FAMILY, UNIVERSAL

FAMILY, UNIVERSALFor many years now, I constantly write and read the magazine “modelist-Konstruktor”. I was particularly interested in the materials, which describes autocostruzione. But until recently even and could not imagine that I will have a homemade machine. However, with the technique I have been friends since childhood, but the experience of autocostruzione had to acquire in the process of working on the car. All was solved when I got the magazine No. 9 for 1984 with the description of avtomol Stanislaus Chopanova from Yerevan: I understand — that’s what I need. Taking it as a basis, began designing and manufacturing its “jeep”, making changes and additions in accordance with commercially available components and materials. In parallel, the produced arc welder, compressor, original shearing machine of his own design that can cut metal of unlimited length and totally deforming it.
And now, after three years of searching, mistakes and discoveries appeared small, but at the same time roomy “hard worker”, does not shy away from any roads and even their absence, despite the fact that he has only the single drive axle — rear. Such permeability appeared due to some design features.
 
The overall layout of the car is made in such a way that the engine is offset to the axis of the front axle into the base 420 mm, and the rear axle has 60% of the load on the car (kerb weight 1330 kg, maximum load of 5 people and 50 kg or 2 people and 300 kg of cargo).
 
Fairly high ground clearance — 280 mm — is achieved through the use of the rear axle of the car LUAZ-969.
 
The driveshaft used from UAZ-469, located parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body and secure the carrier frame, which allows to overcome obstacles without fear of damaging it.
The body consists of a frame and cladding. The frame is a spatial structure designed for substantial torque and bending loads. It is welded from steel profiles with square and rectangular cross-section. Before its construction, I made a simple “bench”, consisting of two longitudinal parts 80X4500 mm and two transverse channels 100X1700 mm. First established in the floor channels at the edge, at a distance of 2 m from each other. They put the corners strictly parallel, at a distance of 1.5 m, shelves inside. Controlling the design level for the lack of deviations in the horizontal plane, secured all of the elements by welding. Turned pedestal to build the basics of the car.
 
The developed technology has allowed alone to make the frame. It is phased locked to the pedestal of individual elements of the clamps and the subsequent welding of the joints. If necessary installation parts with the length less than 1500 mm were used third, the temporary element of the “slipway” is another longitudinal area. Using a clamp it is fixed on the crossbars in the right place and played the role of auxiliary supports.
 
Vertical and spatial position of elements of the control performed by goniometer and level. In the most critical locations of the joints is necessarily increased overlapping plates and the gusset.
 
Outside the frame is sheathed by dural sheets 2 mm in thickness. the same material is used on the skin of the hood, floor and doors. The Assembly runs as follows. Cut out from a sheet blank with the seam allowance on the edges (if necessary giving it a curved shape), bent it in a simple, pre-made fixture of the three channels. Thus it is necessary to take into account the fragility of the material. The smaller the bend radius, the greater the likelihood of fracture. Therefore, to avoid defects, the place of deformation warmed up with a gas burner. However, to get involved here it is impossible: heat can warp the whole piece — you need a certain skill and training.
 
Giving the item covering the required configuration, start fastening it to the frame. This process is also performed in stages. First grab the sheet clamps. Making sure it is in place, mark the holes and cut the threads for the mounting screws. The last operation can, of course, to perform the usual operations in two passes, but the work is thankless, because the mounting points very much. I tapped the “wrench” tap, with one pass, using light mechanical drill, put on a lower gear. Long and thin shank of the tap allows for a small bending and deflection from the axis of rotation. This, and the use of drills allows you to get to virtually any place inside the structure that are inaccessible to ordinary tap.
 
Technology securing the panel screws, perform the adjustment in place and dock with the neighboring elements of the body. Once satisfied, begin the final installation. On all holes on the front side are chamfered at the hidden screws. Is it tucked under 90° with a drill Ø 8,5 mm, mounted with a depth gauge (not to drill too much). The holes sanded. The intersection of the plating with the frame will be painted with anticorrosive. All the screws are set on epoxy adhesive.
 
Front engine compartment closed by metal grille — was a used part from the scrap metal found in the bonnet of the van “Nysa”. So the engine did not get water and debris behind bars, a double mesh of stainless steel with a cell of 1 mm.
 
The layout of the car.
The layout of the car:
1 — the engine MeMZ-968 M, 2 — battery, 3 — steering, 4 — “main gear”, 5 — gearbox, 6 — tank, 7 — spare wheel.
 
