THE CURVING BRANCHES OF SIR KISA

CURVING BRANCHES SIR KISAWe left Britain in the midst of the “great war” as it was called by the British the First world war. Pretty pinched with German “u-bots” merchant fleet. But with huge military, which now has quite a prominent role began to play and the submarine. And the variety: the richest Empire could afford to actively experiment with a new kind of naval forces, which has gradually become almost a favorite.

 
In principle, like other powers-the allies, UK has developed a type of boat which can be called quite reasonable, only to end the fighting. Really the brunt of the war made unpretentious, but not too strong of a unit of type “E”. However, in parallel, there was a variety of designs, some of which resulted in a rather large series of dozens of units.
 
Here there are two “fixed ideas”, which has put his hand Roger Kiisa, in the future, the Admiral of the fleet, and in the first decade of the XX century, one of the companions of sir John Fisher. In the last prewar years, he became the commander of submarine forces and, of course, a lobbyist for the construction of the submarine fleet. The Kiisa really quite deeply studied all sides of the issue, including technical, although his approach was in many respects very peculiar. He drew attention to the fact that in the leading in the field of underwater shipbuilding countries, except USA, is dominated by boats with double hull: a solid inner and a light (but full) external. The future Admiral himself quickly realized the advantage of the scheme, but persuaded the lords of the Admiralty. In the end, in the prewar years and the beginning of the war on the tree of British submarine, and in General, developing quickly and without any distortions, there are several side branches. May they all technically had the status of experimental, some of them were very branchy. But some of them were infertile bitches.
 
One of these “branches” were Italian. Recall that the British, in 1912, bought the project “Medusa” Cesare Laurent, a leading designer of submarines in Italy. It’s been suggested to build a “few units.” Before that (and during the first war years) monopolists in this case was the Admiralty, “was in charge of” the design, and the famous firm “Vickers” – as the Builder, which, in turn, had an agreement with the American “electric Bouts” for the construction of its products. The Kiisa really wanted to get rid of at least a second monopoly. Therefore, for this experiment, chose a much less well-known Scottish Builder “Scott” from Greenock, near Glasgow.
 
The main attractive factor of this project was just dvuhkonusnyj design; the rest of the boats looked dated already at the time of the bookmark. A displacement of only 250 tons and armed with two torpedo tubes were not the greatest weaknesses: speed submerged and did not reach 7 knots and the range is 50 miles at 4 knots. However, these modest characteristics from the “Italians” had to literally harass: fiatovskie diesels denied when alone, and when both, leaving the submarine in a helpless position. The British arrived more than reasonable, by sending these “products” at the place of origin in Italy, immediately after a questionable “neutral” Apennine Kingdom became as a dubious ally.
 
However, this “affair” with Laurent is not over: with the filing of the same CISA the Admiralty continued attempts to introduce dvuhkonusnyh scheme, but the Italian was able to design such boats. The British could not afford even such “freedom” as the repetition of a good type “E”, but with a different case design. We are talking about the type “G”, developed on the basis of the project Laurent, which, however, were exactly what I wanted the English: the construction of the hull. Otherwise, according to its characteristics, this type differed little from the “battle horses war”, although the “filling” was placed in a totally different “shell”. Thus Britain decided to order as many as half a dozen boats just to compare polutoratonny option (type “E”) and new double-hulled. Painfully I wanted to reach the level of the Germans, whose submarine was terrifying and respect from the very beginning of the war. And the Admiralty believed that the success of his “u-bots” largely due to it design.
 
A new type of “G” (the first unit was laid in late autumn 1914) on the formal characteristics very like the “E”. In particular, inconvenient “circular” arrangement of torpedo tubes: two in the nose, two on the sides, firing at the beam and one in the stern. The difference was that by a strange whim of designers feed the machine for the first time in British submarines had a caliber of 533 mm, while the rest retained the old 450 mm. However, it was originally supposed to be in the nose to have one 533-mm camera, but the military experience quickly demonstrated the importance of volley-firing as the principal means to increase the probability of hitting the target. But two new 533-mm “pipe” does not fit in the nasal contours, in spite of their change. So I had to squeeze into a small old caliber for the most important torpedo tubes.
 
