Interest in snowmobiles as individual means of transportation on winter roads and sporty type motor vehicles manifested itself long ago. But as widespread as it is now, the hobby of Amateur snowmobiles contributed, undoubtedly, increase the General technical level of young people. According to incomplete data, the number of snowmobiles built by enthusiasts since 1968, has almost doubled.
WHEN THE ENGINE… BRAKE
I can name a lot of settlements in the Northern areas of our country where there are multiple instances to 25-35 snowmobiles. They build not only individual fans. They are created in technical school clubs, Houses and Palaces of pioneers, on urban stations for young technicians in vocational schools.
A big brake when creating snowmobiles is that our industry does not produce special motors adapted for working with a propeller in harsh climatic conditions of the North, with low temperatures. Existing motorcycle engines, most commonly used on homemade snowmobiles do not meet the requirements because of the relatively low power. Therefore, usually paired in the engines (Fig. 1) or to fit two or three to work on one or two of the propeller (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1. Snowmobile twin engine PD-10, running on one screw.
Fig. 2. Rotor group of snowmobile design V. Gribanova (Saratov region): two-engine PD-10 with a pusher propeller. Drive screws direct drive.
Fig. 3. Homemade engine BB-1 with the use of cylinders and the connecting rod-piston mechanism of the motorcycle of IZH-56. Snowmobile L. Shustov (Vitebsk).
In recent years there has been a tendency to build engines of his own design. They. as a rule, are made on the basis of standard parts and assemblies.
These engines (Fig. 3) often characterized by original design, high capacity and suitability for work in winter conditions. Conducted by the editorial staff, the survey showed that about 8% of the total number of snowmobiles equipped with a homemade engine. It should also be noted a significant increase in power of used engines snowmobile: 24,5% of them own designs or motorcycle M-72, M-61, M-63, K-750, Java-350, with power over 20 HP; 4.2% were automotive, with a capacity from 40 up to 70 HP; and 7.2% — an old aircraft engines type M-11, AI-14, Walter-Minor, etc.
AESTHETICS AND COMFORT
Analyzing the available edition of the materials on snowmobiles, Amateur-built, it should be noted that recently significantly increased the technical culture structures, more attention has been paid to aesthetics (Fig. 4), comfort, exterior finishing them. If 10 years ago most snowmobiles built in the simplest configuration, without bodywork, protecting driver and passenger from the oncoming flow of air and snow dust, and now 55% of cars are made with semi-closed and more than 20% with a fully closed body. Moreover, these machines tend to have faired the hull and motor installation (Fig. 5 and 6).
Only 3.6% of the snowmobiles built for motorcycle scheme, and the most profitable machines of low power.
Prevails yet trehlistna scheme of chassis that is built 73.5% of the known snowmobiles. The number chetyrehlistnyj machines compared to the 1965-1966 years has increased from 10% to 10%. Chetyrehrogaja scheme is more time consuming, but provides better maneuverability of the sled in soft snow and good stability when driving on rough terrain, especially in tight turns at high speed.
Fig. 4. Snowmobile with enclosed body, built N. Mezentsev (the Leningrad region). The engine of the motorcycle M-72, drive screw V-belts.
Fig. 5. Cigar-shaped closed housing features snowmobile A. Sirotkina (Yaroslavl region). The engine of the motorcycle M-72, drive screw direct drive.
Fig. 6. Heavy snowmobiles N. Mazova (Railway, Moscow region) with the engine “Walter Minor”, 200 HP Double fully enclosed cab.
Fans used on his sleigh mainly block two-bladed wooden propellers, that is made of a single bar or blanks, glued up of separate thin boards is crap.
Only 5.5% of the snowmobile is equipped with a three – or four-bladed propellers; 3.5% of the screws made with metal blades and with blades of variable pitch (with the engine off).
Very few (less than 1%) of the screws change the angle of attack of the blades during the movement of the machine (our magazine told readers about these screws — see No. 5 of 1969 and No. 2, 1972). About 40% of the snowmobiles are equipped with gears; 25.8% of the reducers are made of chain, V-belt and other gear.
The following is a summary of some Amateur snowmobile of interest to a wide circle of readers.
