SCHOOL OF AIRCRAFT (PART 2)In the previous issue of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor” readers acquainted with the design of the aircraft “Cree-Cree” of Michel Colomban, who received a truly worldwide fame. According to many aviation experts, aircraft types “KRI-KRI” close to the limit of miniaturization, while some Amateur designers are trying to create models of even smaller size. However, when reducing the size of the aircraft becomes more dynamic, increasing its angular speed, the movement becomes korotkoperiodnye, causing reduced reaction time of the pilot action on the rudder. And at some point it may be insufficient for normal driving.

Many followers have Colomban appeared in our country. An excellent example of the creative development of his scheme was all-metal aircraft “Phoenix”, built N. Workman (city of Samara). The Creator of the “Phoenix” was repeatedly awarded with prizes of ALS, and the car was test flown by Hero of Soviet Union test pilot V. Gordienko.
“Phoenix” is equipped with two converted under air cooled outboard motors “Whirlwind-25” with pusher propellers. Handle control unit-side, your configuration has no analogues in the world practice. Unusual pattern of the handle was appreciated by the test pilots – they even recommended it for use on fighter aircraft in the “big aviation”.
The smallest plane flying ULTRALIGHTS has become A-11M, created in the youth CB “Aeroprakt”. This car is a lightweight low wood and fiberglass. Its powerplant is a 42-HP engine from a motorcycle “Chezet”, equipped with a gearbox that reduces rotational speed of the propeller to 2950 rpm; the starting thrust propeller installation – 75 kgs.
Have to give credit to the authors -the machine is made quite professionally. It is fitted with drooping ailerons, the original spring segregateed control knobs with a trim mechanism of effect, and the wing with a laminar profile. Shelf wing spars – carbon fiber, all the plating is three layer fiberglass panels with foam filler. Even the spring of the main landing gear is laminated of fiberglass and epoxy resin. One of the MICROLIGHT test pilot V. Zabolotsky on this plane was able to perform quite complex elements of aerobatics.
The aircraft “Phoenix” M-5 construction. Masterova (Tomsk):
powerplant – two 25-horsepower engine “Whirlwind”, modified for air cooling; wing area – 5.6 m2; take – off weight- 255 kg

Ultrasmall planes created in the youth CB
Ultrasmall planes created in the youth CB “Aeroprakt” (Samara):
A – aircraft A-11M: wing area – 3,56 m2 wing profile – FХ5-02-196 flight alignment – 15.4% of SAH, takeoff weight – 210 kg, the maximum speed over 200 km/h, landing speed 90 km/h
B – aircraft A-11 M2: diameter of the propeller -1,1 m in step 06 – 07 m, maximum speed – 180 km/h, climb rate near the ground at 4 m/s, range 350 km, the run – 200 m run 150 m In the power plant of the aircraft A-11 M2 – engine RMZ-640

High-speed monoplanes with pusher propeller
High-speed monoplanes with pusher propeller:
And – aircraft BD-5D Jim Bidet (USA): engine “Hirt” capacity of 70 HP, the diameter of the propeller -1,12 m reducer – V-belt, a wing span of 6.53 m, the unit length is 4.05 meters, the wing area is 4.4 m2, empty weight – 175 kg, takeoff weight of 320 kg and a maximum speed of 368 km/h
B – IMP airplane Mini M. Taylor (USA). Engine “limbs” with a capacity of 68 HP, length to 4.88 metres, a wing span of 7.62 m, empty weight – 236 kg top speed – 250 km/h