Body frame (welded from steel tubes of rectangular and square).
Frame body (welded from steel tubes of rectangular and square):
1 — front beam (25X50 mm, 2 PCs.), 2 — beams of the engine compartment (25X40 mm, 3 PCs.), 3 — front spar (50X50 mm, 2 PCs.), 4 — longitudinal beam of a motor compartment (40X40 mm, 2 pieces), 5 — beam of the rear wall of the engine compartment (25Х50 mm, 1 PCs 30X60 mm, 3 PCs.), 6 — threshold (30X60 mm, 2 pieces) 7 — brace (30X60 mm, 2 PCs.), 8, 9 — door rack (25Х40 mm, 4-piece), 10 — front cross member (50X50 mm), 11 — rear spar (50X50 mm, 2 PCs.), 12 — reinforcing T-shaped screed (25Х40мм), 13 — rear cross member (50X60 mm), 14 — arch rear wheels (25X25 mm, 2 pieces), 15 — rear rack (25X40 mm, 2 PCs.), 16 — upper crossbeam (25X40 mm, 3 PCs.), 17 — upper longitudinal beam (25X40 mm 2 pieces) 18 — longitudinal beam of the ceiling (10X25 mm, 2 pieces), 19 — brace (20X25 mm, 2 pieces), 20 — longitudinal beam (20X25 mm, 2 PCs.), 21 — beam suspension rear door (20X25 mm), 22 — front (25X40 mm, 2 PCs.), 23 — beam side (25X40 mm, 2 PCs.), 24 — bracket spring (2 PCs), 25 & springs (2 PCs.) 26 — pillow rear axle (40Х120 mm, 2 pieces) 27 — rear axle (from LUAZ-969). A — installation of the rear axle.
 
Front axle.
Front axle:
1 — knuckles 2 — knuckle pin, 3 — pad, 4 — bracket of the shock absorber, 5 — stand, 6 — adresserna platform, 7 — beam bridge.
 
The node joining the transmission to the driveshaft.
A node joining the transmission to the propeller shaft:
1 — fork 2 — cover bearing housing, 3 bearing No. 209, 4 — bearing casing 5 — gear, 6 — bellow, 7 — oil seal assy, 8 — shaft 9 — bearing, 10 — lifting body.
Design of a wiper.
The design of the wiper:
1 — brush-“the janitor”, 2 — wiper (modified), 3 — pull, 4 — mounting bracket.
 
Construction of the side door.
The design of the side door:
1 — console, 2 — canvas belt doorstop, 3 — knob 4 — knob lock, 5 — trim, 6 — rubber seal 7 — glass 8, 10 — trim, 9 — frame doors.
 
Mechanism push button of the opener.
Mechanism push button of the opener:
1 — door, 2 — shell buttons, 3 — button, 4 — cone-spring, 5 — pin, limiting the buttons and acting on the microswitch, 6 — pusher 7 — the language of the lock 8 — lock housing.

 
Flanging the roof for water drainage made of galvanized iron with a thickness of 1 mm. Irregularities in the dock handled a soldering iron with a power of 100 watts. On the back, protruding part of the roof bottom riveted aluminum band — with it the roof looks more finished. The strip taken from the coil tucked in the dustbin of faulty welding transformer. It has a section 6X15 mm, easy to bend and takes the desired shape. The same detail is fixed and on the hood.
 
Flanging wheel housings made of separate elements made of steel 1 mm thick, attached to the body with M6 bolts from the inside. The front wheelhouse is made of steel with a thickness of 1 mm, and rear — made of aluminum with a thickness of 2 mm.
 
The driver's seat.
The driver’s seat.
 
The vehicle has the engine MeMZ-968 M.
The vehicle has the engine MeMZ-968 M.
 
The cargo version of the spare wheel is mounted to the starboard side of the cabin.
In cargo configuration the spare wheel is mounted to the starboard side of the cabin.
 
Frame side door welded: the lower part of the thin-walled channel section 30X35 mm and upper made of rectangular tubes 10X25 mm. From the front side frame sheathed by dural sheet with a thickness of 2 mm. the inner side of the door are covered with leather.
 
To unlock the doors from the inside, use the handle from the GAZ-24 and a locking mechanism locks. Outside the side doors have no handles to open, you must push the equivalent button. The lock tongue will be eliminated from the retainer; then the limit switch button, press on “end” and turn on the electromagnet, which, pressing its pusher on a console mounted on the door, opens it. The solenoid taken from the starter.
 
The frame of the rear door is welded from steel pipe section 25X40 mm. it is Lined with dural sheets with a thickness of 2 mm. In the open position the door is fixed with a telescopic stand, acting on the principle handle of a folding umbrella. Loops and side doors, homemade.
 