In the suburban town Railway for many years a group of Amateur designers snowmobiles. I. Lukin, V. Malenkii, Kuznetsov and their young assistants has created and successfully operated a number of interesting machines.
THREE SKIS? FOUR?
I. Lukin the first snowmobile was built and tested in the winter of 1969/70. They had triglycol insufficiently stable scheme. The designer redid the car on chetyrehosnuju (see box). Front driven skis he found in attached to the tubular body farm, providing them with spring cushioning. Low-lying (almost the sole) the suspension point of the ski ensures good stability and significantly increases the permeability machine for soft powder snow.
The soles of the skis are made of stainless steel, which also improves handling characteristics of your snowmobile.
Improving the stability of the machine is achieved, and by reducing its centre of gravity. The engine of the motorcycle M-72 posted mounted to the housing frame at the bottom rear to special nodes. The engine has a magneto and automotive gasoline pump operated by a Cam roller, the drive to which — the V-belt from the shaft of the propeller. On the last set scivac Ø 26 mm, and for the Cam shaft — Ø 80 mm. magneto is mounted on the crankcase cover, which is removed from the engine distributor.
The transmission from the engine to the shaft of the propeller is made of two parallel V-belts. It eliminates slipping of the straps when transferring full capacity. The pulley on the motor shaft Ø 130 mm, made of duralumin. The slave pulley Ø 260 mm planted keyed on the shaft of the propeller.
The shaft — mounted pole, two single radial ball and thrust bearings.
The gear ratio of the driving and driven pulleys is 1:2, which allowed to make a propeller with increased thrust. It is made of birch bar.
Currently I. Lukin is working to create a more powerful two-cylinder engine.
Kuznetsov was fond of snowmobiles, even a student of eighth grade. Interestingly, his first design was also trahlyta, a single car with a motorcycle engine IZH-49. The engine was located behind, above, dad welded tubular frame; a propeller mounted directly on the shank of the crankshaft. The motor was equipped aggregate magneto “KATEK”.
The second design (Fig. 7), created by S. Kuznetsov in 1972, with the same engine, was built at the motor circuit. It is a single machine with half-shut case. Engine it placed at the bottom, to the cross beam with the transmission shaft of the propeller by two V-belts.
Fig. 7. Scheme light snowmobile Kuznetsov (Railway, Moscow region). Engine IZH-350, transmission screw V-belt.
This design is interesting because the entire rotor group was a removable unit. In the summer it was dismantled without any changes used in the water.
The screw is made from a single bar of wood, with a straight sawn-off ends of the blades. Shaft the propeller is mounted on a ball bearing installed in special sockets, welded to the frame.
The body of the snowmobile is assembled with glue and screws from bruskov by section 20×20 mm, sheathed with plywood with a thickness of 2 mm. At the rear of the mounted cross Board serving as a support for the brackets mounting the engine, frame, propeller and cross-tube mount skis.
Ski snowmobiles with steel soles and have undercuts in order to sustain progress.
The next stage of technical creativity Kuznetsov — snowmobile twin engine IZH-49, drive one screw.
SNOWMOBILE “CRICKET” AND “KUPAVNA”
But Vshivtseva living in the suburbs, build the snowmobile with the whole family: Kuzma A. Eminov, head of the family, wife and son-schoolboy.
It started with the sleigh too trehmernoi scheme. They used the engine from the car “Zaporozhets” first releases. The engine was located upstairs, and the propeller was mounted directly on the shank of the crankshaft. The rotor was three-bladed, metal, each of the blades of its threaded shank screwed into the socket sleeve and fixed by locknut. This allows you to change the angles of the blades.
The machine frame was made from old motorcycle sidecar. The snowmobile had a good performance, but a high centre of gravity makes them unstable.
Therefore, in 1972-1973 K. Eminov made a new, double snowmobile “Cricket” (Fig. 8). The engine they used is the same, but shifted down and fixed to the frame body. Drive propeller made by three V-belts. And he changed the propeller: it was bladed.
Fig. 8. Year-round construction machine Vshivtseva K. (Ukhtomsky Moscow region), snowmobile-aircar “Cricket”. The engine of the ZAZ-965, transmission screw V-belt.
