Directional static stability should manifest itself in the desire LA to get out of the slide when removing the rudder deflection.
Transverse static stability should manifest itself in the desire LA to raise the lowered wing with the side slide.
LA should have a straight reaction roll on the deviation of the rudder. At large angles should not be reverse effort on the rudder pedals.
The efforts on the handle and the foot controls on all flight modes should be within;
pitch – from 2.5 kg (long) to 25 kgs (short-term),
roll – 1.5 kgs (long) to 15 kgf (short-term),
at the rate of 3 kgs (long) to 50 kgf (short-term).
To fly in a circle with rolls not more than 35° is allowed for vehicles having a maximum operational overload of 3 and a minimum of 1.5 with a factor of safety of 1.5. To more complex flights of permitted vehicles, having a maximum operational overload of at least 6. For the main power components, including butt nodes, the root portions of the spars, motors, control units, nodes sample rudders, castings, rope, rods and braces recommended safety factor of 3. The estimated load and the load determined by multiplying the operational overloads and stress on the factor of safety.
The harness system of the pilot, as well as securing that in isolation can cause damage to the pilot should be designed for the operational handling 9, acting along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, and lateral overload of ±2.5.
3.3. The attachment points of the aerodynamic control surfaces shall be designed for overload of at least 20.
If the design of LA does not ensure the safety of the pilot at full or partial nosing, LA must be equipped with arc safety excluding injury of the pilot. The estimated overload with full nosing taken equal to 3.
The layout of the power plant should avoid getting into the plane of rotation of the propellers of the jobs of pilots, fuel tanks and pipelines. The placement of engines, fuel tanks and cargo over the head of the pilot is not allowed.
Jobs crew members must be equipped with lap and shoulder seat belts with a simple legkookisljajushchiesja locks, providing a clear and secure hold. Recommended locks such as used on sports planes the Yak-55 and su-26. Harness straps should be adjustable to suit the height of the pilot and to gain a foothold directly on the power elements of the design. It is also possible use of transient nodes for the transmission of loads from a tethered system for power elements.
On LA with two (or more) engines, their placement should be such that in the event of a failure of any pilot would be able to fend off the turning and heeling moments of the organs of aerodynamic control. The transverse location of two engines on an aircraft with balance control is not recommended.
The gap between the end of the propeller blade and the ground shall not be less than 150 mm in any compression of the depreciation of the chassis. The clearances between the propeller and the design elements of LA should not be less than 25 mm.
All materials used in construction must be certified and physico-mechanical properties to meet the stated level of mechanical stress. No material, grade of which is unknown.
The wood used in the security elements of the design must be straight grained, without knots, delamination, rotting, fungal, mold.
All the units and compartments, which may accumulate moisture must have drainage holes at the bottom.
Structural elements of wood shall have coating that protects against decay. Metal construction elements should have a corrosion resistant coating.
There must be no dents, cracks, scratches and other mechanical damage in elements of the design. Design LA must ensure the possibility of visual inspection of the main power elements.
The use of bent tubes in the power element and the control systems are allowed only in those cases where it is justified and provided the appropriate level of stresses. Pipe bends and thrust, working in the process of operation of tensile-compression, unacceptable.
All used plug-in connections must have a locking. In the movable elements of construction (rocking and traction control, the hinge control surfaces, etc.), as well as in the elements, exposed to high levels of vibration (e.g., power plant), should be used only mechanical methods of locking: locking wire, split pins, etc. the Use of self-locking nuts and spring washers in this case is unacceptable. The locking wire must be made so that when loosening the nut the wire is stretched, not weakened.
Do not use bent bolts and studs as well as bolts and pins, have risks, scratches, traces of wear, damaged threads. In bolted connections, shear, transferring the load on the thread is invalid.
When connecting the piping, bolts, clips or rivets are necessary to protect the pipe from flattening by the use of spacer bushings or bougies. The internal surface of the pipe must be protected against corrosion.
In design and control systems LA only use the standard multi-strand steel cables industrial manufacturing. The cables should not have knots and broken strands and needs to be protected from corrosion.
The sealing rope in the tip by a light compression of the tip across the surface. Compression of the tip or tube being flattened on two sides is not allowed. Possible termination of the cable in the copper tube flattened on two sides with the obligatory subsequent twisting of the crimped tube.
In any method of sealing the cable should be provided for control of the extrusion of the cable of the handpiece, for example, the color of the wire at the tip colored lacquer.
The wire braces and rods shall be used to seal tips in turony wire VS the same diameter as the brace. The number of turns of Turon – at least 8. After stranding Turon must be tinned with stinging, and the short free end of the wire to bend in the Turonian.
Aircraft engines while working on the place after warming up have five minutes to develop takeoff power and provide stable operation in the range of ambient temperatures ±30°C without overheating and stable operation at idle without hypothermia within 15 minutes.
Nodes suspension of the engine should effectively absorb vibration. Not less than 4 knots the engine mounts that are positioned to keep the performance of the structure during the destruction of one of the nodes.
Aerial screw self-built should have a one-piece wooden construction. The use of other screws is permitted only after the preliminary bench testing of prototypes.
Starting the engine should be a triggering device or fixture. Run a hand over the blade of the screw is not allowed. Stopping must be done by disabling the ignition system a switch with fixed positions.
High voltage wiring the ignition system must be shielded to not create radio interference. The use of battery ignition system is not recommended if this system is still used, the battery capacity is calculated to not less than 8 hours of continuous operation of the engine.