It should be noted that the A-11 M – not the smallest plane in the world. In the “Guinness Book of world records” the smallest in the world was named the biplane “Skybaby” American ray Stits built in 1952.
The wingspan of this device was 2.18 m, length – 3 m, empty weight – 295 kg, engine power – 85 HP, top speed of 298 km/h. Appeared and reported that an American Aviator-Amateur-made aircraft, the wingspan of which was 0.2 m less than the “Scibaby”.
Information about such minimaltech curious enough, however, calculations show, and the operation confirms that the minimum span of their wings should be 4.5 – 5 meters. This gives a machine with the dimensions of the “KRI-KRI”, AND-11M or monopan DB-5, created by the famous American Aviator-pabitele Jim the Bidet. BD-5 came to light in the early 1970-ies, however, the design of this machine still dominates the minds of Amateur aviators.
Its activities Jim Bidet began in the firm “Grumman”, setting himself the task to create a small mass double plane to a maximum value of $ 1,000. Two years he stubbornly otrabatyvat the fabrication technology is simple and cheap designs. So, for the BD-5 he made a tail consisting of three identical surfaces – two of them represented Popovici of stabiization, the third keel. As a wing spar, the designer used a duralumin pipe of large diameter, which also served Toppinen tank of fuel to wash down directly into popost spar. To simplify the Assembly of the aircraft riveting practically of IP-polzovalas – metal construction elements, glued.
In the end there was quite pripech NY aircraft, however, the value of its zostawia 5000 DOPA-ditch, five times blocked the planned amount. Although the BD-5 was one of the cheapest aircraft in the world, a Bidet, not satisfied with the result, left his job at the firm.
However, the Grumman began to produce compact salopeta under the name AA-1 “Yankee”, which for many pet demand by buyers.
Jim Bidet, in turn, organized his own firm and began to produce percolating of vysokopol BD-4, but his plane ocupatie prefer a similar, well-advertised cars by Cessna. Then there was the BD-5 is a compact single-seat aircraft with two-stroke 2-cylinder engine. It had a short fuselage with a cabin-type glider in which the pilot was located in a semi-prone position. Pusher propeller was behind the tail and connected to the engine via an elongated shaft and V-belt transmission. Subsequently, the designer has developed a version of the device equipped with a jet engine with a thrust of 90 kg.
The aircraft was manufactured in the form of a set of blanks from which the buyer can collect it. According to the Americans, in this lay the secret of the success of the machine – under American law, aircraft manufactured in the form of a set of workpieces, and component units, were not subject to certification, comprehensive flight tests. Every fan who collected the aircraft from a kit, personally, felt it simplified the program and received a conditional certificate for the conduct of flight operations on your apparatus.
Skillful and subtle advertising contributed to the success of BD-5 customers. Machine in the U.S. air force, involves the use of a jet version of BD-5 as the standard training aircraft. The car was sent to the Flight test Institute, the U.S. air force for testing, which showed that this aircraft’s lack of stability, poor handling and in General it is dangerous even for professionals. The test results were published, and the firm went bankrupt Bidet. The reason for the failure of the compact plane was the difficulty of piloting a miniature machine, as has already been mentioned above.
At the end of the story about the planes Jim Bidet should be mentioned about the advantages of a pusher propeller located behind a smooth, well-streamlined fuselage – in this case, losses of thrust are small. Besides, in this scheme, the propeller is not blowing the wing and the fuselage is turbulent (swirling) flow, so that flow resistance of such a device on flight speeds is even smaller than that of the machine with a tractor propeller. Therefore, the aircraft type DB-5 with a pusher propeller may have a higher maximum speed than the devices of the classical scheme, some losing them in the landing characteristics and rate of climb.
From the above conclusion that shake the world speed records are best on the aircraft type DB-5, and to fly in the pleasure – on the apparatus with a tractor propeller, such as “Volksplane”, built in the early 1970-ies the American Aviator-lover Evans.
Design of aircraft
The design of the aircraft “Volksplane”:
1 – shaft vertical tail (dural tube); 2 – the longitudinal members of the fuselage (pine); 3 – fuselage skin (3 mm plywood); 4 – wing spar; 5 – protivokapotazhnoy arc; 6 – fuel tank (30 liters); 7 – frame (30-mm plywood); 8 – the engine from the car “Volkswagen” with a capacity of 40 – 60 HP; 9 – hood (fiberglass); 10 – leaf spring suspension; 11 – holes for attachment of the wing; 12 – bracing of the wing; 13 – wing stand; 14 – internal braces-wing; 15 – a bolt of fastening of the brace