Snowmobile a Cricket original the fact that they can quickly turn into an aircar that they have 4 wheels of small diameter, which, in fact, put on skis, with a special socket and mounted on the axis of the wheels.
Low rise machine ensures good stability and allows to move freely over rough terrain without fear of tipping over. Snowmobile “Cricket” participated in a winter festival in Zelenograd and attracted the attention of numerous participants of a meeting.
In his spare time he likes to race around in a snowmobile and P. Semkin from the little village Kupavna. Such walks he thinks the best holiday.
His snowmobile — single, trehmernye (see box).
Originally performed by front and rear suspension ski. They consist of a movable RAM-beam units with spring shock absorbers. This suspension system helps the sled to budge, even if the skis had frozen. That ski socks are not buried in snow, between them and the frame of the chair are dilatory spring. On the snowmobile provides farm fencing propeller.
Two-cylinder two-stroke engine has an output of 16 HP, equipped with a gear reducer with a gear ratio of 1 :3. The engine is located on a tubular sub-frame at the top of the motor, above the rear edge of the housing. Propeller — wood, block, is mounted on the shaft end keyed.
The body of the snowmobile semi-streamlined shape, has windshield. Dry weight 96 kg. a Sled operated since 1965.
AS THE PLANE
For the third year improving its design snowmobile I. Shvetchikov, gradually winning more and more terrain, speed, reliability..
Snowmobile-4 (Fig. 9) have the case closed. Cabin space for two people: the driver — convenient front and rear seat passenger. The cockpit has a sliding canopy like an aircraft.
Fig. 9. Snowmobile Moscow pedagogue I. Svetikova have a fully enclosed cockpit “aircraft” type.
Installed on the snowmobile motor engine M-72 with the capacity of 22 HP; it is placed at the bottom rear of the chassis with the rotation shaft of the propeller, four V-belts. The diameters of the pulleys provide a speed reduction in the ratio of 1 : 1,4.
Propeller — two-bladed, wood, block. Having a diameter of 1.8 m, it provides the pull force of 84 lbs.
IN THE COCKPIT — TWO
Sixth year engaged in an independent building snowmobiles M. Nosikov from Neftegorsk Kuibyshev region.
The sled was altered many times, but received satisfactory design results. ANOMI-4 (Fig. 10) is the fourth and most successful design lover. The machine has nice appearance, good performance, stable, maneuverable and, most importantly, reliable.
The structure is made by chetyrehstennoy scheme, with the front steering ski. Housing semi-streamlined shape. It houses two people.
Fig. 10. Double snowmobile Nosikova M. (Neftegorsk) with the parallel arrangement of seats.
In contrast to the generally adopted scheme, when the driver sits in front and the passenger behind, in ANOMI-4 they sit next to.
Despite the fact that the machine has not fully closed body, windshield and top glazed sections of the doors protect passengers from oncoming air flow.
The rear part of the housing is formed with a large bevel, providing good approach of air to a screw.
Applied on the snowmobile motor engine M-72 with a power of 22 HP. It is placed above the rear edge of the housing and fixed to a tubular motor frame. Shaft propeller mounted above the engine on the subframe. Transmission is via an intermediate shaft chain. The motor is connected with intermediate shaft through the cardan joint On the intermediate shaft, which rotates in ball bearings, it has two stars: leading (to drive shaft) and the small (rear wheel bike) is to drive maggini giving current to light devices.
In the photo (top to bottom). An unusual transmission from the engine to the propeller two conical reducers with hard vertical shaft — carried on the snowmobile. N. Melnikov (Tyumen).
Snowmobile “in reverse”: a steering ski at the rear, the front is stationary, and the propeller was in front. Design I. Ziana (Rivne region).
Mini sled L. Perchenko (Murmansk region) with engine PD-10/IL-49.
Mini-sled V. Mishagin (Gorky) with the engine IZH-49, equipped with gear reducer.
Madina used motorcycle M-105, but in makeshift housing. Placed under the intermediate shaft and bolted to motor frame.
On the rear engine cover installed dehiscence magneto, greatly simplified scheme of ignition and allowed to get rid of the heavy battery.