Implemented a new type of “artillery”: initially, one rapid-fire trehdyuymovym and “E” in the complex retractable installation before chipping. To this weapon during the war were added or second same, or 40-mm “POM-POM” behind the cabin. Based on other war lessons, the boats increased foreign body in the nose, to increase seaworthiness. As the engines used the same diesel engines and electric motors that checked the type “E”.
 
In principle, the double-hulled boats proved to be quite successful and efficient, although they cost more and were built longer. Of the 15 ordered built 14; “G-15”, “cancelled” before the bookmark in 1915, when Britain has “submarine crisis” is clearly rolling towards the sunset. In the military they performed well. Their main purpose initially determined the patrols in the North sea and is a rare case – I used. On battle account type “G” number two “at-bot”, but they lost twice. For a variety of reasons: “the G-7 and G-8” just returned to base from a patrol, and “G-7” became the last British boat flushed the enemy into “the great war” (the date of her death is 1st of November 1918).
 
 
But the death of “G-9” were her fault. Not recognizing the purpose, the boat attacked its own destroyer “Paisley”. And hit! Fortunately for the destroyer, the torpedo did not explode. Not on happiness for the submarine, which is “Paisley” and immediately rammed, making a spectacular u-turn. With the cut almost in half the boats survived only one person. A “G-11” was a victim of the sea, suffering a crash already on the 22nd of November 1918. The fate of the others is not very diverse: they all went for scrap in 1920 -1923 years, in addition to “G-4” has served for five years longer.
 
Another attempt to enrich the international experience became the closest allies, the French. Again, the Kiisa, visited France, convinced the Admiralty that the products by the famous Maxim Lobata can be useful, and it is addressed to “owner”, very well known and eminent firm of “Armstrong Whitworth”, on the subject of the purchase of the drawings – as if. Armstrong faithfully fulfilled the assignment, the benefit for the order is still paid by the state. So, six months before the war was laid two pairs of submarines of the type “W”, despite the compelling observations of naval officers who saw this “miracle” afloat in Toulon. Sailors believed that subtle and unseaworthy “French” absolutely not suitable for operation in Northern waters, and they were right. Their only advantage was dvuhkonusnyj design; the rest of the boats of this type can be set as the evaluation is “bad” or even “very bad”. Too small, low speed, constantly breaking engines of French origin, disgusting seaworthiness and armament of only two 450 mm torpedo tubes, they were committed by outsiders in the Royal Navy. The Admiralty quickly realized what I had done, and immediately after the entry into operation has begun negotiations for the supply of “dual Vasek” newfound ally, Italy. In fact, the English fleet was only “W-1” and “W-2”, and it does not last long. Safely fused in August 1916 the Italians, the Quartet gained fame throughout the Mediterranean and went for scrapping shortly after the war, having been in the ranks humiliating 3-4 years.
 
Submarine
 
The submarine G-2 (England, 1916)
 
Built at the state dockyard in Chatham. Type of construction – the double-hulled, with external ballast tanks. Displacement underwater/surface 700/975 T. Dimensions: length of 57.04 m, width of 6.94 m, draft of 4.04 m. the immersion Depth up to 45 m. Engine: diesel engine with power of 1600 HP and two electric motors with a power of 840 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 14,5/10 kt. Armament – four 450 mm torpedo tubes: two in the nose, two on sides and one 533-mm camera in the rear (total of 10 torpedoes); one 76mm anti-aircraft gun. The crew of 31 people In 1916-1917 built 14 units from “G-1” to “G-14”. “G-7”, “G-8 and G-9 and G-11” died in the war, and the rest scrapped in 1920 – 1921, except “G-13” (deleted from the lists in 1923) and “G-4” (deleted from the list in 1928)

 
Submarine
 
Submarine “H-4” (Britain, 1909)
 
It was built by the firm “Vickers” in Canada. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface – 365/435 t Dimensions: length – 45,83 m, width – 4,8 m draught 3,76 m immersion Depth up to 40 m. Engine: diesel engine power 960 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 640 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 13/10 bonds. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes) and one 57-mm (on some units – 76 mm) gun. In 1915 built 20 units from “N-1” to “N-20”. “N-1″ N-3” and “N-10” died during the war, “N-6” was bought by Denmark after grounding the ship in its territorial waters in 1916, the “N-14” and “15” is transferred to Canada, “N-13 and N-16 – N-20” sold to Chile. The rest scrapped in 1921

