TEST HOMEOn their land the owner had built a two-storey box “canadian” house on the tape base. Area, nearby, has long been on sale. Finally she got the owner who invited the surveyor to the precise layout of the site. During this procedure it turned out that the neighbor built a house just feet from the border, thereby violating the existing rules. The new owner remained adamant. The case went to trial. The decision of the judicial authority was the natural: move structure on the meter from the fence. The reader can imagine what it means to move house with the basement.


Standards for the location of residential homes and commercial buildings
Take a look at figure 1. According to regional construction norms (RSN 70-88) is an approximate layout of buildings on the site.
Residential house equipped with a space of at least 5 m from the red line and roads, and not less than 3 m from the street. The red line in town planning called the conditional boundary that separates a carriageway, thoroughfare, highway, square from the construction area.
In order to fire safety distance between residential buildings on adjacent plots should be from 6 to 15 m, depending on the degree of fire resistance of structures. The document is recommended for ease of repair to place the building with an offset to one of the side boundaries of the site, but the distance from the fence to the wall may not be less than 1 — 1.5 m. most Likely, the owner will have to adhere to the General rules of construction of the street, focusing on the location of the neighbouring buildings.
Commercial facilities should be included in the depth of the site and comply with the same requirements to their distance from boundaries, and in relation to a residential building. They are allowed to build as standing separately and locked the house. Fenced on the street side must be specified in the overall project construction. If you want to garage their gate looked directly on the street, you must consider the red line of the road, and in any case not to go beyond its borders. On the plot is allowed to use the restroom nekanalizovannyh type of closet. Scooped up with the obligatory waterproofing should develop from its Northern side.
Fig. 1. Approximate layout of buildings in the area
Fig. 1. Approximate layout of buildings on the site
The height of the buildings for cattle and poultry needs to be at least 2.4 m (floor to ceiling). Permitted to attach it to the house — provided that between the walls of a residential building and this building will house no less than three outbuildings.
There are certain rules and to accommodate vegetable planting. Trees should defend from the exterior walls of buildings and structures at 5 m from the border of the adjacent plot — 3 m, from underground networks, 1.5 — 2 m, from the masts and poles lighting network — 4 m. Shrubs are planted at a distance of 1.5 m from buildings and at 1 m from the boundaries of the site.
The minimum requirements for design of residential house
If the developer will examine RSN 70-88, construction standards and recommendations Snir 31-02-2001 and SNiP 2.08.01-89, learn a lot in the area of limitations of the areas and heights of rooms in the building. Pay attention to the layout of the floor of the house, shown in figure 2.
House, size of the premises which is less than the minimum (SNiP 31-02-2001), may simply not register in Bureau of technical inventory.
The total living area of the room should be at least 12m2, bedroom is 8 m2 , kitchen — 6 m2, bath not less than 1.8 m2, and the smallest toilet — 0,96 m2. Developers building regulations set the minimum, not on a whim, and on the basis of sanitary-hygienic norms and design standards of the furniture, various appliances and devices. It should be noted that the rooms in the attic can be smaller. There are allowed to place bedroom minimum area of 7 m2. The upper limits of the size of the premises is unrestricted. As they say, the operation even of the Palace chamber.
Fig. 2. Minimum permitted floor area of a residential house
Fig. 2. Minimum permitted floor area of a residential building
All passageways and lifts in a residential building also have minimum standards. So, the width of the stairs to the upper floor shall be not less than 0.9 m in corridors — not less than 0.9 m, and the front — not less than 1.8 m. There are minimum restrictions and the height of stories from floor to ceiling (SNiP 2.08.01-89). If it is less than 2.5 m, and the attic is less than 2.3 m, the building may be deemed unsuitable for permanent residence.
The floors are usually determined by the number of floors above ground (include the attic). If the developer decide to get off the ground or basement floor, then you should know that there is not allowed to place living room. This floor can be equated to overhead, if its top floor is not less than 2 metres above ground grade elevation. If the ground or basement decided to use in the economic purposes, the height from floor to ceiling shall be not less than 2 m.
Ground and first floors of a residential building is permitted to take under the garage. But then their walls and ceilings must be performed from non-combustible materials. If above the garage doors located Windows of the other rooms, you need a visor length not less than 0.6 m.
The developer often does not know the exact total area of your home (it is determined on the basis of SNiP 2.08.01-89). Experience shows that some engineers BTI make mistakes when calculating square meters. It should be understood that the unjustified overstatement leads to an increase in the property tax and the size of payment of utilities.
Area of residential buildings is determined as the sum of the areas of all floors of the premises. Sometimes the landlord enters into a dispute with BTI over balconies and loggias. You need to know that their area is also taken into account as the dimensions of the staircases in the level of the respective floor. But square lofts, commercial underground and unheated utility rooms located in the basement or the basement in the total area of the house does not include.