The propeller — CCW rotation with a diameter of 2 m. Made from straight grained pine of the bar. The screw shaft is mounted on ball bearings.
M. Nosikov working on a screw to be modified (while driving), the pitch of the blades, with the reverse for braking (while used pin brake located in the rear ski).
The snowmobiles have a fence screw, made of pipes and rare protective mesh.
The speed of the snowmobile ANOMI-4 on virgin snow with a full load — 40-45 km/h.
Light snowmobile with an engine capacity of 20 HP have built Melnikov from Tyumen (p. 16). Enclosed glazed cockpit provides a good overview and the necessary comfort for the driver of the car. In the front it has a powerful headlight.
To reduce centre of gravity ensure good stability of the machine the engine is mounted on rubber couplings to the lower aluminum profiles of the housing.
The original suspension of the skis of the snowmobile, was built by P. Seminum on the frame horns.
Originally performed by transfer from the engine to the propeller shaft through the two gear S. bevel gear and vertical shaft. The gear ratio is 11:20. Gear reducers are placed in special flange housings. A vertical shaft connecting both gearboxes, the propeller has a soft clutch, compensate for possible inaccuracies in the Assembly of the machine.
The propeller has three wooden blades, each of which enters its shank in the slot of the metal sleeve and clamped with a special nut. The angle of the blades can be adjusted on the spot, with the engine off; the lug nuts counter wire. Diameter of air screw — 1.5 m.
Fuel capacity — 40 liters, placed in two tanks and lasts 250-300 km. the Maximum speed of the snowmobile 90 km/h.
“Vortex-2” — the so-called snowmobile, built N. Cipana of the Rivne region. They reach speeds up to 50 km/h.
Snowmobile is made for “reverse” trehmernoi scheme — two front skis fixed rigidly to the cross beam and the rear is manageable. Engine IZH-56 13 HP at the front on the beam of the hull, the propeller is four-bladed, drawing, with a diameter of 1.4 m. the Transmission from the engine to the shaft of the screw is a motorcycle chain.
The upper part of the engine and the shaft of the air screw closed easily removable hood that provides good access to all units the motor installation.
The blades are made from plywood 10 mm thick, and its butt part vkladani bilateral foot sleeve, which is attached to the shaft keyed and tightened contrawise nut.
The body of the snowmobile is gated with one door on the left side.
Several options of small planes, one of which — see the photo — created L. Perchenko from the village of Reindeer-1 in Murmansk region. As the engine he used an old, decommissioned tractor “of puskach” PD-10, with small alterations: cylinder water cooling replaced by motorcycle, air-cooled engine IZH-49.
For supplying fuel from a petrol tank (plastic canister) placed under the engine used a fuel pump outboard boat motor “Breeze 8”. To provide the engine with fuel before starting between the tank and gasoline pump set, hand pump pumping.
The propeller — dural block, with reinforcing overlays the butt. The screw diameter is 1.1 M.
To increase the bearing surface and reduce the calcination of the car when driving on loose, deep snow it has an additional fourth the ski, located between the rear, on the axis of symmetry of the machine. When driving the rear ski on the trail front, controlled.
As a cross beam of rear suspension used root leaf automotive leaf springs (1 plate).
The snowmobiles are characterized by low weight and small dimensions: length 3 m, width — 1.2 m. achieving speeds up to 50 km/h.
Make a small, beautiful, and easiest car — that purpose asked and Valery Mishagin from Gorky, developing the design of the snowmobile (pictured). He succeeded. Snowmobile YOU-1 compact, elegant, and it weighs just 80 kg. For these mini-sleds used engine IZH-49, located in the back, down a cylinder.
To improve traction of the propeller on the engine mounted gear reducer with a gear ratio of 1 : 1.5, and the engine is boosted. This allowed to reduce the speed of the propeller and by increasing the diameter up to 1.4 m to increase traction. Screw the wooden (birch) block.
The body of the snowmobile in the lower part has a power frame and easy add-on streamline shape, which can be pushed forward along with the steering column, providing easy entry of the driver in the car. The housing length of only 2 m.
When testing a mini sled showed a speed of 60 km/h.
I. USENALIEV, engineer