 
However, despite all attempts to get away from this heavy cross, Britain has been able to avoid overseas invasions “in the name of Holland”. As soon as the war began in Europe, President of “Bethlehem Steele”, a leading American manufacturer of steel products, not lazy (and not afraid) to cross the Atlantic with there hunting German submarines to the British offer their products. Of course, as “selfless help speak the same language in the just struggle against barbarism”. Cost this selfless assistance to the former metropolis is quite expensive: a year of cooperation, the firm has increased its profit by 2.5 times. And one of the most important points in the contracts it became a submarine. Spellbound by the eloquence of overseas guests, the British desired to obtain as much as two dozen pieces of “hollandsche” sample. Although it is unclear why the Admiralty took these little (with a displacement of about 350 tons) of the boat in such numbers, because they came mostly to protect their own shores, which in fact nobody was threatened.
 
However, one aspect is quite clear: the Americans were able to build the “Hollands” very quickly, and at the beginning of the First world was represented that she will not last long. However, it belonged to the manufacturer, “electric boat”, but “Bethlehem” initially did not even have the appropriate shipyard! Not a problem: a clever President of the company offered customers … to share their power in Canada. Thus, the British did their own ordering. Assembly of parts beljanovski started the canadian branch of Vickers. And achieved excellent results: the head unit (it is not surprising that the series has received the letter designation “N” – out of turn, but, as most of the “Hollands” in different countries) came into operation after 4 and a half months after emplacement during the scheduled period of 10 months. What was supposed to be a big bonus (at the cost of two submarines), which went … “Betlehem”. So deftly was drawn up contract.
 
Remained the problem of delivery of finished products across the ocean. The British decided to take the risk, and in the summer of 1915 the canadian “Holland” “N-4” became the first submarine to cross the Atlantic on their own. It was followed by other units of the canadian ten. And after half a year and she “Bethlehem Steele” started producing on his own yard “For river” in Quincy.
 
No matter how hard the developers of the project of “electric boat” and the customers themselves from the once good project has long been almost all squeezed. However, it is the “N” became the first British submarines, which had a bow salvo of four torpedoes. Furthermore, their seakeeping was quite at the level for such small boats, as evidenced by their transatlantic crossing. Boats, their equipment, summer costumes for fishing and mechanisms were quite unpretentious and such troubles, as a private of the British “experiments”, not delivered. In the end, what more can you ask from such a fantastic “skorostnoy” – on the German level.
 
CURVING BRANCHES SIR KISA
 
So in 1915, the British received a full set of two dozen “Hollands”, which now had somewhere to attach. They were originally intended to protect England from German troops (!), which, of course, would need to wait many years. Therefore, the first four, with “N-1” to “N-4”, immediately sent to warmer climes, the Mediterranean sea, where in the midst was the ill-fated campaign in the Dardanelles. There they were quite on the spot. “N-1” even famous, entering the Marmara sea, where he destroyed the gunboat, five steamers and 17 small sailboats, and … three trains. She also became the first in the history of the submarine continued to fire on shore targets, despite retaliatory artillery fire. Not bad for a small boat and its modest 76-mm cannon.
 
But further her career overshadowed by the sinking of almost native “sisters”. We are talking about the Italian “Holland” “N-5” (also built in the shipyards of the canadian branch of the “Vickers”), received in the Adriatic torpedoed by “relative” shortly before the end of the war, in April 1918. However, her partner, the “N-4”, improved its position two months later, having done the same operation with the real enemy submarine “UB-52”. Another “bot” (“U-51”) fell victim to the “H-5” already in the North sea. Suffered losses, and quite notable, and “Aicha”. “N-3” was lost on a mine in the Adriatic, apparently, the same happened with the “N-10” off the coast of Britain, “H-5” came under the battering RAM of his own vessel. A curious fate befell the “N-6”, whiteblouse in early 1916 to run aground at the Danish coast. The Danes took her “under his wing”, took off from the shallows and … bought from the UK.
 