The layout of the aircraft “Volksplane” V p-1 American designer Evans:
length – 5.49 m, a wingspan of 7.32 m wing area – of 9.29 m2, empty weight – 200 kg takeoff weight – 340 kg, max speed 170 km/h stall speed 65 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 2 m/s, 137 m, mileage -61m

“Volksplane” was tested and certified according to American standards of airworthiness for light aircraft and is allowed to perform aerobatics, and spin. Evans intended to create the simplest aircraft available to the recurrence of an Amateur having no special training.
This machine arranged according to the classic scheme of low. The basic materials for construction – wood, plywood and foam. The spring chassis of duralumin plates, like a model airplane. Engine – from the famous car “Volkswagen beetle” in. The simplicity and accessibility “Volksplane” made it a perfect example for repetition. Amateur aircraft of this type are built from original drawings, which sold to many countries and operated in Australia, England, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, USA and Switzerland.
In the same 1970-ies students of the Kharkiv aviation Institute also undertook the design of a simple plane. The new device, called HAI-19, was svobodnaia total all-wood monoplane of classic design. Despite the fact that the plane didn’t contain anything fundamentally new, “old” in it was laid out so efficiently and skillfully that HAI-19 and today it is possible to recommend to the aviation lovers as a sample to build.
Classic diskoplana type HAI-19 has always demonstrated great flying qualities and ease of piloting. Another confirmation of the advantages of the device of this arrangement was the airplane “Argo-02”, made by the Tver Amateur aircraft designers E. Ignatiev, Y. Gusakovym and A. Abramov. For its production used pine, plywood and fabric. The basis of the power plant – domestic engine RMZ-640. Flies, Tverskaya homemade is better than other units with imported motors.
Argo aircraft-02 created by E. Ignatiev, Y. Gusakovym and A. Abramov (Tver)
Argo aircraft-02 created by E. Ignatiev, Y. Gusakovym and A. Abramov (Tver):
engine – 28-strong RMZ-640, wing area is 6.3 m2, empty weight – 145 kg, takeoff weight of 235 kg, maximum speed – 150 km/h, stall speed – 72 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 2 m/s, the run is 100 m, distance 80 m, range of flight C. G. – 24 – 27% of SAH, the range of operating overloads from +3 to – 1.5

“Argo-02” in flight
The plane A-15 design Vakhrusheva I. (Samara)
The plane of A-15 construction Vakhrusheva I. (Samara):
wing area 5 m2, airfoil -P-III-18%, the empty weight is 135 kg, takeoff weight of 220 kg, the engine RMZ-640 with capacity of 30 HP, the diameter of the propeller – 960 mm, pitch – 550 mm, static thrust – screw 60 kgf, in-flight alignment 23% of SAH-maximum speed – 140 km/h stall speed 70 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 3 m/s

The layout of the aircraft “Argo-02”:
1 – wooden propeller (diameter – 1480 mm, 950 mm); 2 – V-belt gear with a ratio of 2.0; 3 – the engine RMZ-640; 4 – engine mount (welded, of steel tubes-20); 5 – fire bulkhead; 6 – fuel tank 7 – instrument panel; 8 – lever engine control; 9 – fairing of the fuselage (frame – pine stringers and frames cover – cloth); 10 – the cable rollers of the actuator of the rudder; 11 – the longerons of the fuselage (pine); 12 – struts and braces of the frame of the fuselage (pine); 13 – rocking hard-drive elevators; 14 – traction Elevator control; 15 – caudal bearing; 16 – cable rudder; 17 – fairing rocking of the Elevator control; 18 – pine belt fuselage beams of the wing – the continuation of the spars of the wing; 19 – wheel chassis (300×125 mm); 20 – spring chassis (steel); 21 – suspended control pedal at the rate of

