In the same 1970-ies students of the Kharkiv aviation Institute also undertook the design of a simple plane. The new device, called HAI-19, was svobodnaia total all-wood monoplane of classic design. Despite the fact that the plane didn’t contain anything fundamentally new, “old” in it was laid out so efficiently and skillfully that HAI-19 and today it is possible to recommend to the aviation lovers as a sample to build.
Classic diskoplana type HAI-19 has always demonstrated great flying qualities and ease of piloting. Another confirmation of the advantages of the device of this arrangement was the airplane “Argo-02”, made by the Tver Amateur aircraft designers E. Ignatiev, Y. Gusakovym and A. Abramov. For its production used pine, plywood and fabric. The basis of the power plant – domestic engine RMZ-640. Flies, Tverskaya homemade is better than other units with imported motors.
Argo aircraft-02 created by E. Ignatiev, Y. Gusakovym and A. Abramov (Tver):
engine – 28-strong RMZ-640, wing area is 6.3 m2, empty weight – 145 kg, takeoff weight of 235 kg, maximum speed – 150 km/h, stall speed – 72 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 2 m/s, the run is 100 m, distance 80 m, range of flight C. G. – 24 – 27% of SAH, the range of operating overloads from +3 to – 1.5
“Argo-02” in flight
The plane of A-15 construction Vakhrusheva I. (Samara):
wing area 5 m2, airfoil -P-III-18%, the empty weight is 135 kg, takeoff weight of 220 kg, the engine RMZ-640 with capacity of 30 HP, the diameter of the propeller – 960 mm, pitch – 550 mm, static thrust – screw 60 kgf, in-flight alignment 23% of SAH-maximum speed – 140 km/h stall speed 70 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 3 m/s
The layout of the aircraft “Argo-02”:
1 – wooden propeller (diameter – 1480 mm, 950 mm); 2 – V-belt gear with a ratio of 2.0; 3 – the engine RMZ-640; 4 – engine mount (welded, of steel tubes-20); 5 – fire bulkhead; 6 – fuel tank 7 – instrument panel; 8 – lever engine control; 9 – fairing of the fuselage (frame – pine stringers and frames cover – cloth); 10 – the cable rollers of the actuator of the rudder; 11 – the longerons of the fuselage (pine); 12 – struts and braces of the frame of the fuselage (pine); 13 – rocking hard-drive elevators; 14 – traction Elevator control; 15 – caudal bearing; 16 – cable rudder; 17 – fairing rocking of the Elevator control; 18 – pine belt fuselage beams of the wing – the continuation of the spars of the wing; 19 – wheel chassis (300×125 mm); 20 – spring chassis (steel); 21 – suspended control pedal at the rate of
Very similar to the “Argo-02” the plane A-15 Amateur designer I. vahrusheva from the city of Samara. At the heart of its design – also pine, plywood and fabric. The drive of the air screw on this model is direct drive.
Later, fans got the popularity of the aircraft with fuselage in the form of a thin tubular beams. One of the first representatives of this direction was the monoplane “REYL” American Aviator enthusiast of Harris wood. The machine is equipped with a pair of 20-horsepower engines with pusher propellers. The advantage of these machines are simplicity and ease of construction of the fuselage. By the way, a similar scheme has a plane “Birdman” (USA), which is distributed in the form of a set of blanks.
Plane beams, the fuselage can be not only a monoplane, but a biplane. A similar device Khai-34 in its time was built by students of the Kharkov aviation Institute under the guidance of S. Shevchenko, and V. Miller. As the power unit used a 27-horsepower outboard motor “Whirlwind”. However, all-wood plane was peretyagina and engine power it is clearly not enough – after lift-off climb rate of the device was only 0.5 m/s, so even flying in a circle turned to the pilot in difficult task.
More original biplane, which resembled a very popular in the West Amateur airplane “Wing Ding II” was created by the father and the son Zaliki from Rostov-on-don. Their little “Salic-2” had wings made of ailerons of the aircraft An-2, and the engine is borrowed from the refrigeration plant of “Skoda”. On the fuselage I-beam went duralumin pipe with a diameter of 110 mm. there are many not very successful attempts to use in Amateur designs aggregates production aircraft, but it was the “Selice-2” the combination was harmonious and rational, so that the flight characteristics of this biplane were quite high. Two years later Zaliki installed it on their offspring 70 HP engine and with it “Salic-2M” beautifully demonstrated its ability in gatherings of Amateur aviators.
Another single plane-monoplane HAI-40 with beam fuselage was built by students of the Kharkiv aviation Institute (the chief designer of the project, HMIS). Disadvantages to the pusher propeller, the creators of this machine tried to compensate for installation on 35-HP engine RMZ-640 gear with the timing belt and the propeller increased diameter. In addition, the aircraft equipped with the wing with aspect ratio of 8.2. The attempt failed – the machine flies perfectly and can even carry a lot of weight.