Thus began a series of British sales, “Hollands”, which has become an obvious burden for the Royal Navy, who had by that time already a significant and a much larger, more modern submarines in the right quantity. The main buyer of steel Chile traditionally had very close ties with the British Empire and its firms. Back in 1917, went six units: “N-12” and all latest, starting with “N-16”, some immediately from the United States. A couple more, “N-14 and N-15”, have received a reward (or a punishment-it’s how you look) Canada. Well, all the rest of the survivors went for scrap after the war.
 
CURVING BRANCHES SIR KISA
 
In parallel, the British themselves tried to develop a small double-hulled boats. In 1912 Vickers prepared the project and started the construction of four “pure English” units of “V” type: domestic was like the drawings and the engines and equipment; buildings and weapons you can not even mention. The success was very moderate: “Vaski” at the surface under displacement 370 t were unable to reach rated speed or under water or on its surface, although the “gap” was not so significant. The arms remained at the level of “Hollands”: two bodies in the nose, plus a 40-mm gun. In principle, vecherkovskiy “product” was not as disastrous as “Medusa” Laurent, but not really needed for their country. Unlike the American “skorostnoy”, these babies are being completed slowly, over 2 – 2.5 years, i.e. 6 – 8 times slower! They ripe in late 1915 – early 1916, becoming accurate by that time outdated in its idea and implementation. Until the end of the war they were engaged in “coastal defense”, and saved from losses of all four (on the coast of Britain has no one attempted). But after the end of hostilities he was sent to be scrapped, without hesitation and regrets.
 
But the Admiralty were not satisfied and decided to compete with the “owner” of “Vickers”, creating its own project of small double casing of the boat. So there was a type “F”, its characteristics are not very different from the “Vasek”. The main advantage was the appearance of a third torpedo in the stern (along with four to six “fish” increased ammo). However, the performance characteristics of “Admiralty” boats did not exceed vecherkovskiy, and they were built about the same time, if not more. (Record set “F-2”, the commissioning of which took almost three full years, and that in time of war, at a ridiculous 350-ton displacement!) The advantage of state-building emerged is that what was able to quickly stop the reproduction of unwanted boats: initially they planned to have eight pieces, but really in operation includes only the first three, and then two “F” mainly because ordering private shipyards has already been issued. The service and the fate of the units in this series did not differ from their vecherkovskiy colleagues.
 
This was the case with the first idea Kisa: for some reason, of course, promising the use of double casing design has degenerated mostly into a very small size projects. As they say, “waste of money”. However, he had another obsession, which led to a much more expensive attempts to create a “fleet submarine”. The Admiralty, at the time quite actively otkreschivaetsya from a new class of ships underwater, closer to the First world war so taste this “delicacy” that they had considered submarines as one of the important elements of the Grand fleet, battle fleet, the primary purpose of which it was already to crush the “arrogant Germans” in a pitched battle. So very tempting seemed to engage in this battle not only battleships, cruisers – and the list goes on, but the submarine forces. The idea was that the maneuvers of the main forces (or parts thereof) to lure enemy ships into a trap set by the submarines. But if that doesn’t work, submarines should be ready nearby in order to finish torpedo any enemy ship damaged in squadron battle. To do this, however, they were required to at least be able to stay in the sea surface together with the “senior comrades”.
 
Thus was born the concept of fleet submarines. Accordingly, from boats of this type were required to have speed on the surface equal to that of contemporary battleships, that is, about 21 per node. And the struggle for “squeezing” it is this speed that has been put in a very considerable means.
 
Both ideas came together in 1912 when the same Laurent suggested that the British variant of a fairly large double casing of the submarine with fiutowski a heavy-duty diesel engines, and tried to draw in the squadron. But the British did not really believe in the ability of automakers with the Apennines is largely justified. As a result of the project remained only a “skeleton”, that is the case. As the power plant turned to steam turbines, hoping to get the same boat, able to operate at sea with the Navy.
 
