RECUMBENT FOR RECORDSThe term recumbent, all wheeled vehicles muscle-powered, is used in our country since the mid-1970s On the recumbent Vita Kharkiv J. Stepchenko, as the first swallow of a new kind of vehicles, “M-K” told in No. 7 of 1976. The rest of the world so-called practical design intended for passenger transport and provided with a casing-body.

At the same time the two-three-four redkolesny cycle means landing the pilot “car” (not astride the saddle, and seat with backrest) abroad caught the General term “horizontal”, or recumbency that in English (recumbent) means “recumbent” bike. Bicycles of such a scheme is often referred to as still are recumbent Bicycle which literally translated from German -“lying on the wheel.”
Liderado schemes also differ:
a) arrangement: rough terrain -if caret is located before the steering column, sredneroslye – carriage located near the steering column and long – caret is between the steering column and the seat back of the pilot;
b) the fit pilot: high-seat base approximately at the level of the wheels or higher (Hellraiser), medium is approximately at or above the axis of the wheel (migratory) and low – below the level of the wheel axle (lowracer).
RECUMBENT FOR RECORDSYoung athlete Eugene Nesterin of the city of Zelenograd, Moscow region – the master of sports on a mountain bike. It is almost ten years designs and creates in the home workshop high speed are recumbent Bicycle which may well be the base (chassis) for the stream-liner, but the conversation about this category of high speed pedal cars will be discussed below.
On one of his loserdom called “Indicator-2” – rough terrain FWD lowracer with a stationary carriage (rigidly fixed to the frame) – Eugene became the winner of the competition in speed races. It is he took part in a traditional test-round of the pedal cars “the Golden ring of Russia-2009” Moscow club enthusiasts biotransport. Nectarin drove on conventional highways and back roads from the capital to the provinces of Vologda, an ancient town of Totma is about 800 km, winning the award for best design.
For the manufacture of light speed legarda very important the right choice of materials. The first option is an “Indicator” Eugene manufactured from aluminium alloys, but some of the seams could not withstand vibration loads – in some places there were cracks. In “Indicator-2” for the frame they applied to titanium pipes, and for some parts – aluminum alloys. The homebrew with no experience welding such materials, it can replace them. For example, titanium – high quality thin-walled (1 – 1.2 mm) pipes of steel grade 30HGSA, and smaller than indicated in the drawings diameters. Weight will increase 2 – 3 kg, which is not critical for novice designers.
In “Indicator-2” front wheel is driven and the leading. The basis of this combination lies in the ability of the modern Bicycle chains to curl up at a considerable angle without loss of efficiency.
To ensure dynamic stability and good controllability, it is important to choose the right ratio of the three parameters; a – tilt steering column – crash of the front fork, T – the distance between imaginary points of tangency of the radius of the front wheel with the road surface and intersections with the axis of rotation of the front fork – the so-called trail. These parameters depend on many factors (wheelbase, wheel diameters, the position of the center of gravity, range of speeds legarda, etc.) and are chosen mostly empirically. In “Indicator-2” they are equal respectively; 80°, 30 mm and 35 mm.
Recumbent speed
Velomobile speed “Indicator-2”:
1 – frame; 2 – front fork (mountain bike, modified); 3 – asterisk rods; 4 — bearing carriage; 5 – chain; 6 – a tension roller with the chain guide; 7 – roller; 8 – driving wheel; 9 – wheel; 10 – the gear lever; 11 – a disk front brake; 12 – disc rear brakes; 13 – lounger; 14 – substrate; 15 – brace lounger; 16 headrest; 17 – cat’s eye; 18 – the steering wheel; 19 – handlebar stem front; 20 – rear stem; 21 – the lever of a steering wheel; 22 – brake handle (2 pieces); 23 – bike computer; 24 – washer front brake; 25 – machine rear brakes