Very similar to the “Argo-02” the plane A-15 Amateur designer I. vahrusheva from the city of Samara. At the heart of its design – also pine, plywood and fabric. The drive of the air screw on this model is direct drive.
Later, fans got the popularity of the aircraft with fuselage in the form of a thin tubular beams. One of the first representatives of this direction was the monoplane “REYL” American Aviator enthusiast of Harris wood. The machine is equipped with a pair of 20-horsepower engines with pusher propellers. The advantage of these machines are simplicity and ease of construction of the fuselage. By the way, a similar scheme has a plane “Birdman” (USA), which is distributed in the form of a set of blanks.
Plane beams, the fuselage can be not only a monoplane, but a biplane. A similar device Khai-34 in its time was built by students of the Kharkov aviation Institute under the guidance of S. Shevchenko, and V. Miller. As the power unit used a 27-horsepower outboard motor “Whirlwind”. However, all-wood plane was peretyagina and engine power it is clearly not enough – after lift-off climb rate of the device was only 0.5 m/s, so even flying in a circle turned to the pilot in difficult task.
More original biplane, which resembled a very popular in the West Amateur airplane “Wing Ding II” was created by the father and the son Zaliki from Rostov-on-don. Their little “Salic-2” had wings made of ailerons of the aircraft An-2, and the engine is borrowed from the refrigeration plant of “Skoda”. On the fuselage I-beam went duralumin pipe with a diameter of 110 mm. there are many not very successful attempts to use in Amateur designs aggregates production aircraft, but it was the “Selice-2” the combination was harmonious and rational, so that the flight characteristics of this biplane were quite high. Two years later Zaliki installed it on their offspring 70 HP engine and with it “Salic-2M” beautifully demonstrated its ability in gatherings of Amateur aviators.
Another single plane-monoplane HAI-40 with beam fuselage was built by students of the Kharkiv aviation Institute (the chief designer of the project, HMIS). Disadvantages to the pusher propeller, the creators of this machine tried to compensate for installation on 35-HP engine RMZ-640 gear with the timing belt and the propeller increased diameter. In addition, the aircraft equipped with the wing with aspect ratio of 8.2. The attempt failed – the machine flies perfectly and can even carry a lot of weight.
“Bestuzhevskie” Amateur aircraft:
A – plane “REYL” designs of Harris wood (USA): length-4,75 m; wing area was 7.56 m2 weight empty 200 kg takeoff weight – 322 kg, maximum speed – 145 km/h, the speed of SVA-key Largo – 72 km/h, rate of climb – 4.5 m/s, the ceiling – 4500 m takeoff distance to a height of 15 m, 375 m, landing distance 240 m
B-plane “Birdman”TL-1 (USA): engine power – 15 HP, a wingspan of 10.36 m, length 5.9 m, wing area -13 m2 empty weight – 50 kg, take-off weight – 159 kg, maximum speed – 100 km/h, climb rate 1.8 m/s, has a range of 380 km

Single biplanes
Single biplanes:
And the biplane “Salic-2”: the wing area of 7.4 m2 takeoff weight – 222 kg, engine power-30 HPC., the diameter of the propeller – 1060 mm, pitch – 340 mm, static thrust screw, 60 kg, maximum speed – 120 km/h, stall speed – 60 km/h, climb rate near the ground – 1.5 m/s
B – plane Khai-34: length – 4.8 m, a wingspan of 5.81 m, wing area was 8.8 m2 takeoff weight – 237 kg, the diameter of the propeller – 1300 mm, screw – 600 mm, maximum speed – 120 km/h, stall speed 62 km/h
In – plane “Wing Ding II” (USA): engine power – 14 HP, wingspan of 5.69 m, wing area – 9,85 m2 empty weight – 55.5 kg, take – off weight- 140 kg, maximum speed – 80 km/h, stall speed – 42 km/h, ceiling – 1220 m, has a range of 32 km, 76 m, distance 46 m

Single beam planes
Single beam aircraft:
And – aircraft HAI-40: wing area of 9.7 m2, the static thrust of the rotor is 90 kg, takeoff weight of 252 kg, maximum speed – 110 km/h stall speed 55 km/h
B – plane “Caprice” design. Aminaka (Czech Republic)

The plane Optimist design Babov V. (Ekaterinburg)-one of the best gatherings of ALS in the category of single-seat aircraft:
engine power – 36 HP, wing area-9,0 m2, airfoil -R-W-15.5% of takeoff weight is 301 kg, empty weight 210 kg, in-flight alignment for 24% of SAH, the maximum speed – 130 km/h, stall speed – 72 km/h, climb rate near the ground is 2 m/s

