“In the USSR, consistently implemented program of transforming agricultural labor into a kind of industrial— recorded in article 22 of the new Constitution of the USSR. Mechanized, full of modern appliances, all major production processes in fields and farms, and the Park of machines and mechanisms continues to grow with new technology, help improve the efficiency of agricultural production and improve its quality. Your contribution to the creation of units, and devices, which eliminates manual and time-consuming operation in field husbandry and animal husbandry, are making the innovators — how in industrial plants, as well as directly in the farms. Their ranks today join the young force out of graduates, following the example of their peers from rural schools of the Kostroma region, who decided to link their fate with the life of the village.
For them, the participants of all-Union review NTTM and the magazine conducted the operation “Introduction,” once our guests about the interesting exhibits of the agricultural section of the USSR.
THE CAR — PER HOUR. The salt of the earth is called mineral fertilizers, generously supplied to farms industry. Their admission to the collective and state farms will continue to grow. In the tenth five-year plan, the village receives 467 MMT of bulk fertilizers — one and a half times more than in the previous five years. The bulk of the fertilizer will be delivered in specialized self-unloading wagons of the “hopper” with bottom hatches for quick sending e cargo without auxiliary mechanisms.
But this discharge is only effective where built appropriately equipped warehouses with special flyovers for receiving self-unloading wagons. Most railroad storage does not have such technical equipment. In the end, the entire gain from the use of “fast” transport going down the drain: fertilizer dumped directly on the tracks disappear in case of overload or from bad weather.
However, nothing similar to this depressing picture you will not find in the warehouses of the Leninsky district Association of Selkhoztekhnika the Crimean region. Here, innovators have adapted to the cars of “hopper” bucket loader D-565, having made it to the loading tray (Fig. 1). Thanks to him, in any location of railway track is made possible quickly and without loss to unload nastroenie fertilizer.
Fig. 1. Scheme converted loader:
1 — samoodi tray, 2 — screw auger, 3 — bucket elevators, 4 — belt conveyor, 5 — engine 6 — fuel tank 7 — cabin.
Fig. 2. Samoodi tray: side view and top.
The tray consists of a bottom and welded thereto sidewalls (Fig. 2). On one side it is attached to the scraper Elevator-loader. The tray is inserted under the hatch of the car and start unloading. To poured into the hatch fertilizer was applied through the tray loader to the auger, the bottom of a small slope. The angle is calculated so that it was less than the angle of repose of the bulk cargo. The presence of bias in combination with vibration during operation of the loader provides continuous rolling of fertilizers to the auger. Here the cargo is fed into the buckets of the Elevator, and they piled up on the conveyor, which falls into the body or hopper vehicles.
If the warehouse is close to the train tracks, directly from the truck through a chain of conveyors tuks like a baton, can be transmitted directly to the storage location.
Performance refurbished forklift when working with cars of type “hopper” up to 60 tons per hour. Manufacturing is the cheap and technically simple device available to him each rural workshop.
Fig. 3. The unloading of the car Transporter:
1 — conveyor, 2 — hopper, 3 — car of the type “hopper”, a 4 — conveyor or forklift in the warehouse.
Close to railroad warehouse offers another fairly simple option with the use of any belt conveyor of suitable length (Fig. 3). The conveyor is installed into the previously prepared concrete bed so that each part was under the hatch of the car. To do this, the railway paintings removed one tie and in the resulting window to a depth of approximately six feet escapes the trench, perpendicular to the rails. It is mounted bunker-funnel guide sapaudia fertilizer in the receiving part of the conveyor. Such equipment allows to unload 70 tons of fertilizer per hour.
“SHOES” FOR THE TRAILER. Only a caterpillar tractor sometimes the power to overcome “raskatyvaete” weatherproof box, driving the necessary goods or transporting organic fertilizers. But the trailers that are available are mostly wheeled, even the most powerful — and more of them in the farms. They are widely used on drained wetland soils serve the land. And here’s to even out this discrepancy in the “shoes” of the tractor and trailer, the latter came up with a special soft caterpillar (Fig. 4) — rubber similar to those used on motonartah.