Base roller
The base roller:
1 – bearing housing; 2 – bearing No. 0902 (15x28x7,2); 3 – Cup; 4 – star (z=26); 5 – scheck roller (caprolon, 2); 6 – pad; 7 – rivet d4, 6 PCs); 8 – axis (bolt М8х40); 9 – spacer washer d20x4

Knot tension roller
The node of the tension roller:
1 – tension roller; 2 – a bearing No. 0902; 3 – Cup; 4 – bolt М8х40; 5 – chain guide; 6 – panel, 7 – rivet d3 (2); 8 – roller carrier (tube d18x1); 9 – sleeve; 10 – rivet d4; 11 – spacer washer d20x4; 12 – clamp chain guide; 13 – frame

In front-wheel drive liderado front fork is subjected to considerable stress and should be tough enough. In the “Indicator” used steel fork from a mountain bike with the digested stock. To fit rear wheel from a conventional bike (devyatikonechnoy sleeve with the cassette sprockets), right fork feather slightly bent.
The two clips (anchor and tension) fixed to the frame with bolts-axis hexagon. For this purpose, the holder of each roller are pressed onto the bushing with the threaded hole.
The support roller is of complex design. Consists of a steel chiseled body, which is pressed on two bearings. To the body welded standard sprocket (z = 26), it has two sides of the same riveted to the cheeks, carved out of kaprolon, and outer side – plate, retaining bearings in the housing. Inside the bearings are pressed onto the Cup with the bolt hole axis.
Tensioner pulley is also machined from caprolon. It pressed on the bearings, and inside them – the same Cup as the reference roller. Before installing the rollers on the frame for the bolts to put on spacer washers, eliminating the touch rollers of the elements of the frame.
The material of the roller and cheeks chosen to ensure low noise operation. With the same purpose in common with the tensioning roller axis mounted chain guide. Its position on the frame defines a latch to which it is attached by a rivet. Both shelves of the stator, preventing the chain from falling from the roller, for suppressing noise from the chain riveted plates of sheet polypropylene.
The wheel
The wheel
Front take-out and lever steering
The front take-out and lever steering
The design is based on an “Indicator-2” -welded frame. When the welding is very important to avoid the leash so it is advisable to complete this work in two stages.
The main element of the frame – welded composite spinal diameter pipe 51×1. 2 mm. Its better to weld the simplest slipway: 16 mm chipboard sheet, which is pinned with screws bars marked with the outline of the future frame. The layout of the frame is performed from the construction of the axis “0 – 0”. While the spinal tube of the frame is on a flat bench, should be welded to it the amplifier (brace) and a scarf.
To perform a further welding is necessary to prepare a second device (e.g., a segment of channel or rectangular tube) on which are mounted the axles of the wheels simulators. After this spinal tube Assembly from front fork and a glass of the steering column is fixed on the stocks together with feathers rear forks and dropouts, then all the elements are welded tack. The final welding should continuously monitor the geometry of the frame. Is welding then the rest of the items. At the completion of operations on manufacture of the frame open ends of the spinal tube and feather the rear fork welded with plugs of sheet metal.
Over the left dropout welded to the cover mount adapter brake cars. Welding the spacer bushings between the mounting ears of the strut requires accuracy and carried out points.
The material parts of the bottom bracket -aluminum alloy AMG-6. The glass carriage and sleeve kremovogo clip – turned parts. In the manufacture of a host of steel instead of bushings you can use a standard extra-long nuts (“M-K” № 11 for 2011).
Support a glass – box type; consists of the same pairs of cheeks and lining, welded together with the pipe-clamp.
Ligered designed and built for the pilot height 175 – 185 cm Displacement of the node of the carriage on the bow of a cantilever pipe frame (removal) can be done more fine-tuning to suit the height of the rider.
Sunbed legarda is a particularly important element of the structure is made for a specific pilot. Often in running-in period the lounger is subjected to serious revisions, as soon make it comfortable is rarely.
Velomobiles, or rather the spine, with almost horizontal landing, experiencing adverse alternating load in the direction back the breast when driving on rough roads. Therefore, the profile of the rug need to exactly match the contours of the back of the pilot. There are many imaginative ways to remove the measurements. The designer has done the following: have spacetravel on a level floor the main elements legarda and put it under the back of an ordinary pillow. The impression made on her, takes several minutes, which is enough for sizing.
Guide chain
Guide chain (tensioner pulley conditionally withdrawn):
1 – frame; 2 – scraper chain; 3 locking chain guide; 4 – rivet d4; 5 – pad (2 PCs)

