LET THE GENIE OUT OF THE BOTTLE

LET THE GENIE OUT OF THE BOTTLEI read your magazine for many years: love. “Club home of the masters” — the “Tips…”, and numerous articles on the Economics — I can be very useful: apply several per year plus “old”. The remaining headings are just a pleasure to read. I want to offer simple fabrication technology needed things for the house, which is quite universal.

A bit of theory
 
Everyone is familiar with plastic bottles and containers made of polyethylene terephthalate (PETP or PET, aka polyester). Belongs to the group of thermoplastics, i.e. plastics that can be melted. So — if we take at room temperature, the values of strength, elasticity and other mechanical properties for 100%, upon heating there is a reduction of at least one of them over one percent and ends up softening up to melting. As a rule, further heating almost does not increase the fluidity of the melt will be shown only the change in color, combustion and release of gases.
The majority of real thermoplastic materials have the following features: prolonged exposure to oxygen and other oxidizing (chlorine, etc.) their strength is reduced, which is the essence of the aging process. This leads to embrittlement, loss of strength and softening temperature.
 
Filled with non-melting fibers plastics are more heat resistant, because the effect of “molecular adhesion” is very strong even at the macro level (kind of like sticking two sheets of glass, moistened with water).
 
Fig. 1. Probyvala
Fig. 1. Probyvala:
 
1—the bottle entirely; 2 — tube; 3 — rinsing pipe (to the bottom of the product); 4 — the washing liquid

 
Fig. 2. Fire extinguisher
Fig. 2. Fire extinguisher:
 
1—the bottle entirely; 2—tube; 3—outlet pipe; 4 — water solution of Pan POPS+foam; 5—acid solution in a test tube

 
Fig. 3. Joint with shrink item
Fig. 3. Joint with shrink item:
 
1—ring from the sides of the bottle; 2—the main connecting part (hose); 3—join steel pipe; And a heating source, the shrinking; 5—the scheme of movement of a source of heating; 6—the irregularities of the connected objects; the 7—limit with the tube (from the top of the bottle)

 
Fig. 4. Lining wizard
Fig. 4. Lining wizard:
 
1—rectangular or other form of fragments of bottles; 2—the fastening elements (nail, screw, clip, screw, etc.); a 3—film greenhouse roofing material or

 
In my opinion, this underestimation is the cause of frequent failures in the welding of plastics:
 
haste in selecting the temperature and cooling, the mismatch of the chemical composition of the weld and base material, etc. Especially it is necessary to say about the rush of cooling: before removing the fixation of the welded parts, it is necessary to consider that the entire thickness of the weld must cool to a temperature of less than 50 percent of the softening temperature to the melting point. If hot plastic shrink — formed “wave”, it is noticeably thinner and has larger surface of heat radiation that will lead to its more rapid cooling-hardening. It is not only the marriage, which then should be cut. It is also a source of hidden cracks in the case of subsequent stretching or displacement of the longitudinal axes of the welded products. During movement of the compression (recovery of alignment) are formed shallow grooves in the hub of stresses around them, as if the microcracks in the thickness of the material.
This prelude is necessary as the pilot for the captain, reaching for the first time on this route, and at the same time hint at the limits of the proposed technology the use of plastic bottles.
 
To fit the bottle?
 
Everyone knows that bottled in everyday life often cut containers for storage of small items or liquids and solids. Made highly artistic vases, make watering cans-funnels or scoops. In the oven, make the bottles from heat “wrap around” the desired profile (e.g., wood), which gives a light and durable body. The bottom parts of the bottles can produce buckets on the chain the water (only consider that cut off above a certain height of the filling water is experiencing bending moment, quickly destroys the connection). Fragments of the walls of the bottles are used as glass (in models and small structures), as a decorative element in the applications as solid element on top of film (or similar material) through the linings of which drive in nails (Stephanie staples) — for improved durability (Fig. 4).
 
Corks from bottles — almost ready handles for Amateur radio and other appliances, doors and drawers of various cabinets (only on the inside of the lid it is better to fill with epoxy with a filler).
 
Fig. 5. Seal for door or window
Fig. 5. Seal for door or window:
 
1—slit; 2—door (or cover window); 3 — box on the porch; 4—fixing element; 5—sealing strip from the bottle (properly installed); 6—incorrect mounting options seal

 
Fig. 6. Support for the Christmas tree
Fig. 6. Support for the Christmas tree:
 
1 —bottle entirely; 2—the tube is sealed; 3—capacity-based; 4—water, sand or other filler (in the capacity of the bottles)

 
Fig. 7. Head for the fence
Fig. 7. Head for the fence:
 
1 —post (steel) fence; 2—nozzle for protection from atmospheric precipitation (the cut bottle bottom up); 3—part of the flank of the bottle, subjected to shrinking from the heat

 
Fig. 8. Suspension hooks
Fig. 8. Suspension hook:
 
1—retaining ring from the bottle after shrinking; 2 — attachable detail; 3—pipe base

 
The bottle is entirely suitable for a wide variety of products (Fig. 6,7). Inside add a spoon of baking soda, 2 — 3 tablespoons of vinegar, cover — ready “inflated” floating element for the raft size. Or variety of “aerosol” prominance, fire extinguishers (Fig. 1,2) is all in addition to the main destination — storage of liquid or dry substances. Some even have the patience to make bottles boxes for small items, door seals Windows from drafts (Fig. 6), something like toys and jewelry.
 