The submarine
 
Submarine “S-1” (England, 1914)
 
Built by “Scotts” in Greenock. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface 250/300 tons Dimensions: length – 45,298 m, width 4,19 m, draft – 3.05 m Depth to 30 m. Engine: diesel engine power of 650 HP and two electric motors rated at 400 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 13/7 bonds. Armament – two 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes). The crew – 26 people In 1914 and built three units: “S-1”, “S-2”, “S-3”. All transferred to Italy in September 1915, and was excluded from the lists of the Italian Navy in early 1919

 
The submarine
 
Submarine “Nautilus” (England, 1917)
 
It was built by the company “Vickers” in barrow. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 1270/1700 t Dimensions: length – 73,96 m, a width of 7.93 m, maximum draught of 4.88 m. the immersion Depth up to 50 m. Engine: diesel engine capacity 3700 HP and two electric motors 1000 HP Speed surface/submarine (project) – 17/10 knots real 1 – 1.5 uz. less. Armament – eight 450-mm torpedo tubes: four in the nose, two on the sides, two in the stern (16 torpedoes); one 76mm gun. The crew of 42 people In 1918. renamed to “N-1” was used for charging batteries, in the battle did not go Hiking, decommissioned in 1922

 
These hopes led to a lot of unpleasant consequences. First, the boat, the designation “S-1”, was long overdue with the commissioning due to the need for redesign. Secondly, and most importantly, a steam boiler on the submarine once again showed his temper. In the transition from movement under the turbine to the electric motors needed to pit pairs. And even a very relatively quick immersion required considerable time. Steam condensed in tightly closed to care under the water body, annealing the team and causing a short circuit in the wiring. Not too good by itself, the project Laurent was also thoroughly spoiled with replacement of diesel to the turbines that led to a change in mass distribution. In the end, while sinking “S-1” (the letter and number by the time was released, and initially, the submarine had its own name “Swordfish”) had been trying to roll over. Despite the heroic efforts of the crew, the boat formally delivered to the Navy in mid-1916, and failed to enter service until the end of the war. After six months of torment, the Admiralty was forced to admit that the best solution would be… put it in reserve. After some doubts she still tried to use, but as a surface ship! With the submarine removed all the “boat” traits: torpedo, electric motors and batteries. In the bow built some sort of forecastle, it is the bridge, installed a pair of 76-mm guns and in the middle of 1917 “published”. But “candy” it was not cheesy, like a submarine, “S-1” is as bad as a surface a “fighter”. The result is clear: the change to be scrapped shortly after the war.
 
How strong was the desire to create a “real” ocean-going submarine, shows occurring at about the same time the story of the “Nautilus”. This truly immortal for a submarine vessel of the name was the experimental “product” ordered by Vickers before the war. Initiators are all the same: Roger Kiisa and his patron, the famous lover of innovation Lord John Fisher. The idea seemed simple: to double the displacement of a good type “E”, providing a powerful diesel engines to provide for the outer shell nautical shape with forecastle and – ready. The problem was the “perfect little things”: the engines of such power (under 2000 HP) was not simple in nature. They are not visible in the near future. But all this did not prevent to issue an order to the boat.
 
When it came time to install the engines, designers had to break down. In the end, was born a true “many-headed dragon”: a diesel engine in the form of four 3-cylinder units installed in a row and one rotating shaft. A few of these “dragons” was installed on the Nautilus, after
bringing with them the problems started. As it turned out, endless. “Nautilus” was built four and a half years, until October of 1917, but according to the formal readiness it was not possible to send not to fight, but even in the present test campaign. “Four monster” is constantly breaking down, and the submarine departed not from saving the dock yard. The following year she was “demoted” to “N-1”, then possibly another year… “Chairbound” a boat used mainly for recharging the batteries: here trouble with the motors, at least, was not fatal. And in 1922 sent so never go camping pricey “N-1” to be scrapped.
 
So – a rather daunting, if not hopeless, was the first attempt to create a “fleet submarine”. However, the British would not be British, if not expressed, in this case a remarkable tenacity. In the case entered the “main forces”, including the Director of shipbuilding Department of the Admiralty, Eustace Tennyson D Ankort. He promised that designed the new option type and finally will have the expected characteristics. The importance of the task was underlined by the fact that the orders for construction received solely state-owned shipyard. And in the spring of 1915, the laying of 6 units (7 built later).
 