The size of the rooms on the floors count within internal walls and partitions. Ledges baseboards do not matter. In determining the area of a roof space into account only the part where the sloping ceiling has a height of 1.6 m, and to calculate square areas with less ceiling height use a factor of 0.7.
The house is built, and regulatory compliance. It is time for utilities and to install the necessary devices and equipment. To understand the tricks of placing the “vital arteries” of a building, refer to the five normative documents: SNiP 2.04.03-85. SNiP 2.04.05-91, PUE, SNiP 2.04.08-87 and SNiP 31-02-2001. Figure 3 shows some of the external utilities. It is necessary to study them carefully.
Fig. 3. The particular location of external engineering communications of the house
Fig. 3. The particular location of external engineering communications residential home
It shall comply with SNiP 2.04.03-85. At violation of installation of Sewerage networks, the developer faces the regular clogged pipes drains and the need to constantly clean them. According to the standards of sewage per diem costs for one person are about 200 L. it is Required that the smallest diameter of the outer sewer pipe was equal to 150 mm and had a slope to a common manifold, at least 8%. Least its depth in the soil shall be 0.3 m.
In the absence of a centralized street sewage systems permitted the construction of filter wells and trenches with the mandatory location of septic tank (industrial pollution control device). The basis of artificial filters should be 1 m above the groundwater level. Internal plumbing layout allowed only in the presence of a sewage system.
Heating and ventilation are arranged in accordance with the regulations of SNiP 2.04.05-91. To calculate the correct number of heaters for the satisfactory heating of the house, the Builder should refer to specialists. Typically the specifications of such devices indicates the power in watts or kilowatts. It is believed that the thermal flow from the devices, must be at least 10 watts per 1 m2 floor space.
In an individual residential house as a primary coolant is usually used water. The use of heating electricity is allowed only in the absence of cheaper sources of energy, and tariffs in this case, install additional. If the home consumes 50 kW or more, it should take care of automatic regulation of heat flow. As a rule, radiators, convectors placed under window openings. Not allowed to put them in lobbies with exterior doors: it is fraught with the defrost system.
You should pay attention to the inadmissibility of the use of the ducts for discharging the combustion products of the boiler or water column. The room in which the boiler is located must have a window area of not less than 0.03 m2 per 1 m3 of internal space. When using solid fuel boilers are allowed to hold in the ground, the ground or the basement pantry to store fuel. In bathrooms and toilet rooms of individual houses that do not have external Windows, mandatory install ducted ventilation.
On the basis of the norms SNiP 2.04.03-85 built in the house should be taken into account insolation, i.e. the solar lighting. It will not be the owner in the middle of the day to burn the light and feel the lack of oxygen without ventilation. It is therefore necessary for the proportion of total area of window to floor surface was not less than 1:8, but not more than 1:5,5. When using skylights allowed a ratio of 1:10.
It is based on regulations of SNiP 2.04.08-87. If an experienced developer decided to implement the installation of infrastructure alone is not prohibited. With the exception of gas lines: they impose very strict requirements. Only specialized organization has the right to lay such pipes and to connect the relevant devices. The gas jokes are bad!
These communications can be entered into the house from the furnace or kitchen. If the building of the old buildings have a heating furnace, it is possible to enter the pipe in the living room under condition of tripping device outside. But in any case should not lay a gas pipeline through the Foundation or under it. If the pipe is laid along the outside wall of the house, its nominal diameter should not exceed 50 mm.
Not allowed to have detachable joints of tubing under the window openings and balconies. In General, all connections shall be welded, threaded only in the place of installation of valves and instruments. If the gas pipe project is over footpaths should be mounted at a height not less than 2,2 m from the ground.
Not in the same room to install more than two of the heating apparatus. It is strictly forbidden to mount the gas water heater in the bathroom, or the developer can get a real “gas chamber.” The room for the gas boiler and water heater must be a minimum height of 2 m. One device can be installed in a room of volume not less than 7,5 m3 and two units — indoor volume of not less than 13.5 m3.
It is set in accordance with the rules of the device of electroinstallations (PUE).
In low-rise towns use mainly overhead transmission lines. If the plot is a linear electric pole, it should not block the entrance and the entrance to the yard.
The wires from the street pole to the place of entry in the house needs to be stretched at a height of not less than 2,75 m from the ground, and if the objection is made on the part of the street where moving vehicles, height is 6 m. the Length of a branch from the main line to the residential house should not exceed 25 m. otherwise, the necessary additional support. Outlet wires should be weather-resistant insulation distance between phase and neutral wires is not less than 0.2 m.
You want all the contact wires to the surface of the structure and passing them through the walls were fireproof and securely insulated, and the outer end of the pipe at the insertion point, looking down (avoiding exposure to rain). It is strictly forbidden to push the wiring over the roof of the house. It should be available from the balconies and Windows of the building.
The smallest building
At the cottage, farmstead, garden plot there is an outbuilding which can not do without. We are talking about ordinary toilet. Unfortunately, not many know how to properly install the toilet so that he not only met the requirements of the owners, but also meet sanitary standards, do not harm the environment, but was also reliable and durable. This will be discussed.