Clamping carriage
The clamping of the carriage (*size for reference):
1 – glass of a carriage; 2 – bearing Cup carriage; 3 – kremowy clamp (pipe d55x2); 4 – bushing (3 PCs); 4 – nut (3 PCs.)

1 – removal of the carriage frame (tube d51х1,2); 2 – inclined strut (tube d51х1,2); 3 – ridge of the sunbed (pipe d51x1,2); 4-gusset plate; 5-the holder of a tension roller (pipe d18,1); 6 – holder support roller (pipe d18,1 ); 7 – front support lounger (pipe d20x1); 8 – back support of the lounger (pipe d20x1); 9 – removal of rear supports (pipe d20x1); 10 – feather the rear of the plug (pipe d30x1, 2); 11 – dropout-tip pen rear plugs (strip s4, 2); 12 – eyelet brace (strip s3,2); 13 – locking chain guide (band s3); 14 – a glass of steering column (tube d36x2); 15 – brace (pipe d30x1)

Lounger (for the top mattress and pillow not shown)
A sunbed (on the top view of the mattress and cushion are not shown):
1 – base; 2 – the base of the headrest; 3 – side lounger (2 pieces); 4 – side panel of the headrest (2 PCs); 5 – pillow headrest; 6 — bed; 7 – front bearing; 8 – the average bearing; 9 – the back support (brace, 2 pieces); a – shoulder; b – niche pillow lounger

Front mount lounger
The front mount of the sun lounger:
1 – the base of the lounger; 2 – side lounger; 3 – the bottom of the niche; 4 – spacer; 5 – stud; 6 – front support of the lounger; 7 -; 8 stud; 9 – bolt М5х20; 10 – nut M5 (self-locking); 11 – washer; 12-bushing; 13 – eccentric clamp; 14-substrate lounger; 15 – cushion lounger

