When it comes to the construction of a country house, almost always assume that all “amenities” will be equipped in the yard. Among them, and shower (bathroom), toilet, and bath, and a sink… which means that in any, even the nasty weather will have cursing, to get to such “amenities”. And only in very rare cases when building a house lay in his project is quite “urban” of the common areas. An obstacle to a civilized arrangement of the common areas is the absence of a centralized Sewerage system. However, almost any plot is possible to arrange the disposal of domestic wastewater, including sewage, with subsequent full or partial use or removal off-site. Well, the manor house sewer system can be equipped with the most modern sanitary equipment.
In a country house sanitary system can be much better than in the standard city apartment. In addition to toilet, bathroom with washbasin and kitchen sink, you can equip another toilet with sink, bathroom-Laundry, the bathroom with bidet, wash-hand room near the garage or workshop, as well as a bath or sauna.
Let’s start with the most important — removal and disposal of domestic wastewater. For this purpose, structures are mainly of two types: raking with periodic removal of accumulated waste and local sewage treatment plants, the passage through which waste water is neutralized through sludge and biological treatment.
Depending on specific conditions, there are various options of creating a local sewer with a combination of raking and treatment facilities. The raking is useful if there is a sewage truck or with a limited amount of wastewater when possible their recycling within the infield.
A cesspool is an underground receptacle (typically concrete) with sealed walls and a bottom. In heaving soils, the raked design given the forces of frost heaving: the depth of their laying — not above the level of soil freezing, the exterior walls are built with a slope inside, the rebar of the walls and bottom should have a hard link. If the groundwater level is above the bottom of the tank, you must isolate the latter by means of roofing material, paste over the wall structure. To the contents of the cesspit were not frozen, above the ceiling is desirable to lay the insulation: slag, expanded clay or foam with moisture-resistant clay and rolled waterproofing.
The most convenient form of cesspit — cylindrical. Such capacity resists lateral pressure in the ground, and its construction is relatively inexpensive — concrete requires less than taking other forms. When the diameter of the tank 2…2.5 m wall thickness is 80… 120 mm, with the larger diameter up to 150 mm. the Volume of the underground tank shall not be less than 10 m3, and it’s not so much. If your house will be set only kitchen sink and a flush-Noah bowl, this volume will be filled only for a month.
The easiest way, of course, to build the capacity of the ready-made or self-cast concrete rings. If there is a need for improved pits of large capacity, it is not necessary to build a concrete tank of large diameter, it is easier to make a few conventional tanks, connected by water-air by-pass pipes. Each compartment shall be equipped with inspection door. Ventilation improved pits it is desirable to provide through in-house ventilation unit.
Of course, building a cesspool, you put the reliability of sanitary-technical equipment in dependence on cleaning services. Significantly more autonomy has Sewerage with local treatment facilities.
Variations of the local Sewerage
Options local sewage:
A simplified improvement with backlash-closet, cesspit and drain from sinks to treatment facilities, B — the full accomplishment of effluents from the toilet removed and the sink and bath wastewater treatment plant, In a partial improvement to drain from the toilet and sink in a cesspool, G — full landscaping to drain from the toilet, sink and bath wastewater treatment plant, D — complete landscaping with drain from toilets, sinks and baths in a cesspool, E — incomplete improvement to drain from the toilet and sink sewage treatment plant.
The numbers mark:
1 — cleaned play-closet, 2 — septic tank, 3 — release to treatment facilities 4 — vent riser, 5 — a cesspool of sewage, 6 — backlash-closet, 7 — Vater-KLO-Zet, 8 — kitchen with sink, 9 — bathroom with bath and washbasin.

Two-chamber concrete septic tank
Two-chamber concrete septic tank:
I — bottom (reinforced concrete), 2 wall (reinforced concrete ring), 3 waterproofing (compacted clay), 4 — inlet channel (pipe diameter І00), 5 – ring (concrete), 6 — manhole cover (concrete), 7 — slab with a hole for the hatch (concrete) K — vadopalas (0 brute 150), 9 incorporation of through-holes a resin strand with subsequent bilateral chasing seams to cement-sand mortar, 10 – vodohospodarske (pipe 0 100), 11 – insulation, 12 – wooden manhole cover, 13 — electroflame, 14—tee 15, and the vent riser (pipe diameter 5…or equal to 8), 16 pavement (concrete or asphalt), 17 – backfill (gravel), 18 – outlet channel (pipe 0 100).

