were attempts to go this way and Antonov design Bureau. In the spring of 1964, a project of the An-12D. It was expected that its maximum effective range reaches 5000-5500 km takeoff weight was increased to 63-66 T.
A year later in Voronezh was planned the construction of the An-12D engines of the AI-20ДК takeoff power at 5180 E. L. S. Plane was distinguished by the increased size of the cargo compartment. More powerful engines allowed to bring its takeoff weight up to 83 tons and load of 20 tonnes to be transported to a distance of 3750 km.
An-12 on ski gear
Proposed projects of the an-12D, with turboprop engine, AI-30 takeoff power at 5500 BHP and An-12СН (special purpose) for the transportation of tank T-54, but, like predecessors, they remained on paper. Developed the project of the aircraft short takeoff and landing An-40 turboprop engine, AI-30 and booster TRD RD-36-35.
On the basis of the An-12 has created a number of flying laboratories intended for research and development of optical systems for air reconnaissance and radar, antenna systems and radio communications in the range swordpen waves, detection of missile launches, laser irradiation and electronic intelligence operations, as well as the integral and spectral characteristics of infrared radiation of aircraft.
An-12ЛЛ worked out a uniform suspension Assembly in-flight refueling, flight control and navigation system “Flight-1” radar “Initiative-4-100” for the An-22.
For testing ejection seats in 1989, the Flight research Institute and the Antonov design Bureau has developed a flying laboratory based on the An-12БК. Its feature was the cabin located on the feeding unit and is designed for ejection at angles to the horizontal from 0 to 180°. It is possible to investigate the dynamics of ejection systems, modeling of emergency situation of the aircraft and helicopters. Ejection seat is installed to the desired angle on the ground.
One An-12BP converted to the USSR state Committee for Hydrometeorology and control of natural environment, creating meteolaboratory “Cyclone”. The aircraft was designed for research of atmospheric processes (e.g., thermodynamic parameters of the atmosphere and characteristics of cloud formations) and active influence on them in the interests of the national economy (e.g., evoking the rain).
Mastering the An-12 crews of the military transport aviation (VTA) began in 1958 and was not without casualties. The first tragedy occurred on 31 January 1959. When you takeoff from the airport in Vitebsk deviated trimmer of the rudder, and at the same time the blades of one of the engines spontaneously joined in the feathered position.
21 November of the same year — another disaster in the terminal area White, near Irkutsk. Presumably the cause of the tragedy was the disconnection of Aileron thrust or fire. In both cases, managed to save only the arrows-radio operators who were in the aft cabins.
At the same time revealed a lot of design and manufacturing defects, some of which affect safety. To the credit of the aviation industry, the defects are eliminated fairly quickly, and the machine is again set into operation.
After the development of the aircraft crews of VTA An-12 has repeatedly engaged in execution of various exercises. The largest of them were maneuvers “Dvina” in 1970, when about 200 cars in 22 minutes parachuted 8,000 people with military equipment.
The share of the An-12 has fallen the greatest burden of transportation for the delivery to Afghanistan of military cargo and troops. The operation in Afghanistan started in December 1979 with the transfer of paratroopers landing on the ground in Kabul and Bagram. Of 343 sorties of transport aircraft 200 have been performed on the An-12.
Comparative data of cargo aircraft
*At nominal operation of engine speed at the ground is limited to 520 km/h.
War is not without casualties, and the An-12 is no exception. Apparently, the first loss occurred in 1983. One aircraft was shot down in may in the area of Jalalabad, and the other shot down while landing in Kandahar. The plane sat on the runway, but was rolled out for its limits, faced with the Mi-6. In the same year at the airfield of Farah under fire razgryzaniya An-12 major Tallinskaja. Despite his injuries, the crew not only met that goal, but brought the aircraft out of the fire, flying on three engines in Kabul.
Three years later, on 29 November, was tragically killed the crew of Chomutov of the 50-th independent mixed regiment. During the withdrawal from Kabul airport the plane was shot down by a missile “stinger”, located at an altitude of 6400 m and sdetonirovala a cargo of ammunition and resulted in the deaths of crew members and passengers.
In 1987, at Kabul airport made an emergency landing An-12 shot down near Gardez at an altitude of over 9000 m Unexploded missile blew off more than a third covering the lower part of the stabilizer and pulled out the oxygen tanks in the area aft of the installation.
From 8 December 1988 29 March 1989 25-th guards step all staff participated in liquidation of consequences of earthquake in Armenia. After completing 651 sorties, the regiment moved 19 586 1811 and tons of cargo.
