SHOES FOR THE “LUNOKHOD”

SHOES FOR THE Wheeled ATVs (all terrain vehicle jokingly called the homebrew “karakachani” or “Rovers”) on low-pressure tires (often referred to as the “Pneumatics”) is a very popular car among designers and enthusiasts. However, the high complexity of manufacturing the wheels, and most importantly — the low reliability of their tires (usually made of cameras wheeled tractors) are often cool creativity of the craftsmen. Meanwhile, a tyre for wheels of such a vehicle can be made of the right tire (diagonal fiber cord, not torn and not quite “bald”) from the wheels of a truck or wheeled tractor.

To convert the ordinary tire into a “pneumatic” she cut off all unnecessary: because the load of the vehicle (even with passengers) on them several tens of times lower than in regular version.
 
As you know, any pneumatic tyre is a multi — layered shell structure rubber, welded to a cord, which on the sides wrapped around steel cores-cores layered loop. For clarity, you can cut it across the grinder any unnecessary tire (because they are lying everywhere, even in the taiga and tundra), and all will become clear. Conventionally, the tire can be divided into the following components: Jogging track, Board and sides (outer and inner for tyres with directional tread pattern — the same design, but mirrored). Each part in turn, consists of several (or even many) of highly interconnected elements.
So, outside it is necessary to remove the excess rubber of the sidewalls and tread, and the inside — remove the landing cores (leaving, if necessary only one) and even some rubberized cord basis of the tire, that is only if it is very difficult to keep the integrity of the cord threads of the remaining nearest layer.
 
For the wheels of his vehicle, I used the “Krasovskii” tire size 1090x508x420 mm (the diameter of the rolling x bore diameter x width). While the tires were still neopoznannymi, they weighed so much that it alone could not raise and put on the treadmill of the tread. After roughing tyre weighs up to 30 kg, and the whole wheel is about 50 (still camera 4 — 5 kg and drive — 16 kg). Think it’s easier to make it is impossible, at least very difficult.
 
Structural diagram of the tires of the truck or wheeled tractor
 
Structural diagram of the tires of the truck or wheeled tractor:
 
A — a tire; — A lightweight tire with separated parts; a) Board; b) side; C) a treadmill; d) remove part of the Board and inner layers of the cord; d) remove part of the sidewall; e) remove any part of the tread;
 
1 — side tape (2 PCs); 2 — sidewall (rubber, 2); 3 — toroidal base-frame—for all parts (rubber cord); 4—breaker (layered design — rubber rope and cord); 5—protector (rubber); 6—V-belt (rubber); 7 — side boarding cores (steel wire or rope); 8 — loop frame (2 PCs.)

 
Drill bit (sample configuration) to facilitate tire (A) and corresponding profiles of the grooves of the tread (B)
 
Bit (sample configuration) to facilitate tire (A) and corresponding profiles of the grooves of the tread (B):
 
1 — the flat: 2 — narrow angle. 3 — varied-flange wide; 4 — odnopolchane (terraced)

 
During the process of simplification (reducing the weight) the tires made a few adaptations (mostly different shaped bits). The main requirement for it — strength, as they are all percussion. And again. Lateral knife shaped bits should have a camber of 3 to 5°. Then they will not jam in hew grooves and in the grooves of the tread won’t get stuck in the ice.
 
First on the edge of the bead (rim size) tires with a knife cut the corner of the steel wires of the core and studied the internal structure of the Board of processed tires. Then cut through the landing from the inside edge with a knife with the distance from the inner edge of 17 — 20 mm to a depth of 4 to 5 mm around the perimeter. Layers, and, more precisely, of the loop, it is necessary to push. This used a homemade fixture (like a compass) of the two beams (lengths of pipe with outer diameter 22 mm), the ends of which are welded wedges (I have them from a U-shaped profile of the channel, but it would be better to cut them out of the area). Shelf wedges have together, killed them with a sledgehammer into the slot between the loops and pulled the first two levers, pry bar available for shelf channels hoist. But to break the layers proved to be difficult. Therefore, welded to the thrust wedges and delaminate side of the loop bus with the aid of a winch. Breaking the layers in this place, moved the device further down the landing circle. For one setting off on a 60 — 70 mm. to Help you with a knife, but only dumb not to cut the cord threads. On initial desperately to please between the layers is unlikely to work, but it does not matter. But then you need, cutting threads, to get exactly between the layers.
 