The designers were faced with a very difficult task. He D Ankort believed that the submarine is able to develop on the surface at least 20 nodes simply must have steam turbine installation. However, the Admiralty already knew the example of a failed Swordfishes, boilers and chimneys on Board submarines – a decision that lead to a dead end, and told to try to achieve the best possible speed using existing diesel engines, which could not reach the required power, as shown by the experience of the Nautilus. In General, the project is immediately caught between Scylla and Charybdis.
 
Had to try to increase the number of diesels and shafts. Did so. The result is a three-shaft underwater ship of twice the displacement and cost, with a body length of 30 m more than standard “large” boats of the time tested type of “E”. For optimum ride quality on the surface the boats of this type had dvuhkonusnyh design. What did these heroic attempts? Only increase speed on the surface for less than four knots, plus a few more cruising range than the previous types. In General, a bit, especially since the basic requirement remained unfulfilled: “J” couldn’t “squeeze” more than 19 knots, while for action with a fleet needed for a few knots more.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “J-1” (Britain, 1916)
 
Built at the state shipyard in Portsmouth. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 1210/1820т. Dimensions: length of 83.8 meters, a width of 7.17 m, maximum draught of 4.27 m. the immersion Depth up to 50 m. Engines: three diesel engine capacity of 3600 HP and three electric motors with a capacity of 1350 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 19/9,5 ties. Armament – six 450 mm torpedo tubes: four in the nose and two on the sides (12 torpedoes); one 76-mm and one 40-mm gun. The crew – 44 persons, In 1916 – 1917, built 7 units: “J-1” to “J-7”. “J-6” sunk by mistake his ship in 1918, the other in 1919 transferred to Australia. Excluded from the lists of the Australian Navy and sold for scrapping in 1924 – 1926, except for “J-7”, who served until 1929

 
But fighting qualities, despite a twofold increase in displacement has changed, not so much. Added only the sixth torpedo, however, now the location of weapons in General was more reasonable. Especially to the greatly increased strike capabilities in front: the nose was four trumpets, which allowed to double the volley in one attack. But another pair was located outside of any logic, to traverse. The British stubbornly held to this weird scheme in all projects large boats of the first half of the war. However, the amount of attacking possibilities of type “J” finally approached the German “u-boats” long-range. Boats were the second full set of spare torpedoes. (However, the caliber of them still remained the same, 450 mm.) From the beginning provided for the installation of the 76 mm gun (which at the end of the war was replaced by a 102-mm) in front of the cabin, and behind the latter there were also 40-mm “POM-POM”. Of interesting equipment type “J” to mark an underwater audio communication system of Fessenden. In principle, this system is based on the wonderful propagation of sound in water, tried to push on most boats, the submarines, designed for close interaction with the battle fleet, she had a really noticeable sense.
 
Major efforts also have focused, naturally, on the main mechanisms. To achieve the required speed, required power over three and a half thousand horses, and then British diesel engines could not issue more than 100 forces on each cylinder. Accordingly, even the primary school it is easy to calculate the total number of required cylinders – 36. Two-shaft installation has not passed: to have a 18-cylinder diesel engine capacity of 1800 HP at the time was not possible. Had to equip the boat with three propeller shafts. Each of them was driven by 12-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine from the “Vickers”. Although, strictly speaking, it consisted of two conventional 6-cylinder engine three-cylinder two groups that are installed one behind the other and rotating one shaft.
 
This “crocodile” was of great length, and diesel compartment “J” type extended 30 meters – three times more than on “E”. Because of this, any problems with the location of the Central post, which was sandwiched between the forward engine room and torpedo tubes traversii, which, in turn, become hard. (On the last unit of the series, “J-7”, it even moved In the gap between the bow and stern of the diesel compartments. Moving the Central post away from traversing torpedo tubes access to them much easier.)
 
At speed diesels at full speed and at 380 rpm, transmitted to the shaft without any gearbox, the whole system is terribly rattled, creating so much noise that the diesel compartments had to shout passing instructions. Of course, the electric motors (there were three) at the same time it seemed absolutely silent. By the way, they had a pretty solid capacity of 1350 HP, while the speed under water up to 10 knots.
 
