INVITE SPRINGNote: despite the outward simplicity of the device is a good boy — not an easy task. And although in principle it forces everyone who is able to work with a shovel and a saw, the construction of this reservoir will require both time and skill. However… built the same wells from time immemorial our ancestors, not frightened of this work and we.
Structurally distinguish kopanya, or mine, wells and tube obtained by drilling wells. And those and others with the right device serve for a long time. But what to prefer?
It depends on the depth of groundwater: perched — up to 4 m; the soil — up to 10 m; soil — up to 40 m and artesian — more than 40 m.
Fig. 1. Corner joints of logs
Fig. 1. Corner joints of logs are:
a — “in the corner” b — “in the paw” — General view of the legs, g — fine marking feet, d is the template for marking the legs.

The most usable aquifers are at depths of 10-20 m, and are most often in the thickness of gravel-sand rocks have a temperature from+7° to +12°, and sometimes even a little pressure.
In the old days used such an unusual method of finding water underground with a branch of the vine; craftsmen use it now. But there are many signs that allow to do without the psychic.
If the dry summer, among the withered vegetation you’ll see a green meadow — probably somewhere underneath the water. About the same “signal” reeds, sedges and other moisture-loving plants. Over-bearing in places pounded after sunset, mosquitoes and gnats. In areas where there are no rivers, lakes, ponds, marshes, with a dense fog appears in the evening there is where the hidden water. It can be enjoyed even in winter: the ice patches or snow cover give a hidden underground source.
Fig. 2. The cutting blades on the lower crown of the framework
Fig. 2. The cutting blades on the lower crown of the framework
the most simple and therefore the country hundreds of thousands. They are of two types: key and national teams. The first wall of the frame make waterproof, and ground water coming back through the bottom of the spring is preserved in pristine purity. The second, on the contrary, it seeps through vertically and horizontally located openings in the walls.
The depth of wells is usually not more than 10-30 m, rarely have to dig them by 40–50 M. In all cases, the 10 m minimum depth, only in this case they can provide drinking water.
Usually the frame is submerged in the water-bearing rocks at 1-2 m, but if intensive use of moisture, and the aquifer is poor, the frame is better not to deepen and expand down — this will increase the flow rate of the spring
Fig. 3. Bell or tent at the bottom of the frame
Fig. 3. Bell or tent at the bottom of the frame
That the pond was always clean, the bottom poured a layer of gravel or gravel with a thickness of 20-30 cm
Building material for structures — wood, stone, concrete, bricks (select), ceramic segments; their shape may be square, hexagonal, round the dimensions of the shaft depend on the depth and can be in the range from 0,8X0,8 to 1,5X1,5 m, round — of the same diameter. If the soil is not loose, mine dug 20— 30 cm more than the external dimensions of the frame so that the protrusions on the wall does not disturb the lees.
The choice of wood — primary and important part of the preparatory work. Oak chopping block well-preserved in water, but spoil the taste of the water with tannins, especially at first. Therefore, before laying the bottom of the log harvested crowns imbedded in running water for three.
Fig. 4. Installing shareplease boards (A) with the inner side of the frame
Fig. 4. Installing shareplease boards (A) with the inner side of the frame
Master kolodeznyi believe, however, that the lower crowns, better to use dry seasoned wood, alder, willow, birch, although they are less resistant, and oak chopping block is put on one or two of the crown above the water level. In the course of the and pine, fir and aspen also unsuitable — they give the water an unpleasant taste.
The logs should be dry and free of rot, fungus, beetles drevolaz. Under these conditions oak frame is 20-25 years old, pine — 20, willow — 5-8 years. Apply fir is not recommended.
The log is harvested from logs with a thickness of 18-22 cm; thicker cut along. Build it from the plate even better: for the smooth
R and p. 5. Guides log
R and S. 5. Rails log:
1 — angle iron, 2 — middle rail. 3 — guide frame, 4 — count 5 — bracket.

the inner walls easier to maintain. Blanks crowns of logs must be otesat, with the future inside of the prostragivat a plane, and with external clean of bark and remove the bumps — it will facilitate the descent of the cage in the mine.
The crowns should adjoin densely to each other, so the wood used is dry: oblasts, it swells and thickens. Between the crowns are connected to rectangular or round spines — two on top and bottom. Connection method — in the corner, and more — “in the paw.” Beams or plates in such a bundle must be the same, diabeta or width, for that they align. The ends of the logs otesyvajut on the length of one and a half diameters on four edgings, giving the ends a square shape that is the same for all workpieces That would facilitate further calculations
The figure shows that from the end of Lapa is in one side of six units in the other four. With interior STO-
Rhone, its size reduced and equal to four and two units. This form provides a strong corner connection
Fig. 6. Propping the frame pads (logs)
Fig. 6. Propping the frame pads (with logs):
1 — stone. 2 — wedge, 3 — log-lining.