The extra layers from each side (from side to middle of tread) is separated in three passes around the circle (three bars). When the detachable strip started to interfere with the operation, it cut off, necessarily leaving 10 mm already separated from the strip, otherwise then it is very difficult to get it on the same layer.
 
Cut the side part of the Cordova framework from the inside and tore her, navertyvat scrap ear (key for the Assembly of the heating registers in the battery with two teeth-claws). I was kind of winch, but I’m not in a hurry: two hours ripped off the sidewall, for an hour or transverse slits of the treadmill, three hours dimmed on scrap pieces of 300 — 400 mm.
Now the operation I performed would be different. Would need to make one slot the depth of 60 — 70 mm. Inside insert wedges fit so as not to leave Islamite core. Sides to fasten around the perimeter with bolts to any external anchor frame. To catch the deleted inner ring core cable and a “tractor” to tear out everything inside the loop with a core and several layers of the base-frame at one time.
 
Further processing outside of the tyre. It is necessary to cut off the excess rubber. For this purpose it is desirable first to examine thickness welded to the sidewall rubber, piercing it with an awl to thread: heard the characteristic sound zatepleny thread. Then it is necessary to collect the wheel and pump up the camera so it is easier to cut. The side panel I cut almost to the threads of the knife 50 mm width, on the right side which had an l-shaped limiter depth of cut. The knife is inserted into the puncher with soft battle, otherwise the tool can not tolerate long — crumbles. The location of the cut on the lid watered with water for lubrication. The left part of the knife goes on top of rubber and the right zarekaysya to focus on 4 to 6 mm. And so several passes around the circle from the bead to the tread and sidewall bald. The knife needs to be sharpened rough, jagged: well, he better cut (or saws).
 
A device for peel-off rings of the core and the inner part of the bead
 
A device for peel-off rings of the core and the inner part of the bead
 
The device for peel-off rings of the core and the inner part of the bead:
 
a) General view (located near the separated layers of the tyre; b) in the working position (in the slit between the layers are inserted so far, only one wedge)

 
Tool
 
Tool
 
Tool “planer” for cutting tread grooves in the tyre lightweight:
 
a) General view; b) in the working position

 
On a treadmill, you should decide the height of the protector over the threads. Flat knife with a chisel blade width 80 — 120 mm from side to the middle across the tire from each side cut off the extra rubber, placing a template-the emphasis under the knife in the existing recesses of the tread. The template is made of aluminum wire and the desired variable thickness, arching pattern of the groove. Because the knife is flat, and the focusing pattern is wide, it is necessary to add 3 to 4 mm high, as the tire torus and will cut more than expected. All 98 of lugs on the lid cut off for two hours.
 
A hammer drill I had with a hard kick (electromatic) and crumbled knives, for cutting the cleats in the form of “Christmas trees” produced a device like a plane.
 
The “plane” consists of a rod made of a reinforcing rod-a rod diameter of 20 mm and a length of about 400 mm with welded thereto with one end of the square steel tube 20×20 mm and a length of about 200 mm, to which the back bottom is welded to the knife in the form of staples with a width of about 10 mm. Height of the knife — the depth of the newly cut tread.
 
Before cutting the grooves on a treadmill tires with chalk to mark up two or three “Christmas trees”, pour with water. This operation is best performed together with an assistant — one holds and guides the plane, the second hits the end of the rod with a sledgehammer. One blow breaks 10 — 30 mm (depends on the force of impact and skill working). 98 grooves struck for five hours, and one hour spent on cutting the tails with the G-shaped knife. My plane suffered seven wheels and survived, however, the knife burst five times in the welding seam and had him again podaryat.
 
That’s, like, all. The roughing one bus took eighteen hours, not counting the manufacture of tools. The work is heavy and more than three hours a day I missed.
 