In the case of dvuhkrugovogo ignition each candle should have its own source of energy. It is desirable to have the delay of the appearance of sparks on a single candle on a 4 – 6° of angle of rotation of the crankshaft relative to the spark on the other plug. Caps candles should have the clips.
The power plant should have the lowest possible engine noise; preferred installation of the muffler.
Propellers must not have delamination, cracks, cuts, damage to the ferrules. Not allowed touch of Coca on the blades, cook should not have cracks or scratches.
The power plant needs to be separated from the glider fire with a partition of non-combustible materials.
Accumulation of drips fuel or oil in the engine area and in other compartments of the structure is not allowed.
7. FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel tank must be located so that in case of damage the fuel do not fall on hot engine parts. The fuel tank capacity must be designed for at least 30 minutes of engine operation at maximum capacity.
Fuel system must have:
the fuel gauge or device to control it on the ground and in flight,
tap emergency fuel cut-off (fire hydrant),
drain valve fuel
the filter of thin clearing of fuel
the drainage system that eliminates the creation of vacuum in the tank as fuel.
Drain valve fuel should be at the lowest point of the fuel system when the Parking position LA on earth. Fuel spillage on the structure of the LA when the sink is not allowed.
Arm of a fire hydrant must be located in a zone of absolute availability. Fire hydrant must be separated from the engine fire wall.
The fuel to be drawn should provide reliable engine operation under all valid for this LA evolution. In the case of pumping the fuel supply must be eliminated to overflow the float chamber of the carburetor with consequent fuel leakage. The use of float carburetors is not recommended.
The fuel tank must be explosion-proof design, all fuel system piping must be made of metal or petrol-resistant flexible hoses. Fuel leaks in all areas of the fuel system is unacceptable. Pipelines must be protected from vibrations.
All controls shall have stops, or reject (stops).
Not allowed mutual touching cables or rods of the control and touch elements of a design AIRCRAFT, the minimum clearance is 5 mm. Should be excluded jamming of the control wiring with the deformation of structural elements within the operational loads. The loss of stability of the control rods within the design loads are not allowed.
In the calculation of management systems for operational needs to be taken the following loads applied to the control stick and pedals:
pitch – 65 kgf,
roll – 32,5 kgs,
at the rate (per pedal) – 90 kgf.
When using wires in the harness control the change of direction of the cable must be carried out by means of rollers. The roller diameter should be 20 times the diameter of the cable. The video needs to be safety items, excluding the jump off the rope! Roller should be free of potholes and cracks, they should rotate freely.
Elements of the control wiring in the cockpit must be protected against ingress of foreign objects.
For aircraft Amateur-built whatever type and size (except for gliders and motor-gliders of the classical scheme) recommended scheme three-wheeled chassis with nose wheel. The use of wheels with a diameter of less than 300 mm for the main and nose landing gear is not recommended.
The chassis of the aircraft Amateur-built should be designed for landing with vertical speed of not less than 2.5 m/s.
10. POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM
10.1 power supply System for its capacity should match the capacity of all its consumers.
Wire size on-Board network should be selected on the basis of a current density of not more than 3 A/mm2. Electroplaits must be mounted to avoid contact with petrol, oil and water. The wires should have a benzo-, oil – and moisture-resistant insulation.
Wiring shall be two wire. Use as masses of metal elements of construction for Amateur-built aircraft is not recommended. Mount wire harnesses or individual wires should eliminate the possibility of chafing of the insulation. In the case of passage through the walls and frames should be inserted into the grommets.
When you connect external power sources necessary to provide measures to avoid violation of the polarity of the connected power sources.
With the installation of on Board batteries shall be provided measures to avoid spilling the electrolyte and the contact elements of the design.
In the electrical system should be a fuse protecting the network from overloads and short circuits.
11. DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT
All Amateur-built aircraft with engines must have the following minimum equipment:
gauge cylinder head temperature or the temperature of the liquid for engines with liquid cooling.
In the case of engines with separate lubrication must also be fitted with a pressure indicator oil temperature indicator oil.
Gliders with limited time and altitude instruments are not allowed to install.
All instrument indicators, must be marked the limit of the flight modes in the form of strips or labels, red color. The speed indicator needs to be allocated the stall speed and the maximum speed of driving, the tachometer is the maximum allowable engine speed, the thermometers – the maximum allowable temperature, etc.
For Amateur-built aircraft, it is recommended to install a VHF radio.
All LA must be provided for the use of rescue parachutes of the pilot. Flying without a parachute is permitted at heights of 300 m.
The cabin design and layout should ensure easy and rapid evacuation of the cockpit crew in emergency situations on the ground and in the air. When designing should be considered the safe evacuation of the aircraft in the air excluding contact with the pilot after the separation with the structural elements of the cockpit, wing, tail, struts, propeller.
The canopy, if any (or side door) shall be equipped with quick-acting lock, providing emergency relief in the air. The locks should open a single handle is red in color, located under the left hand of the pilot. The trajectory of the sash of the lantern after reset in the air should not hurt the pilot.
Part of the ground equipment should include fire extinguishers and medical kit. Recommend to read MODELIST-KONSTRUKTOR 1988-11 CONTENTS: Addresses NTTM: V. Inversions. School seekers (1). ENEA - young innovator: Komsomol units of study (4). Public KB "M-K": P. Zach. Building a car (6); Snowmobiles:... HOLD STILL, DETAIL! Billet parts designed for machining, not be displaced, to rotate, to vibrate or deform under the action of the cutter. In the process of manual handling (this applies primarily to the...