The Plane Optimist:
1 – wiring of the receiver air pressure; 2, the air intake fan of the cockpit; 3 – panel; 4 – petrol tank; 5 – belt drive to the propeller shaft; 6 – an elongated screw shaft; 7 – the bearing of the screw shaft; 8 – a wooden propeller (max speed – 2600 rpm diameter of 1.54 m step – 0.5 m); 9 – driven nose strut zhidkostnoi depreciation; 10 – wheel dimensions 300×100 mm; 11 – duralumin pipe with a diameter of 110 mm; 12 – a homemade two-stroke two-cylinder engine of air cooling; 13 – spring chassis made of titanium alloy VT-6; 14 – shutter for the outlet of the cooling air

Examples of successful layout of the device with girder fuselage and a pusher propeller can also serve the aircraft, “Caprice”, built in Kiev Institute of civil aviation Czech student J. Aminaka, and “Optimist” by V. Babov from Yekaterinburg.
Among Amateur single aircraft often meet and “waterfowl” options. Problems of creation of seaplanes are of interest to many aviation enthusiasts. And this is understandable: in one case, for tens of kilometers around there is a suitable site for take-off and landing, and reservoirs is sufficient; in the other, so eager to solve the problem of safe take-off and landing (the water is still “soft” ground), in the third – attracts relaxing at the river or lake.
All these considerations are apparently taken into account by designers from the already mentioned club Aeroprakt, who built several of the original seaplanes.
The appearance of the first of them is connected with the serial crashes of the airframe initial training “Primer”. To make the learning process more secure, the designers have created a glider taking off from land with rubber shock absorber and making the landing on the water.
A year later on the glider A-3 mounted outboard motor “Whirlwind 25”, modified for air cooling – power it is quite enough to take off from the water, but the stiffness and strength of the wing was clearly not designed for the increased speed.
Machine name A-5 also was intended to fly above the water surface and was an amphibian with the same engine and non-retractable wheeled chassis. The flight from the ground airfield showed that the A-5 is quite stable, controllable, well taking off and landing on a dirt airfield. However, attempts to take off from the water and subsequent landing on water due to the large resistance of the wheel without success. In the end the chassis was removed completely, turning the amphibian into a flying boat with a flat bottom. But this improvement of the apparatus is not over. The strength of the flat bottom was low and the repair of the bottom, broken in the rough landing, it was decided to make a new, more durable, with a low deadrise, wycleef it from foam and fiberglass.
The modernization of the flying boat, called A-05 “Hydro-Il”, ended – the seaplane has successfully flown, easily performing complex maneuvers. Even the forced landing ended safely – the car was well planned and gently fell to the water.
Flying boat A-05 “Hydro-11” made of fiberglass and wood. Its aerodynamic design – strut-braced high-wing monoplane with T-tail. Single-spar wing consists of two detachable consoles fit directly to the fuselage. The wing has a significant elongation and, as a consequence, the device – high aerodynamic quality, which allows him to perfectly plan and to fly with an engine of low power.
The entire rear edge of the wing is drooping ailerons. For the wing head of the project V. Miroshnik has developed a special profile, after its configuration with purging models in the wind tunnel of the Samara aviation Institute.
Any special devices, providing stability on water (as a rule, floats of streamlined shape at the wing tips), the seaplane is not available. Just parked the end of one of the sealed consoles placed on the water; during the takeoff run of a flying boat, as its growth rate and appearance of the Aileron effectiveness, the console is easily separated from the surface of the water. And special water helm A-05 “Hydro-11” is not provided, and it is the function of submerged root part of the rudder. Powerplant of the car is the engine “Vikhr’ -30A”, modified for air cooling. Propeller – wood, pushing, fixed pitch.
In conclusion, single Amateur aircraft it should be noted that such devices often find practical application. In some countries these machines are used for monitoring power lines, gas pipelines, agricultural land. On light aircraft set equipment for aerial photography and equipment for small capacity of chemical treatment of crops. However, for initial training single airplanes better not to use – more suited for this double apparatus.

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