Front support and the attachment point to the frame of the deckchair
Front support and the attachment point to the frame of the lounger
The base of the lounger and headrest made of duralumin sheet thickness of 2 mm and are perforated to facilitate. From the same material but with a thickness of 3 mm is the sidewall.
Connect the sides with the bases with rivets and corners in the form of round washers, bent in diameter. Moreover, as the goals the author used witty and practical old coins.
Shaping the front and rear of the rug also depends on the physique of the pilot. For example, to the front of its rounded edges in the buttocks occasionally bent down about an angle of 15° – 30°, in order to avoid fading and to keep the contact with the pilot sunbed-force pedaling. In “Indicator-2” it turned out to be unnecessary. The rear part of the base of the rug is bent forward for the formation of shoulders, which keep the pilot from shifting back, it is notched cutout for relief of the cervical spine.
At the base of the lounger in front of the sacrum to the back of the pilot the hole cut 100×290 mm and formed niche. To do this, from the bottom of the rug it is attached with rivets and hard strip the bottom. The base of the lounger is covered with glued to it with a substrate of the tourist rug-“skin” with a thickness of 10 mm, while in the niche pre-Packed additional cushion variable height.
The headrest is a separate element of the rug is fastened thereto with four countersunk screws with nuts. To the base of the headrest contoured pad is glued from several layers of the same “foam”, covered with soft fabric cover.
Lounger removable attached to the frame in three points: to the front support on the horizontal part of the cap of the pipe by using two mounting brackets made of pairs of angles, riveted together, and the eccentric clamp saddle of a Bicycle, to medium support – by two countersunk screws М5х20 and threaded bushings pressed into the ends of the support; the feathers of the rear fork with struts.
The wheel legarda is welded from pipe segments with a diameter 22×1 mm. For the manufacture of stem used two standard: kimbim clip installed on the stock front fork, and a split – grip for attaching the rudder with two bolts. Both of these removal of the joint: welded to the extension tube 25 mm. In diameter open ends of the pipes inserted into a decorative handlebar rubber plugs.
The rest of lowracer equipped with standard Bicycle parts.
In the bottom bracket cartridge is installed: capsule, uniting the shaft of the carriage and standard ball bearings. Cranks -170 mm. sprocket has a tooth 82. Wheels with a diameter of 22 inches (510 mm) equipped with a narrow (19 mm) rubber tires, designed for high, up to 8 ATM, pressure. The driving wheel has 36 spokes, and the base – 32. The diameter of the rotor disc wheels – 160 mm. Both brake servos mounted on the brackets of feathers forks using adapters that set of brakes. Handlebar grips are front and rear disk brakes, 9-position shifter, the shifter and the bike computer. A mud flap is provided with only rear wheel – pilot protect against splashes from the front wheel wide spinal tube frame and deck chair. Installed and reflectors: rear red bracket mount mud flap; front – white on the plug cap pipe. Here a convenient place for a lights – if necessary, it is easily mounted with a plastic electrical clamps-clips.
The creation of one legarda E. Nestorine takes almost a year – the author very carefully considering every detail of the design, and therefore looked his car as the factory.
Since almost the entire Gauge is made of corrosion resistant materials, paint coating is not applied, except for the stem.
Total mass of the structure and 17.3 kg.
Not every first time master ligered and will confidently learn to ride on it, especially with such a low rise. Even cyclists with experience, “buried” in the saddle, traditional Bicycle, sometimes become flustered, lying on a low sunbed. And someone quite a few minutes to experience this amazing machine, become a part of it. And such a daredevil rushes to the envy of others, literally flying over the road…
This could and finish the story on a fast bike. But do you know what dreams in the soul of the pilot lowracer, especially the young? Wants to turn it into Streamliner and, of course, with the most-the world’s best spinner. And then to fight for the records! Do not believe me – then try to make your lowracer. Suddenly it will be your first step to victory?
Trained athletes in modern velomobiles touring (with fairing) is capable for the daily mileage to cover distances of over 1200 km with an average speed of over 50 km/h.
The struts of the deckchair
The struts of the deckchair:
1 – back support of the lounger (pipe 18×1); 2 – right brace (pipe 18×1); 3 — pen the rear of the plug (pipe 30×1, 2); 4 – screw М5х20; 5 – substrate; 6 – side panel of the base of the lounger (sheet s3); 7 is a left brace (pipe 18×1); 8 – ending brace; 9 – eyelet strut; 10 – PAC-spanking(pipe 15×1); 11 -болтМ6х35; 12-self-contradanza nut M6

Brake wheel (rear)
Brake wheel (rear)
Attachment lounger
The attachment of the lounger:
1 – the base of the lounger; 2 – substrate; 3 – side panel of the base; 4 – Central pillar of the lounger; 5 – frame, 6 – removal of support; 7 -threaded bushing; 8 – screw М5х20