The camera comes a little less tire for ease of installation. When pumped up to a pressure of 0.15 — 0.2 of the atmosphere, it sticks to the lid. At a lower pressure during the movement of the camera can slip in the tire, and the tire on the wheel rim
 
To insure against slippage of the tire on the rim at low pressure in the chamber, the rim of the disk on the shelf did on the perimeter of the six protrusions 4 mm from the metal strip 20 mm width, and on Board tyre — corresponding indentations (teeth), nothing cranks.
 
About the wheels. Because “krutovskoe” wheel (disc / rim) due to its large mass in the all-terrain vehicle use is inappropriate, it had to be made of “Zhiguli”.
To the rim “the Zhiguli” the wheels on both sides dovaren two conical surfaces of metal 2,5 — 3 mm. are welded To the cones half motorcycle rims (landing shelf with side edges). And such wheel is hold lightweight of the tire and the load on them.
 
Someone pattern cones seem a daunting task. But it is possible and the textbook to open. Draw on a sheet a cross section of your future wheels (cone it will look in the form of a straight line between the motor flange and the rim “Zhiguli” wheels). Extend the line to the intersection with the axis of the wheel. The point of intersection will be the center of the radii of the sector pattern of a truncated cone.
 
Then you should measure the circumference of the planting shelves motorcycle rim (or calculate it by the diameter of the rim), to measure the same length along the outer arc of the cone. The same need to produce rim “Zhiguli” wheels and to measure the obtained value in the inner arc.
 
The pattern of a cone to save a sheet of iron it is better to break into two parts. To cut (cut with jigsaw) I with a 5 mm stock to length, weld the halves back to back, bend over his knee for connection of ends.
 
Motorcycle rim it is necessary to cut with a grinder right in the holes of the spokes, leaving a vertical shelf (rim) for rigidity. Put the cut edge on a sheet of chipboard (DSP) and fill nails at the outer circumference. Continue to impose on him the corresponding cone side and cover with a sheet of “chipboard” and pull the center bolt. Having achieved with a hammer and tape measure parallel plates (runout up to 10 mm can be considered the norm), to weld the shelf to the cone 40 mm stitches with different directions to not lead.
 
Aligning the height of the teeth protector flat chisel pattern
 
Aligning the height of the teeth protector flat chisel pattern
 
Wheel rim for lightweight low tire pressure
 
Wheel rim for lightweight low tire pressure:
 
1 — “the Zhiguli” wheel (disc and rim); 2 — the extension rim in the shape of a truncated cone (steel sheet s2.5 — 3, 2); 3 — rim Obol (from wheels of a motorcycle “Ural”, 2 PCs.)

 
Some advice on choosing tires and wheels on the basis of the local road (or rather off-road) conditions of the forthcoming operation. Our terms: forest, Bush, moss, thawed frozen soil half a meter deep, mountain river, loose snow in winter, ruts roads that generally are in the only place where you can drive. I recommend to choose the outer diameter (the diameter of the rolling) wheel tire to provide clearance under the car 350 — 400 mm: approximately the same as that of the truck “Ural”. Over high obstacles you can avoid. Gauge wheels would be a good idea to do “Orlovsky”, otherwise you can collect everything that does not break down these all-terrain vehicles. Tyre pressure for movement on the moss — 0,15 — 0,25 of the atmosphere, on the road — 0,35 — 0,55. Do not chase the tire width of wheel: snow when lack of power they are worse than narrow, also reduce the usable area of the car and harder to manage.
 
The machine it is desirable to design so that the cabin was in the front (it greatly improves the overview), and the wheels of the front axle were at the front of the envelope — then they will put Bush under the car. While crossing a mountain stream is preferable to the car was sinking and clung to the wheels at the bottom than swimming. In the tundra region of swamps and lakes — possible other requirements.
 
Rode lightweight tires five years, including in the woods and never tires was pierced. If you compare these homemade tires with brand imported or domestic industrial “trakiyski”, we have in Yakutia, they are often pierced, even on public roads.
 
I. ABRAMOV, p. Ust-Nera, Yakutia

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