Mentioned options and a number of other “abutilon” works can be multiplied by the capabilities of the two following available technologies.
 
Universal fragments
 
The simplest use of the rings of the bottles as shrink sealing elements. For example, if you need to plug the hole in the low-pressure hose, to pin a label on glass (or other) subject, to make reliable electrical insulation of anything. Of the pieces of pipe can even collect water. This is also the case that connect pipes and flexible hoses, even if different diameter butt them together and warm worn over a joint ring from the bottle until tender and girth (Fig. 3). It is better to heat from the burner flame, lighter, matches, led along the parts to be joined (i.e. along the width of the ring). Consider the pitfalls: the shrinkage happens not only in length, but the width of the ring. For some applications it is desirable to remember still that the material is combustible.
 
By thermal upsetting of the annular workpiece on the surface of melting plastics is better if it is possible to fuse the material with the surface. However, this is not always possible because of the different heat products. Maximum mechanical shear strength is possible only on rough surfaces height of the irregularities is less than 1/3 of the ring thickness after shrinkage and subject to pereplavleni ring to the base material. Force compression even 10 percent of the circumference is quite small, so where the crimping tool can be used in conventional clamp (or fitting or etc) — it is better to use them. But on top of the solid elements to protect against corrosion and damage (Fig. 10) — ring of Dacron suitable: metal shielded grease, and then put on and saivam ring.
You can shrink secure the hook on the vertical cylinder and hung on a hook anything (Fig. 8): ugly, but firmly, quickly. It is possible to capsize, to interconnect a few bottles or to attach a Widener bottom to the container at the bedside of the sick, that he accidentally knocked over (Fig. 9). You can connect the bonding part to the curing of the adhesive. If the glue is soluble and hardens by drying of the solvent, to dry it will be 1.5 — 2 times longer and it is possible that deeper absorbed. These options — only the common household works.
 
Bottle as material
 
The second of the two proposed technologies use the material of plastic bottles, for example, as a solder for soldering (welding) plastics as a hot-melt adhesive or putty.
 
With melt’s simple: the thinner the layer and the greater its area, the stronger. After a certain value of the square becomes important volumetric stiffness of the attached Products. Glue is applied in small droplets, followed by heating the product with glue, and clamp to the surface (strong, but so that not a drop of glue together in a single field). Remains allow to cool and use the product.
 
Another example: in the bathroom or in the kitchen to make the hooks for towels, appliances, etc. Usually had to spoil the tile (or drilling durable concrete), which is not very desirable. Come to the rescue of the melt bottles, drops and hang a beautiful hook (Fig. 11). Simple rule: better ten hooks smaller than four major. The more load on one suspension, the harder it is to make reliable, and it is larger than the more spoils the appearance.
 
Caveat: for brittle materials it is necessary to glue very quickly. On the window glass, for example, cooling should begin within 3 to 4 seconds after the first contact of the molten glass and “glue” — otherwise the glass will burst.
 
Fig. 9. Holder
Fig. 9. Holder:
 
1—CD-Widener bottom; 2—capacity, which is necessary to give stability; 3 —resistant petals to the receptacle; 4—o-ring (from the bottle, after the shrinking)

 
Fig. 10. Insulator
Fig. 10. Insulator:
 
1 —the abutting pipe (or wire); 2—clamp (coupling); 3—wide ring from the bottle after shrinking

 
Fig. 11. Hooks for the bathroom
Fig. 11. Hooks for the bathroom:
 
1—tile (or other surface that you do not want to drill); 2—zone “glue”; 3 hooks for hanging products

 
Fig. 12. Repair items
Fig. 12. Repair items:
 
1 —heel; 2—furniture leg; 3—extended instead of lost a layer of melt bottles

 
The material is very easy to machining after cooling of the melt and easily shaped when heated. If you need to putty anything (Fig. 12) — cut in strips from the bottle with a width of 1 — 5 mm of required length, with the left hand strip served on the hot soldering tip held by the right hand as close as possible to the place of adhesion of the adhesive. Periodically tip works like a spatula, pushed a lot of polyester in shpaklyuem plot or levelling the surface. When the whole volume is bonded to the paper (to lay the paint), or veneer, or metal (against rodents) or leave as is — if aesthetics don’t matter. Rule: the thicker the layer of the polyester, the greater the likelihood of separation of it due to the difference in linear coefficients of thermal expansion. That is the crack in the wood thicker than 1 — 2mm it is better to fill a wooden insert, and the rest filler. Fast work guarantees success, so how uneven the depth of heating of the core material decreases its strength.
 
The result would improve if a few minutes the area before sticking the RET to blow warm air dryer: gently warms and dries the surface (air moisture, especially the exhaled breath of the worker can cause the appearance of condensate drops, the evaporation of which will damage the weld). Such air cooling is very desirable, for example, when repairing shoes. It is necessary to wash the brush with detergent two times with a needle to clean the slots and again to wash; no touching hands to blow-dry and spray plastic heel instead of the erased with a small margin for shrinkage during cooling. Then machined to the required dimensions (see Fig. 12). But be sure to allow to cool completely, perhaps a few hours. Upon receipt of satisfactory shapes and sizes to paint. If the paint does not want to go under it to weld thin paper, after cooling, water and “riding” with your finger to remove the excess fibers. Dry and paint. It should be remembered that the smallest defects after painting to become very visible.
 
The article is not provided. But for those who think and work creatively, this knowledge is sufficient for domestic work.
V. DOROFEEV, Tula

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