Landing of the pilot ergonomy in Streamliner
Landing the pilot ergonomy in Streamliner
Record velomobile-Streamliner Varna canadian designer G. Georgieva running racer S. Vitigam
Record velomobile-Streamliner Varna canadian designer G. Georgieva running racer S. Vitengeni
The absolute world record wheel musclegod equal to the cash consideration of 133,3 km/h. It was established in September 2009 in Nevada to the traditional annual high-speed races at mount battle canadian racer C. Wittingham on the recumbent, the Varna Streamliner designer G. Georgieva – also a canadian, a Bulgarian by birth (hence the name of the series of streamliners -“Varna”),
These outstanding results were achieved mainly due to the perfect aerodynamic shape of the body-fairing. Upon reaching a speed of about 30 km/h almost 85 – 90% of the energy of velomobiles expended in overcoming the resistance of the oncoming airflow, and at higher speeds – up to 95%. To streamliners, in the terminology adopted by the world Association of creators muscular vehicles (WHPVA) include the design, fairings are supplied with high aerodynamic performance and is aimed at establishing sports achievements. The pilot so closely “Packed” in the car, that the implementation of the start and finish, and even for entry and exit from the apparatus, the athlete needs external assistance team members.
The start and finish of the speed race at Streamliner usually occur in the following way. The pilot is placed in the lower part of the fairing, which is on the cradle. Then pull the hands forward on the steering wheel, whereby the swing arms is narrowed. Next, the assistants put on the upper part of the fairing and the gap between the two parts of the stick with duct tape. The assistant, being on roller skates encompasses the foot Streamliner, frees him from the cradle and in this position, the duet “pilot assistant” is moving. After a short acceleration the pilot of Streamliner begins independent movement. Graduated from course Streamliner at the end of the braking phase catch and release the pilot from the fairing.
Create velocity velomobiles with light aerodynamic fairings made of composite materials (mainly CFRP) is difficult and expensive engineering task.
Remembering history, we note that the velomobile “Vector”, first break in 1980, the bar of 100 km/h, was tricycle. But beginning in 1986, all absolute speed records velomobiles were installed only on two-wheeled Streamliner.
In most modern pedal cars (contenders for the records) chassis are integrated into a common structure. However, there is Streamliner, in which the suspension uses a two-wheeled recumbent, they can be removed from the shell and use to compete in the independent classes (according to the same international regulations) – without fairing.
As a rule, the scheme is lowracer having a low center of gravity, which the pilot is located almost horizontally. In Streamliner this scheme the pilot seat called a deck chair.
To reduce the aerodynamic drag, the designers are striving to reduce the Midel of Streamliner – the area of greatest cross section of the fairing. Midel is mainly determined by anthropometric parameters of the pilot. The gap between the athlete and the capsule is measured literally by millimeters. In the design and drawing of the midsection, the two key parameters: the projected area of Oltenia feet of the pilot and the width of his shoulders (the maximum width of the fairing the best stream-liners is only 380 – 420 mm).
When linking lowracer should use a two-dimensional layout of the pilot. This comfortable ergonom, developed and successfully applied decades of Czech designers of cars “Tatra”: draws using only straight lines and circles. Its proportions are in good agreement with pilots to increase to 160 – 180 cm layout Elements can be made of a rigid transparent cover of a notebook or folder and hold them together at the joints by rivets, for example, small studs.
Initially, you must determine the position (dimension “b”) axis of the carriage. You need to set design parameters: size a – minimum (usually 80 – 120 mm) distance from the heel of the pilot to the road and “C!” – the length of the connecting rod (usually the 150 – 170 mm). Then ask the exceedance of the carriage above the base of the rug (usually 120 -180 mm). Then draw several layout options status of the pilot. They will determine the optimum contours the midsection of Streamliner. Finally, longitudinal and cross sections of the cone are specified for the navigation layout.
The creation of streamliners deals with individual designers and professional manufacturers of equipment. In the battle for speed records, use the most modern materials, computer technology and modeling. But, surprisingly, the fastest for today velomobiles “Varna” was not created by an engineer, and was the fruit of experience and talent Georgi Georgiev – sculptor by education.
From the editor
12.09.2012, rider Sergey Dashevsky from the city of Krasnodar on Streamliner “Bowstring” design Muscovite Benjamin Ulyanovsk on spectras in Nevada (USA) set a new record of Russia – has a top speed 106,45 km/h.

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