In 1961 An-12 mounted on the ski fixed landing gear. The ski was struck by its size, especially on the main landing. Length and width was 6.8 m and 1.8 m respectively. Similar skis even before the advent of the An-12, or after aviation did not know.
In may 1960, the leadership of the Institute of Arctic and Antarctic appealed to CAF asking for the allocation of aircraft for a flight to Antarctica. For this purpose, they proposed a machine designed for practical flight range of 6,000 km (aeronautical margin per hour of flight), operated at that time in the Polar aviation.
The aircraft was designated the an-12ТП. In December of that year, together with Il-18 performed the Grand flights on the route Moscow—Antarctica—Moscow length of 26 km. 423 After landing at Mirny (Antarctica) wheel undercarriage was replaced by skis, and the an-12ТП began to fly inland.
Ski gear was used to fly the An-12 to the station “North pole-8”, the first landing on ice airfield was carried out by the pilot p. P. Moskalenko.
In the summer of 1965 An-12БК (An-12B commercial) first demonstrated at the 26th International air show at Le Bourget. In February next year, the crew of pilot Ovsyannikova marked the beginning of regular freight transport in Aeroflot at the newly opened the Moscow—Riga—Paris. In 1980-e years the car can be found in more than 70 civil lines European part of the USSR, construction of the North, Siberia and the Far East. Committed Charter flights to the Scandinavian countries, the Americas, the Middle East, Australia and Japan.
In the 1960-ies in the Tyumen region discovered large reserves of oil and gas. The construction of the 426-kilometer pipeline in the Tyumen loading station and railway Tyumen—Tobolsk became the reason of powerful freight in the region.
In the winter of 1966 in Plekhanovo arrived the whole air division special purpose. Aircraft an-12 round the clock, drove the pipe in dem’yanka, Ust-Balyk (Nefteyugansk did not exist). Tubes every day, they needed more.
At the same time was built the airport Roshchino. Created on the basis of the Tyumen combined squadron was transferred to the operation of the aircraft An-12. They were taken to the North not only food and other small things, but even wheeled and tracked equipment. And during the summer months on a cargo aircraft exported to the mainland northerners, for months waiting to fly home or to the sea. Had to fly at altitudes up to 3000 m, because the cockpit of the An-12 is leaking. Passengers with children were placed on benches, hinged along the side.
One of the major foreign operations, which involved An-12, was the delivery of goods (including weapons) and troops of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1963. Brand new, just-released factory planes alleyways flight crews Cherkasy orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky regiment military transport aircraft. After flying about 250 hours cars drove in the USSR and received the new one. Operation, the final stage which the Soviet crews was changed of Egypt, continued until 28 November 1967.
Hundreds of An-12 different modifications put in 12 countries, including Afghanistan, Algeria, Jordan, Iraq, China, Malaysia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
The first foreign operator of the An-12, starting in 1961, India was purchased 13 cars.
Following in India a few cars acquired Egypt. One of them in the early 1960-ies, converted into a flying laboratory, was tested turbojet engine E-300 Egyptian supersonic fighter AT-300. Wanted to buy An-12 and Cuba, but with extended range.
An-12BP with an expanded cargo door became the basis for Chinese BTCY-8 made its first flight on 25 December 1974. The plane was built in quantity at a factory in Shanghai since 1980. Y-8 was different from the Soviet machine modified nose and part of the equipment.
On the basis of Y-8 created about a dozen versions. The last one — Y-8S developed in 1990 jointly with the American company “Lockheed”, equipped with a pressurized cargo compartment. Y-80 was established in 1987 and intended for export. Y-8E—plane with a remote-controlled unmanned reconnaissance vehicles, suspended under his wing. Y-8F and Y-8N is designed for transporting animals and search and rescue operations respectively. Y-8 patrol aircraft, built in 1984, designed for submarine search and rescue operations at sea.
In the 1980-ies during the Iran-Iraq fighting An-12 was used for refueling fighter aircraft type “Mirage”.
In the late 1990-ies between Ethiopia and separated from it by the Republic of Eritrea armed conflict broke out. The mainstay combat aircraft of Ethiopia has made planes and helicopters of Soviet manufacture. Among them were six An-12. In addition to the primary purpose, “Ana” were widely used for bombing attacks on targets located on the territory of Eritrea.
In the world today there are about 200 An-12 different modifications, but the resource they are gradually produced and the day is near when the An-12 can be seen only in the Museum Parking lot.