Interior floor is lined with linoleum. The walls and ceiling are covered with a layer of foam thickness of 10 mm and a leatherette. Used PVA glue. “Primed” glue a piece of leather was applied to the foam and proglatavetsa on top of the iron (the thermostat was set to “nylon”).
 
Glazing machine is made of laminated glass. Glass side doors installed in aluminum skids from Lviv buses.
 
Instrument panel and glove box — homemade, made of aluminum, covered with leatherette. Control devices from ZAZ-968. To the right of the driver are: keyboard lighting controls and the main fan; emergency button alarm, switch the “masses”; below — control knobs auxiliary fan installed on the panel, carburetor, engine cooling. On the left are: ignition switch, the receiver Bylina control keys which is protected by a decorative handle. The steering column is fixed: the keyboard controls the far and near light, “turn signals”, wiper and windshield washer pump.
 
Front seats from “Zaporozhets”, a forward flip. Rear — fully of his own design; consists of four parts hinged together. This allows half of the seat or to spread out for leisure or twice folded, leaning against the back of the front, thereby forming a space for the carriage of cargo size 1000Х1000Х1400 mm. the seat is Made of four steel plates with a thickness of 1,5 mm, flanged for rigidity around the perimeter. On top of the seat is covered with foam rubber and is covered with leatherette cover.
 
The spare wheel is mounted to the rear seatback or in the cargo to the right side of the cabin.
 
The wiper taken from the ZAZ-968. Modified only leashes “janitors” with the height of the glass. Left the leash works on the principle of a parallelogram. The result is a combined cleaner with maximum cleaning area.
 
The wiring on the car is made in the form of a single harness. It was made in the following sequence. Having laid to users of the wire (in a free state; the tension is unacceptable) and pipav terminals, test the functionality of the system. Then, closing the space rations a plastic tube, wire wrapped with strips of varnished cloth with a width of 40…45 mm, bought in radio shack. Wrap should overlap the previous turn. The last round is fixed with tape.
 
Engine with gear box is applied the most undemanding and easy to maintain — from “Zaporozhets” ZAZ-968, with a capacity of 40 l/s, allowing to reach the speed of 110 km/h.
Due to the forward position to improve air cooling, and even in the heat, at full load the engine is not heated above 80°C. In the winter, he froze, the possibility of the cabin to ease the flow of cold air from the fan. This is useful in any time of the year, as when starting a cold engine, cool it no need. Provides a fence of warm air to the carb from the exhaust manifold.
 
Transmission subjected to some changes, the driveshaft “final drive” and she improvised in a separate housing located near the rear axle. Instead of standard shaft made longer. It passes through the machined rear cover of the gearbox with the seal and connected with the spline coupling, for the manufacture of which used a portion of the drive shaft from Oise. Locked in the bearing, standing in a special housing. In this case is the original gear shift mechanism with a withdrawing from him of the control lever in the cabin. Proved unnecessary side holes under the axle slitted lids using rubber gaskets. Torque from the transmission to the differential is transmitted via the cardan shaft and from it to the wheels through axle shafts. The front axle is completely homemade. As this is a very important unit, then the basic principle is the less it will be parts and movable joints, the better. The bearing element seamless pipe Ø 65 mm with a wall thickness of 8 mm and a length of 1150 mm. welded patesserie To her pillow, the fingers of the shock mount and through the gusset plate — front knuckle from the “Volga” GAZ-24. The upper part of the strut is unnecessary circumcision. Seats for the bearings in the knuckle machined in the centers on a lathe (to be installed on this location of the hub from the “Moskvich-412”). When assembling the front axle, I was faced with the need to consider the camber, transverse and longitudinal tilt of the king pins, so before you start it, it produced the first stand (based on the channel). Putting with the help of protractor and securing all items, embarked on a consistent weld, given the possibility of warpage.
 
Brake drums and the whole mechanism is used from the “Moskvich-412”. Rims and wheels — LUAZ-969. Steering traction applied to the joints from the “Moskvich”. To the frame body front axle is connected by springs UAZ-469 (four sheet) with the bolts and clamps and telescopic shock absorbers, the rods which rest in special brackets on the front spars.
 
The result was the following characteristics bridge: camber 0°30′, the longitudinal tilt of the king pin 5°, the radius of the roll 30 mm and turning radius of 5 m. the Wheel and reducer, interconnected through two hinges, taken from “zaporozhtsa”.
 
The car is painted with alkyd enamel of two colors. As already mentioned, the lining is made of duralumin sheets, and it is known that on the surface not just the ground well kept. I this purpose was used the epoxy-rubber anticorrosive. Put it on the car surface using a paint spray, pre-diluted with solvent No. 647 and filtered.
 
V. BEZRUKOV, Elektrougli town, Moscow region.

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