“Bestuzhevskie” Amateur aircraft:
A – plane “REYL” designs of Harris wood (USA): length-4,75 m; wing area was 7.56 m2 weight empty 200 kg takeoff weight – 322 kg, maximum speed – 145 km/h, the speed of SVA-key Largo – 72 km/h, rate of climb – 4.5 m/s, the ceiling – 4500 m takeoff distance to a height of 15 m, 375 m, landing distance 240 m
B-plane “Birdman”TL-1 (USA): engine power – 15 HP, a wingspan of 10.36 m, length 5.9 m, wing area -13 m2 empty weight – 50 kg, take-off weight – 159 kg, maximum speed – 100 km/h, climb rate 1.8 m/s, has a range of 380 km
And the biplane “Salic-2”: the wing area of 7.4 m2 takeoff weight – 222 kg, engine power-30 HPC., the diameter of the propeller – 1060 mm, pitch – 340 mm, static thrust screw, 60 kg, maximum speed – 120 km/h, stall speed – 60 km/h, climb rate near the ground – 1.5 m/s
B – plane Khai-34: length – 4.8 m, a wingspan of 5.81 m, wing area was 8.8 m2 takeoff weight – 237 kg, the diameter of the propeller – 1300 mm, screw – 600 mm, maximum speed – 120 km/h, stall speed 62 km/h
In – plane “Wing Ding II” (USA): engine power – 14 HP, wingspan of 5.69 m, wing area – 9,85 m2 empty weight – 55.5 kg, take – off weight- 140 kg, maximum speed – 80 km/h, stall speed – 42 km/h, ceiling – 1220 m, has a range of 32 km, 76 m, distance 46 m
Single beam aircraft:
And – aircraft HAI-40: wing area of 9.7 m2, the static thrust of the rotor is 90 kg, takeoff weight of 252 kg, maximum speed – 110 km/h stall speed 55 km/h
B – plane “Caprice” design. Aminaka (Czech Republic)
The plane Optimist design Babov V. (Ekaterinburg)-one of the best gatherings of ALS in the category of single-seat aircraft:
engine power – 36 HP, wing area-9,0 m2, airfoil -R-W-15.5% of takeoff weight is 301 kg, empty weight 210 kg, in-flight alignment for 24% of SAH, the maximum speed – 130 km/h, stall speed – 72 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 2 m/s
The Plane Optimist:
1 – wiring of the receiver air pressure; 2, the air intake fan of the cockpit; 3 – panel; 4 – petrol tank; 5 – belt drive to the propeller shaft; 6 – an elongated screw shaft; 7 – the bearing of the screw shaft; 8 – a wooden propeller (max speed – 2600 rpm diameter of 1.54 m step – 0.5 m); 9 – driven nose strut zhidkostnoi depreciation; 10 – wheel dimensions 300×100 mm; 11 – duralumin pipe with a diameter of 110 mm; 12 – a homemade two-stroke two-cylinder engine of air cooling; 13 – spring chassis made of titanium alloy VT-6; 14 – shutter for the outlet of the cooling air
Examples of successful layout of the device with girder fuselage and a pusher propeller can also serve the aircraft, “Caprice”, built in Kiev Institute of civil aviation Czech student J. Aminaka, and “Optimist” by V. Babov from Yekaterinburg.
Among Amateur single aircraft often meet and “waterfowl” options. Problems of creation of seaplanes are of interest to many aviation enthusiasts. And this is understandable: in one case, for tens of kilometers around there is a suitable site for take-off and landing, and reservoirs is sufficient; in the other, so eager to solve the problem of safe take-off and landing (the water is still “soft” ground), in the third – attracts relaxing at the river or lake.
All these considerations are apparently taken into account by designers from the already mentioned club Aeroprakt, who built several of the original seaplanes.
The appearance of the first of them is connected with the serial crashes of the airframe initial training “Primer”. To make the learning process more secure, the designers have created a glider taking off from land with rubber shock absorber and making the landing on the water.
A year later on the glider A-3 mounted outboard motor “Whirlwind 25”, modified for air cooling – power it is quite enough to take off from the water, but the stiffness and strength of the wing was clearly not designed for the increased speed.
Machine name A-5 also was intended to fly above the water surface and was an amphibian with the same engine and non-retractable wheeled chassis. The flight from the ground airfield showed that the A-5 is quite stable, controllable, well taking off and landing on a dirt airfield. However, attempts to take off from the water and subsequent landing on water due to the large resistance of the wheel without success. In the end the chassis was removed completely, turning the amphibian into a flying boat with a flat bottom. But this improvement of the apparatus is not over. The strength of the flat bottom was low and the repair of the bottom, broken in the rough landing, it was decided to make a new, more durable, with a low deadrise, wycleef it from foam and fiberglass.
The modernization of the flying boat, called A-05 “Hydro-Il”, ended – the seaplane has successfully flown, easily performing complex maneuvers. Even the forced landing ended safely – the car was well planned and gently fell to the water.
Flying boat A-05 “Hydro-11” made of fiberglass and wood. Its aerodynamic design – strut-braced high-wing monoplane with T-tail. Single-spar wing consists of two detachable consoles fit directly to the fuselage. The wing has a significant elongation and, as a consequence, the device – high aerodynamic quality, which allows him to perfectly plan and to fly with an engine of low power.
The entire rear edge of the wing is drooping ailerons. For the wing head of the project V. Miroshnik has developed a special profile, after its configuration with purging models in the wind tunnel of the Samara aviation Institute.
Any special devices, providing stability on water (as a rule, floats of streamlined shape at the wing tips), the seaplane is not available. Just parked the end of one of the sealed consoles placed on the water; during the takeoff run of a flying boat, as its growth rate and appearance of the Aileron effectiveness, the console is easily separated from the surface of the water. And special water helm A-05 “Hydro-11” is not provided, and it is the function of submerged root part of the rudder. Powerplant of the car is the engine “Vikhr’ -30A”, modified for air cooling. Propeller – wood, pushing, fixed pitch.
In conclusion, single Amateur aircraft it should be noted that such devices often find practical application. In some countries these machines are used for monitoring power lines, gas pipelines, agricultural land. On light aircraft set equipment for aerial photography and equipment for small capacity of chemical treatment of crops. However, for initial training single airplanes better not to use – more suited for this double apparatus.
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