Mushrooms began to grow in Russia not less than two hundred years ago. In the early nineteenth century these mushrooms were successfully cultivated, the gardeners of St. Petersburg, a pioneer among which is considered peasant Osinin, a native of Yaroslavl province. Famous dynasties mushroom from Moscow, Novgorod, Tver and other cities, used for the cultivation of their products specialized greenhouses (Fig. A).

A great contribution to the development of domestic mushroom production introduced Efim Andreevich Grachev is the author of the first Russian manual On “cultivation of mushrooms”. He also designed a sophisticated agricultural techniques of growing mushrooms. Moreover, designed the original zamifenacin (emigrado) champignons greenhouse (Fig. B) well-proven for a century and a half and did not lost its relevance for today’s farmers. Grachev was able to organize its own exemplary mushroom production, which gave 4 tons of mushrooms per year, which amounted to one-third of the total production of mushrooms in St. Petersburg. When sent to market the mushrooms were laid out in wicker baskets with six pieces in each of These baskets on the farm Grachev annually produces up to one million.
The art of cultivation of mushrooms in Grachev is to prepare the soil. They need to have sufficient warmth and humidity. In addition to specialized greenhouses can be used as additional space where you can maintain a steady temperature (winter is not below + 8 °C) and provide fresh air. Preference is given to greenhouses, storage cellars. However, it is not recommended to grow mushrooms in the basement of residential houses, high humidity, separation of ammonia with soil, frequent disinfection of the soil causes premature wear of these structures.
Growing mushrooms outdoors is still considered unreliable because it depends entirely on the weather conditions. But if, as they say, other is not given, place to a culture choose a shaded, protected from wind and rain, high and dry. To create more favorable growing conditions experienced mushroom growers dig a ditch depth of 0.5 and 1 meter wide, lay out the bricks or boards; then fill the prepared compost and inoculated with wild (and better — specially purchased) mycelium. They cover on top the ridge with a layer of straw.
Length of 25-30 m. the Useful area of 200-230 m^2
Length 25-30 m. the Useful area of 200-230 m2
Length 8, 4,16, 8, or 25.2 m. the Useful area 100, 200 or 300 m^2
Length 8, 4,16, 8, or 25.2 m. the Useful area 100, 200 or 300 m2

Length of 20 m. the Useful area of 123 m^2
Length 20 m usable area 123 m2


Champignons greenhouses:
A — bunk 4-flanona St. Petersburg; B—Grachevskaya 7-FLA-night sample of 1861; C — combined 4-flanona Moscow farmers;
1 —wooden wall; 2 — the flank or ridge; 3 — compacted clay floor; 4 — wooden Desk Jeraldine; 5 — gable wooden roof (when forcing of early vegetables is replaced with a greenhouse frames); 6 — thermal insulation (a layer of horse manure, throw in winter); 7 — outlet, or dushnik (a wooden box with padded valve)
Fit for the cultivation of mushrooms and conventional greenhouses, was released after early vegetables or seedlings. But the most prudent and far-sighted owners prefer to use a special champignons greenhouses (including construction in Grachev is still out of competition). Harvested typically from late November to March-April. But in the summer many have their own greenhouses for repairs.
Moscow gardeners often have slightly different practices. Their combined 4-plenochnye greenhouse with furnace, electric or gas heating (Fig. C) they use for mushroom cultivation from September to February. And after the completion of the turnover to apply the released greenhouse area for forcing early vegetables, replacing the roof of the greenhouse frames.
Since all of these greenhouses were originally created for the Russian North, the fundamental differences between them, probably not. For construction used the cheapest wood, as wooden structures almost every summer we have significantly refurbish, or even to change. Greenhouses are usually submerged at 0.5—0.7 m, which makes it easier to provide uniform indoor temperatures and humidity.
At the gable, as a rule, the roof is laid with fresh horse manure layer up to 0.3 m, and in winter the greenhouse is still bombarded by snow. This insulation is usually enough for the so-called average temperatures, in the case of strong frosts it is envisaged the heating. For ventilation of greenhouses arranged vents (Duszniki) latch, padded, one set of six linear feet of roof.
As a substrate for growing mushrooms, the Russian mushroom growers of old preferred to use only horse manure from a healthy and large horses who have received ate lots of oats and kept on the hard bed of straw. Experienced mushroom growers took into account even the way of content iatneh: organized things so that the old litter from under the horse didn’t get out as long as possible, but on top of it were regularly applied fresh layers of straw. As a result of constant trampling the straw formed a homogeneous mass, well impregnated with the slurry is an ideal environment for microorganisms to “prepare” the substrate in the laying of the plantation.
As in ancient times, many gardeners (especially in remote rural areas, as well as staunch fighters for the environmentally friendly use of natural resources) are used for planting wild-growing mushroom mycelium, which is collected outside the city to the landfill approximately mid-June to 1 September. The mycelium is then dried and stored in a suitable place. However, the progress is inevitable. And now more and more experts prefer natural, cultured mycelium, which comes on the Russian market is often from abroad.
K. ALEXEEVA, candidate of biological Sciences


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