There are certain health standards that should be considered during the construction and operation of toilet in the village.
First, the toilet should not be placed at a distance of less than 25 — 30 m from wells or water wells, and the area with a slope above the well. Otherwise, there is no guarantee that sewage will not get in the drinking water.
Second, the toilet should not be a source of unpleasant odors. So, on the one hand, consider the dominant in this location the wind rose, and with another — need to keep clean and tidy.
Thirdly, it is unacceptable that the groundwater has been polluted by sewage and uravneni their nearest reservoirs. Therefore, pit latrines toilets shall be reliably insulated, and all the other waste before disposal to be disposed of.
Before the construction of the toilet should determine the depth of groundwater at the site. If it is less than two meters, then you need to build a toilet of the type of powders-rest rooms. And at a depth of 2.5 m permitted construction of toilet type play-closet or latrine with a cesspit.
Now directly about the construction of toilets.
The most simple in construction and operation of powder-closet (Fig.4). It can be sited near the house or under the same roof with him. This is no toilet traditional pit latrine. It replaces a metal watertight container mounted directly under the toilet seat. When filling the container contents poured into a compost pit. Dimensions restroom chooses the owner, but they usually at least 1,0×1,4×2,2 m
Fig. 4. Powder-closet (option)
Fig. 4. Powder-closet (option):
1—post-support; 2 — asbestos cement pipe; 3 — box filling; 4 — hatch for waste disposal; 5—seat; 6 — vanity

In the construction of such a toilet in the beginning prepare four wooden post supports, the lower part of which is coated with bitumen mastic. Further in the soil to a depth of 70 — 90cm dig in four asbestos-cement pipe, pre-treating the outside with bitumen mastic. Tube one-third filled cement-sandy solution and set supports. The casing of the toilet is made of closely fitted to each other boards. In the rear, make two holes: the upper ventilating window covered by mesh and a lower removal capacity with sewage. The roof, as a rule, lean-to, made of any roofing materials (roofing iron, slate, etc.).
In the room of the toilet install the toilet seat with a hole vanity with sink and a bucket and a wooden box with a filling. As backfill typically use sawdust, ashes, peat or a mixture of the dry land. They sprinkled impurity, that is, as if powdered (hence the name of the toilet). Dusting is done after each visit to the toilet. This prevents the breeding of flies, eliminates unpleasant odor, and further is formed a complete fertilizer.
The study of all these regulatory documents will allow you to avoid many mistakes in the construction of individual houses.
Local licensing authorities are guided by the order of development and approval of project documentation, the national construction norms RSN 70-88 for individual construction. On them define proper site development, floor plans of residential homes and commercial buildings. You’ve got to consider what else you plan to build. After approval of the construction plan of unrecorded objects are considered established arbitrarily and are subject to demolition or additional agreement.
As practice shows, many owners ahead of the event and begin to build your house, without waiting for permission. In the end, there are often serious mistakes, which the developer grabs his head. Stay on the main points.
First, refer to the Set of rules for design and construction SP 11-III-99. Having read this document, you will know what papers need to start work on the individual plot.
We must have patience, because the process of registration and approval may be delayed. The first thing in this case — to write the application for a permit for construction. It is necessary to attach the Decree of head of administration on granting the land plot for individual housing construction, lease or sale, as well as the General plan and passport section, the act of full-scale establishment of its borders and the breakdown of buildings, the red lines and axes of the building.
On the basis of this package of documents by the head of administration makes a decision on the building permission. Then make the passport of the project of a private dwelling house, which must include the following materials:
decree of the administration of the building permit:
a document certifying the right Builder for the land plot;
a copy of the master plan relevant planning documentation;
situation plan;
technical conditions (TU) connection to utilities networks with the scheme;
floor plans, facades, sections;
an act relating to natural establishment of land boundaries and breaking structures (with the scheme of the Stakeout).
A separate folder execute the project of individual private house. It includes the following materials:
situation plan (scale 1:500) showing the location of the construction project in conjunction with the nearest settlements, sources and external networks of electricity, heat and water supply, buildings, sewage networks;
topographical survey of the site with the adjoining portion of the street (1:500);
the General plan of the site with a vertical layout and linking the project to the location (scale 1:200, 1:1000);
plan of the basement (tehpodpole, ground floor);
floor plans (scale 1:100, 1:50);
main and side facades of buildings (scale 1:50, 1:100);
typical sections (scale 1:100, 1:50);
plans and floor coverings non-repeating floors (scale 1:100);
plan of roof system roof (scale 1:100);
roof plan (scale 1:100, 1:200);
Foundation plan (scale 1:100, 1:50);
section of foundations, typical architectural components and details (scale 1:10, 1:20);
General explanatory note and technical-economic indicators;
budget and Finance considerations the cost of construction;
drawings engineering support (job design).

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