Filtering (absorbing) wells
Filtering (absorbing) wells:
A — from asbestos cement or concrete pipes the diameter is 300-600, B — prefabricated or cast reinforced concrete rings diameter 600…1000, In — with hatch.
The numbers mark:
1 — filter material (broken bricks, crushed stone, slag, or coarse sand), 2 — manhole cover (concrete), 3 — the vent riser, 4 — wall (asbestos cement or concrete pipe), 5 — lead, 6 — deck, 7 — gravel backfill, 8 — insulation (clay), 9 — insulation, 10 — ring (concrete), 11 — hole for the passage of filtrate, a 12 — bottom (reinforced concrete) and 13 — ceiling (concrete) 14 — hatch (drevesina), 15 — support ring (concrete).

The field of underground filtration
The fields of underground filtration:
1 — mainland (intact) soil, 2 — inlet channel (septic tank), 3 distribution well 4 — filtration material, 5 — irrigation pipe, 6 — the docking station (shaped product), 7 — backfill, 8 — the vent riser, 9 — connecting trim ring. 10 — roll insulation, 11 — hole for exit of the filtrate.

Sand-gravel filter with pump
Sand-gravel filter with pump:
1 — inlet channel (septic tank), 2 — coarse and medium-grained sand, 3 — coarse-pored filter material (crushed stone, gravel, slag or expanded clay), 4 — vent riser, 5 — drain pipe, 6 — irrigation pipe, 7 — the receiving pit pumping waste water, 8 — electric pump, 9 — water filter 10 — distribution the well 11 — a sewer pipe, 12 — hole for withdrawal of the filtrate.

1 — tank (concrete), 2 — roll waterproofing (high groundwater level), 3 — waterproofing of compacted fat clay, 4 — ventilation duct for Kuhn, 5 — the smoke channel, 6 — backlash-channel, 7 — toilet seat cover, 8 — sewer pipe, 9 — the Foundation of the smoke ventilation unit 10 to the outer wall, 11 — deck, 12 — insulation (slag, expanded clay, expanded polystyrene), 13 — raked backlash-closet, the 14 — wooden hatch cover. 15 — cast iron or concrete manhole cover, 16 — metal brackets, 17 — washbasin in gateway 18 — stove on solid fuel.