Square the end with a vertical hand hewn ends divide into eight equal parts. Through the points of division draw lines parallel to the cut sides, and mark the resulting edges are the letters AB, VG, DE, and ZHZ. The top and bottom of the edge AB are set aside for 2/8 part (in two divisions), on the edge VG — 18 part (one division) on the edge DE 3/8 (three points) and on the edge of the ZHZ — 2/8 (two division). Then connect the intended dots in straight lines and get the edges of the legs, equal in AB — part 4/8 (four points), VG — part 6/8 (six divisions), DE — part 2/8 (two divisions) and ZHZ — 4/8 parts (four divisions). If you carefully cut off the excess wood, get a paw.
For layout it’s best to make a template. The grooves mark and choose as usual.
During the rough build crowns necessarily labeled. Lower frame will be easier if one or two of the lower crown to make a little wider the accepted dimensions (using thicker beams or plates) and to strengthen their cutting of thick sheet, flat or angled steel. This will ensure the cutting of the irregularities of the soil on the walls of the mine. The frame must fall strictly vertically.
For soil-sand frame build advanced bottom — like bell or tent easier It is into the ground, as sypyware from the walls of loose rocks will not clog up the mine.
Sometimes before boarding log arrange guides to lowering it will not warp. For this purpose the walls of the mine attached using long nails planks or cut poles (called skids), and on the ground laid a frame of logs, press them to the rails of the frame and secured by stakes at the corners.
In the shallow aquifer at a depth of not more than 6 m and not very intense flow of water can dig a mine from the entire depth and, if required, to temporarily strengthen its walls, that the soil has not collapsed. Align the bottom of the shaft, laid on him the beams (two beams or bar), and they lay the floor boards with gaps for the passage of water. Then, starting from the floor, placed the crowns of the framework. In this case, it is permissible to use oak.
Fig. 7. Protection log from a sudden drop
Fig. 7. Protection log from a sudden lowering:
1 — bolster, 2 — wedge. 3 — log.

The bottom of the well can also be formed by a layer of gravel or crushed stone.
Even for deep wells, to dig a mine wholly or at least bring it to a depth of 7-8 m not just. The operation has to be divided into several stages.
If the soil crumbles, the walls temporarily strengthen boards, the bottom carefully align. The mine down the first aisle, he put the second, then the third and so on according to the label, while the frame does not rise for three to five crowns above ground level.
When laying their crowns priazovya hitting the wooden lining, wooden hammer-a cat weighing at least 5 kg. To design is not cranky when moving, the inner side of the frame in the center of each of the parties nailed thick boards (in increments of three crown).
Alternately propping one or two churbachkov lower crowns and urging the wedges under the middle of each wall choose the soil to a depth of 20— 30 cm and Then undermine the ground in the corners. Dredging should be carried out so that in the center of the formed hole — this will press out the sliding walls, the ground, water flows. Now alternately take out the wedges and the bolster — frame is smoothly and evenly lowered. Put the crowns to the depth of the well.
In the process of lowering a frame, the soil lifted from the bottom of the bucket or pail. To facilitate the work on mine put a solid stand with a cross on it hung from the block, arrange the gate or the crane; using them, the assistant lifts the ground. Working down the should For safety be in one of the corners from the opposite load side.
Fig. 8. Clogging grooved boards Baba
Fig. 8. Clogging grooved boards Baba:
And Baba, B — decking.