Fig. 4. Trailer-the Rover:
the increased maneuverability it provides a rubber-metal caterpillars.
Instead of the usual rear axle of this trailer Dolly of the four wheels; each pair of them on either side of the body wearing a soft Shoe. The front part of the frame of the trailer rests on the tractor hitch.
The body is equipped with cylinders driven from the tractor’s hydraulic system. With their help it is necessary the body tilt when unloading.
This tipper semitrailer tractor crawler can be used for transportation of bulk and oversized cargo in the deep mud, loose snow, and even wetlands. The body and chassis designed for heavy loads up to 15 t as a traction machine to fit shirokorulonnye semitrailer tractors T-100МБГС-1 and T-130БГ-1, with low specific ground pressure: 0.35 kg/cm2. The same it off the trailer. Due to its advantageous properties trailer the Rover will find a wide application in many sectors of the economy.
CHICKS hatched… the Old proverb says, chickens are hatched. But try to count them when modern incubators work as a good pipeline, giving the party the party is not worse than any other factory high-performance machine. But there is a need not only to count, but to sort them on the floor to separate the hens and cockerels.
Fig. 5. Table for sorting and counting chickens.
To facilitate the solution of this very difficult task, it was necessary to combine the efforts of two employees of the design Bureau — KB TSIIPS in the suburban town of Pushkino and GSKB machine for poultry production, located in Pyatigorsk. Joint efforts have been developed with special moveable table (Fig. 5), seemingly not very different from ordinary tables. However, its application allows ka 60% increase in productivity for this unusual operation. Sliding boards* forms and in-depth poultry net* receivers, the introduction of mechanized accounts sorted chickens, and automatic stacking them in boxes for transport improve the quality of sorting and counting, as well as a significant increase in productivity — up to 1,400 Chicks per hour.
“BEE” WITH THE MOTOR. It is known that the most indefatigable among insects toiler — bees — flitting from flower to flower, not only collect nectar, but also, squeezing in a whisk, shake and carry pollen, contributing to increased fruiting plants. However, this work is in the nature performs and wind. But under glass or plastic “armor” greenhouses is neither insect nor wind. “Obligations” when pollination is found to be fulfilled by employees of greenhouse farming, which usually just shake the Bush or the flowers.
Fig. 6. Mechanical bee — vibrator for dusting:
1 — the battery compartment, 2 — body, 3 — switch, 4 — tip.
Help them create a special electric vibrator (Fig. 6), which can collect and the young technology, since its structure is simple, reminiscent of the mechanism of the vibrating fishing rod or toothbrush. Electroepilation is a thick pencil with a length of two feet, with a swinging chilobrachys tip. Inside of the hollow body are an electric motor and a battery. Work takes a pencil in hand, presses the button and alternately bringing the tip to flowers. The amplitude of oscillation of “the sting” is 1.5 — 2 mm.
The use of electrovibrators for dusting flowers of tomatoes in the greenhouse have shown a clear advantage of mechanical mixing, pollen: in comparison with manual dusting significantly increases the number of ovaries. One worker using the device have time for the hour to handle over 1900 inflorescences.
FEEDER-MACHINE. It is intended for feeding of geese and ducks, but can also be used for other birds, as its design allows you to fill both granular and loose feeds.
Its so easy to use that is available to repeat even the vultures young chefs poultry. The automatic feeder (Fig. 7) is a trapezoidal enclosure-hopper, closed-top, two rectangular caps, and the bottom of the flume trough.
Fig. 7. Smokorowski for poultry and its circuit.
Located in the feed hopper through the gap formed by the sidewalls and the bottom, supplied in trays by gravity. As you use it automatically replenishes trays, gradually settling lower and lower. Download of the hopper, manually or mechanized.
One such automatic feeder provides food 120 geese or ducks.