Pollution of domestic waste waters is mainly determined by the presence in them of organic substances in the cleaning process needs to be mineralized. This is done usually in two stages: first, wastewater is collected in a special settling tanks (septic tanks), where they are stratified and clarified, and then further processed in the biological treatment facilities.
A septic tank is a sealed container, through which low speed (for four nights) are domestic wastewater. Suspended matter precipitates, and the clarified water is sent to the subsequent biological treatment. The organic part of the sludge for six to twelve months under the influence of anaerobic microorganisms is destroyed and converted into gaseous and soluble mineral substances. To improve the process of cleaning a septic tank is divided into several separate chambers, connected by pipes. The size of the septic tank must be such that the internal volume in 3…5 times higher than the average daily volume of wastewater. For example, if you flow 200 l/day. the volume of the septic tank shall be not less than 0.6 m3.
The septic tank is arranged approximately the same as the cesspool: this is a sealed tank with inspection hatch, protected from freezing and from rainfall and flood waters. Through the hatch periodically clean the surface of the waste water from the peel from the pop-up silt particles, and one or two times a year clean the bottom from the sludge. By the way, remove all of the sludge is not recommended, about 20% of the mass should be left on the bottom for bacteria, contributing to the decay of organic substances.
After passing through the septic tank, the clarified wastewater enters the filter biological purification. This method is based on the use of microorganisms that are in the filter material. They rapidly oxidize organic matter and turn them into harmless decomposition products. Since the activity of aerobic bacteria associated with the consumption of oxygen, biological purification should provide the greatest area of contact of the sewage with air. To remove the products of decomposition, harmful to the life of bacteria (e.g., carbon dioxide), provide adequate ventilation.
the filtering device is selected depending on the characteristics of the soil affecting the efficiency of wastewater treatment, drainage volume and size of the infield. The most simple and cheap treatment plant — filter well. It works due to the natural ability of porous soils can transmit water and take her outside saturable site. The bandwidth of such a device depends on the absorbing properties of the soil located at a depth of 1…3 m, and the area in contact with the wastewater. Well the degree of biological treatment on quantity and quality lay in the well is excavated soil filter material, the surface of which is formed inhabited by microorganisms in the sludge. Using organic residues as a nutrient, microorganisms mineralize and purify fall in the well effluent.
The required filter surface area is easy to calculate, if you know what the absorption 1 m2 of sandy soils is 60…100 l/day. (sandy loam—30…50 l). For example, when waste water volume 600 l/day. the working surface of sandy soils located around the perimeter of the filter material should be 6…10 m2. For sandy soils, this value increases to 12 to 20 m2. The filter material can be granite or brick rubble, pebbles, slag, coke, peat, or even sand. In the well these materials are arranged so that the larger components were in the center and small at the periphery.
Structural diagram of the filtering well is chosen depending on its capacity and materials used. In any case, over the Central part of the filter material leaving an air cavity, equipped with a lid. The air in the cavity is carried out through the vent riser. The pit walls include holes for the passage of filtrate from the Central part to the periphery. The height of the filter material — 1 …2 m, the distance from the bottom of the well to the groundwater level must be at least 1 m.
If for any reasons it is impossible to build the filter wells at the site equipped with underground filtration field. The basis of their irrigation system is buried in earthen trenches perforated pipe, which is pre-treated in septic tank wastewater. Uptake of sewage is going on with the surface layer of soil to a depth of 1 m. the Estimated area of the soil through which it filters, should be 2 times more than that of the filter wells. Thus, when the flow 600 l/day. the General working area of the trenches in sandy soils is 12…20 m2, sandy loam — 25…of 40 m2. When the thickness of the filtering layer of 250 mm and the width of the bottom 500 mm work surface is 1 linear meter of the trench is 1 m2, respectively the total length of trenches is as follows: for sandy soils and 12…20 m, for sandy loam — 25…40 m
Underground filtration field have, as a rule, no closer than 15 m from the house. The waste water passed through the septic tank, sent to a distribution well, and from there through irrigation pipes directly to the field. For irrigation system used asbestos-cement or ceramic pipe with a diameter of about 100 mm, which is placed in the trench in the layer of filter material with a thickness of 200…300 mm with a gradient of 0.003 to 0.005 in…in the direction of flow. For the passage of sewage at the bottom of asbestos-cement pipes make cuts on half of their diameter width of 15 to 20 mm in increments of 150…200 mm, and in ceramic drilled holes. With the same purpose the pipe is laid with a gap width of 20…30 mm, which cover the top strip of roofing material. To exclude the ingress of rain and flood waters in the trench, after backfilling it is covered with a roofing material, and over it put a layer of soil. For air flow in the filter layer at the ends of distribution pipes installed vent risers with a diameter of about 100 mm and a height above ground of 0.5 m to 1 m.
On loamy and clayey soils with small (almost zero) water absorption using sand and gravel filters. Wastewater is passed through these treatment facilities, is withdrawn outside of the estate land is in a drainage ditch, a ditch or ravine. Sand-gravel filter is a trench or a pit filled with filter material, in the thickness of which is on the horizon, separated from each other by 1 m to 1.5 m in height, placed the irrigation and drainage network of asbestos or ceramic pipes with a diameter of about 100 mm. At the level of the pipes are laid two layers of coarse-pored filter material such as gravel, crushed stone or slag, and the space between them is filled with coarse sand. The distance between the parallel rows of irrigation pipes should be 0.5…1 m, the height of the sand filter — not less than 0.5 m, and the area of the pit to be in direct proportion to the volume of wastewater. The calculations should bear in mind that through 1 m2 of a horizontal surface sand filter is 60… 100 l waste water per day. If the daily sewage volume is 600 liters, you will need a pit area 6… 10 m2.
Due to the fact that the outlet pipe in a sand and gravel filter is located at a depth of 1.5 to 2 m, the withdrawal of treated wastewater outside of the infield by gravity is impossible. In this case we have to send the water that has passed through sand and gravel filter within the surface drain through the pumping station with electric pump, equipped with, typically, a small intermediate tank with float level sensor that allows the pump to run in automatic mode. Interestingly, in summer, the treated wastewater can be used for watering the garden.

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