If the frame is stuck, upset his whiskers several times strongly hit the lining of a thick Board. It happens, however, that this does not help. In this case, take four logs, three to four meters each. Put them on the frame crosswise and firmly fixed with brackets. On logs plank planks, nail, and pile top soil, stones, bricks, bringing the weight up to several tons. After precipitation the load off and continue working.
Not often, but it happens that to increase the frame have at the bottom.
This method is less convenient, more time-consuming and inefficient. Nevertheless, it is sometimes necessary to use.
To bring the crowns from the bottom, undermine the ground on one side and in the space formed insert the prepared log. It pressed tightly to the previously installed lower crown with lining and wedges. From the opposite side, similarly, placed second, and then the other two. In the same sequence, using pads and wedges, sets the whole frame.
Firmly entrenched in the mine design may suddenly down, so a few crowns made from logs longer than the nominal 60-70 cm They establish so. From opposite sides of each log are digging in the soil of the mine is oblong pit, the “mortgages” or “chambers”. Their length should be at least 40 cm Into these holes are inserted the protruding ends, and under them enclose large stones or wooden chocks with one flattened side. Between the gasket and the end of the drive a wedge, bringing the beam to the lower crown. Laying lead alternately from opposite sides. Protruding ends — they call them fingers will play the role of brakes.
In dense soils the “mortgages” put 2-3 m, and in the weak — 3— b crowns.
We must also recall that in the dense ground the frame is lowered smoothly and fairly quickly.
Quicksand is a very fine sand saturated with water. To dig in the wells without reflux (pumping) of water is almost impossible. It is necessary to arrange temporary fencing walls. To do this, take a thick pine boards, not necessarily grooved; the ends on one side sharpen. In the ground they are hammered with trestle wooden mallet — a woman, working two or three times.
Between the walls of the log cabin and the mine must remain a space of 25— 30 cm After the soil available depth, set vertically one Board so that it could slide between the mounting posts. The second Board put to the downtrodden, bind, not to depart, and also score. In such a sequence to form all the walls.
Then again the soil is removed, not forgetting every 1.5— 2 m to put spacers between the walls. Drill down to the aquifer and only after that start a build log. The crowns should be systematically upsetting bar-Shik and the inner side to fasten boards with nails.
As well satisfied wells in loose soils.
Floorboards removed by means of jacks or levers.
Regardless of which primer is selected from the mine, the space between it and the walls of the frame should fill in dry clay, especially the last 1.5 m to the ground level. Clay is placed around the well within 1.5—2 m. This pilot controlled check valve: it is required to protect the reservoir from contact with the supersoil water. On thoroughly compacted clay can be laid in stone-flagstone, brick or pour the surface concrete or asphalt.
The head frame must rise above ground level is 0.9—1 m. It is densely covered outside with boards, through the cracks did not penetrate the dust.
In areas with very cold winters, trim the heads do double indented from frame 10-20, see the resulting “the bench” fall asleep sawdust, shavings or a mixture thereof can be used as slag, moss and other insulation materials. This will prevent the water from freezing. The head of the frame is closed with the lid hinged, or valve moving in the grooves of the bars-directing.
Fig. 9. The upper design of the wells
Fig. 9. The upper design of the wells:
A, B — with collar, V — block. Mr. with a crane.

Over the well satisfied with the canopy (the umbrella). Its design, size, shape are dictated by your capabilities.
Water lift pumps, gates, cranes, and even manually lowering and raising the bucket on the block on a solid rope or chain.
Drilled wells should be cleaned at least once a year to remove from the walls mucus, Tina. From time to time don’t forget to scoop mud or sand, but the seabed to deepen should not be.
Before you go down into the well, you need to check it on the fumes, dropping in the mine to the bottom of lighted paper or candle. If they are out, so it has accumulated carbon dioxide. It was removed repeatedly lowering and taking out an empty bucket, thus gas “wikipipedia” due to the unusual ventilation. You can tie a rope to the bunch of straw, to set fire to it and drop to the water. Only after re-checking on the fumes to descend.
Work better together or even a Threesome. One tied by a strong rope at the waist, and others insure.
Drinking water from wells should be clean and transparent. Not to have a smell and any taste.
Therefore, they should be arrange on the highest place of the estate, away from amenities. These sanitary requirements are strictly mandatory.
Before device well, you need to determine whether there is water underground. After that, prepare all the materials and tools and then get to work.
Should be warned that the water from any vnoel built well must and mandatory to check on the sanitary-epidemiological station. To control the raw water should not be consumed: in the extreme case, it should be well boiled.
If you are using a ladder, it is necessary to clean and wash, and leaving the water tips to increase svezhevystrugannye bars. The one who will deal with the cleanup should wear rubber boots, well washed and scalded with boiling water. To wear them should do very well becoming on a clean bed of straw or fresh-planed boards.
Top to bottom is first put in order the walls of the mine, and then the bottom part, replacing the gravel or crushed stone to a new, previously cleaned and washed.
Repaired, cleaned or a new well is disinfected with chlorinated water, that is, 3% of chlorinated compound. It prepare so: 300 g of bleach pour a small amount of water and pound with a rolling pin. The resulting liquid slurry is poured into a container of water with a volume of 10 liters, mix thoroughly and few hours defend. The upper transparent part of the resulting concentrated solution is poured in the glass, densely closed ware and store in the dark. For 1 m3 of water in the well requires one bucket of 3% of the composition.
Wall sweep off and wipe with a clean cloth (rag) or with a brush. Then choose the fallen debris, all the accumulated water and settled sludge, and then spray gun, sprayer or brush liberally cover the walls with a disinfectant composition. Depending on the amount of fresh incoming water in the well, it added to the composition at the rate of 10 liters per 1 m3 of water. Mix everything clean sixth, cover the top frame of the wooden lid or cover with a thick cloth and leave for 10-12 hours, and preferably for a day. Then coming into the well the water is pumped out until, until there is no chlorine smell and taste. Operation it is useful to repeat a day after the first treatment. This provides a more reliable disinfection.
A. SHEPELEV, engineer-Stroitel

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