But diesels have not given the design capacity. Accordingly, the boats could not keep up with the Grand Fleet if the battleships have developed a full stroke. The Admiralty hesitated whether to release “J” “into the light”. But still released. And the first commanders of three of these boats have become some of the most successful British submarine, all holders of the Victoria cross, already known to us Nasmyth, received the “J-1”; Boyle, took command of the “J-5”; and last, but first for the glory – Max Horton, a recognized hero of the “Royal Navy”, ustralasia the Germans in the waters of the North sea and the Baltic. He became the commander of “J-6”.
 
It may be noted that these seasoned divers initially not too happy for its existence: after all, if they had acted as “free hunters”, but now it could not be considered. The presence in the structure organization enormous Grand fleet forced them to survive for months in the bases of the readiness and… inaction, waiting for a possible exit in the sea “of the high seas Fleet. So much success they have not achieved: after Jutland the Germans are not in a hurry to stick his head in the noose.
 
Sometimes they were sent on a combat patrol, and then it went smoothly. In November 1916, the “J-1” which was then commanded by Lawrence, while on patrol from the horn Reef noticed a ripe target: the division of battleships of the enemy. Here and impact the advantage of chetyrehjadernogo volley. Of the four “fish” category with a solid not only for those times for submarines range in a few miles, got both, and at once in two purposes! Quite modern battleships “grosser Elector” and “crown Prince” received on the ingress. Perhaps if on the “J-1” were 533-mm torpedoes, or both would be in one ship, the consequences would be very serious. And so, both the “German” left on their own to lick their wounds in base. However, this attack looks definitely outstanding for the First world.
 
Distinguished and “J-2”, podsovyvaya next summer during a patrol between the Orkney Islands and Norway, the German submarine “U-99”. And again was followed by a salvo of four torpedoes at about the same large distance. “German” went to the bottom.
 
Combat job type “J” could remain almost triumphantly, if not for an unfortunate misunderstanding at the end of the war. 15 Oct 1918, not far from its base in Blyth “J-6” came under the fire of ship-trap “Cymric”. The commander of the traps took a major submarine for enemy submarine. The shells quickly did the trick; so quickly that with the “J-6” saved only 15 of the 44 crew members.
 
Nevertheless, before the advent of “real” fleet submarines (monstrous type “K”, about which we will tell you more) “J” had a real pride of the British military submarine fleet. Say what you will, but they were the most high-speed diesel submarines of the First world war. Given the relatively scarce British diesel engine – a very significant achievement. However, the progress in the military quickly dismisses such “upstarts”. Towards the end of the war they were demoted to ordinary submarines long-range. The cost of maintaining large and capricious submarines in post-war Britain was too great, and the Admiralty began to look for whom to move them. The candidate was quickly found: the dominion of Australia, located “on the edge of the world” and separated from potential adversaries by vast water distances, was a good candidate. Australians with pride and pleasure to accept the gift, and in 1919, all remaining units proceeded “to the antipodes”. Before this they carefully repaired and provided a 120-mm gun mounted high on the cabin. (By the time the British considered that option very promising: it seems, from the gun to fire even in the excitement.) Australia, however, is too long been proud of the fruits of the “British experiment”. After five years of service “J” sent the last path to a breaker.
 
In General, “Board of CISA” submarine forces of Britain in pre-war and early war years caused a lot of issues. When in October 1914, Churchill was again made for the appointment of Fisher, the First Sea Lord, the one with some horror discovered that in the Navy is listed for the 12 submarines is less than it was in 1910, when he retired! In fact, during these four years the British submarine fleet has not made a single step forward. Such were the fruits of his former protégé. Old new Minister of the Navy acknowledged that the appointment of Kisa commander of the submarines was probably a mistake. Now Fisher believed that the Kiisa “had no idea how to use them.” The first Sea Lord had to strain himself and to exert all their employees. He began with a promise of the superintendent of Admiralty contracts to make his wife a widow, if it was limited to writing papers. “I need a boat, not contracts,” said Fisher. And during his “reign”, and he later quite actively fought against “fake ideas” Kisa, preferring to have a large series of simple and reliable submarines. And, in General, recognized as an innovator, here suddenly became a conservative, he was right.
 
V. KOFMAN

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