“THE WOLVERINE” GOES WITHOUT A TRACE

The Rover was designed and custom-made joint stock company “Sa-ratowanie”: here is a badly needed vehicle for the delivery of operational outreach to places of accidents on power lines. These lines are, as usual, draw where on the roads to speak of. In good weather only army GAZ-66 is still able to build there track. In the offseason, almost as in the song: only helicopter can fly. Mari Rover turned out to be what we need. For four years he has served the energy sector and still on the go. This was confirmed by A. P. Smolkin, head of the fuel and transport service of JSC “Saratovenergo”. Not once, not twice “Wolverine” rescued repairmen. And not just for work but also for hunting and fishing. On the question of what the design drawbacks revealed during exploitation, Alexander only then said: “have more powerful Engine… at least from “zaporozhtsa”.

This wish is given to those who dare to repeat the design Mari students. To present the design of “Wolverine” in full, unfortunately, impossible. Therefore, we give a short description.

 
THE BASIC IDEA
 
The customer required a all-terrain vehicle is not only spacious (it had to fit three people with tools and a supply of food), sustainable slopes, and stable on the water, but also light, not Deplete when moving the surface layer of soil. It was decided to build it on the basis of units of motorized FDD, which SKB had. And the engine was coming — he forced cooling, which is important for the layout of the rear semi-enclosed engine compartment.
Track and clearance “Wolverine” (Fig. 1) were chosen so as to be able to ride forest roads already trodden GAZ-66. Although spring or autumn it is not roads, and ditches filled with water. Nevertheless, “Wolverine” walks on him like on rails. The rudder throw you can!
 
Amphibious all-terrain vehicle
 
 
Such permeability is entirely dependent on the wheels. Surprisingly, “Wolverine” they don’t have the cleats, although other machines such appointments are completed with them certainly. The fact that, as conceived by designers Mari, Pneumatics low (60… 100 g/sq cm) pressure should “gently” to cling to the irregularities of the ground, as if facilitates, enveloping them due to the elasticity of rubber. Experience in operation of all-terrain vehicle in the Volga steppes of the project is fully justified.
 
LAYOUT
 
“Wolverine” is made by wheel formula 6×4 with front steering wheels; has a spacious cab that is connected to the cargo body, over which a canvas awning.
 
The door to the cabin only one on the right; it includes both the driver and passengers. But in extreme cases, the Rover can leave through a hatch in the ceiling of the cabin, and the opening to “lightning” in the back of the tent. (By the way, a hatch in the ceiling glassed: this is done at the request of the Saratov Energetikov, to be able to overlook wires of electricity transmission lines in motion.)
 
In the front of the case — compartment with easily removable hood, which houses the headlights, sidelights, brake master cylinder, reservoir for windscreen washer and wiper motor, wiring. Here is a cabin heater (from “Zaporozhets”); the air duct from it is made so that the warm air blowing feet of the driver, they went into the cabin past the door. Thus, before the door is created as if by the air-heat curtain that prevents wystawiania body.
 
Brief technical data
 
In the driver’s cab installed: steering wheel, gauges, bracket with levers gear shift, reverse and hand brake; pedal, clutch, foot brake and “gas”. Traction and control cables from the levers pass under the cabin floor in a special box, klapannom in the body. All of the above, from motorized FDD.
 
Adjustable seat driver and passenger seat homemade, assembled from metal frames, wooden beams, thick plywood, flexible foam and faux leather on a knitted base.
 
Under the passenger seat (it’s removable) installed the battery and the relay-regulator. To evaporation of the electrolyte did not penetrate into the cabin sides done vents.
 
The passenger backrest is rigidly secured between the sides of the hull. For it, until the very tent — the baggage compartment is designed for a weight of 60 kg.
 
Below the rear — engine compartment with the engine and gas tank, extended neck which is placed on the rear Board.
Back in the frame of an awning, with an adapter bracket fixed spare wheel. Its weight is about 10 kg, so no removable mechanism of the pantograph type is not provided: the spare tire is put in place and removed by hand.
 
Below the awning, the left and right on the body, blocks the tail lights from GAZ-66 — they are more modern than motokrosove. From the “jeep” also mirrors rear and side view.
 
CASE
 
Reader there seems to be a surprise. The fact that “Wolverine” is missing… the frame. No main power element, without which any avtokonstruktor not imagine his car. What it replaces? The body itself, as in the design of “Wolverine” he is the load-bearing element.
 
The choice of such power circuit is dictated by three circumstances. First, the requirement of technical specifications on which the design of the Rover must be durable and at the same time easy. Secondly, tradition and experience: all projects from the beginning of SLE was based on the aviation technology with extensive use . aviation materials. Thirdly, the layout of the engine and transmission in one small volume.
 
Layout
 
Layout:
1 bracket steering gear, 2, 30 — suspension systems, front axle, 3 — tow loop, 4 — heater, 5 — hood lock, 6 — brake master cylinder, 7 — washer fluid reservoir glass, 8 — wiper motor, 9 — proteosolve NY visor, 10 — pen Luke 11 — Luke 12 — tent, 13 — frame awning, 14 — transitional bracket “chute” 15 — spare wheel, 16 — engine, 17, 21 — the attachment points of the motor frame 18 — the frame of the engine, 19 — chain drive differential, 20 — circuit-Board transmission, 22 — seat 23 — battery 24 — relay-regulator, 25 — a kit 26 — a fire extinguisher, 27 — box control wiring, 28 — step, 29 — splash guard, 31 — steering column.

 
Case:
 
Body:
1 — a covering aggregate compartment, 2 — parts of the power set, 3 — front wall of the cab 4 — window cover, 5 — corners of the edging of the door opening, 6 — cover the cab with sunroof, 7 — side wall of the cab, 8 — passenger backrest (aka — the wall of the engine compartment), 9 — Luke the engine compartment 10, the Board body 11 — beam suspension fuel tank 12 side stringer (support awning), 13,15 — aft trim, 14, 17 — the attachment points of the motor frame 16 — brace fuel tank, 18, 19, 30 force elements of the case, 20 — battery box, 21 — side cladding, 22 — box transaction controlmanagement, 23 — rails, driver seat, 24,26 — suspension systems, front axle, 25 — bracket steering gear, 27 — hooks tensioning of the awning, 28, 29 — lodgements canisters with rubber liners, 31 — the wings.

 
Hence the chassis monocoque: light, durable and highly manufacturable. He riveted in a special stocks from sheets of aluminum Д16АТ thickness of 1.5 mm, with the use of dural corners. Before that the leaves were bent at an angle of 90 degrees (to avoid cracks at the edges of the bend lines drill hole) and pre-connected with places and with each other by screws M4. Then mark and drill holes with a diameter of 4.2 mm under the aluminum rivets. Some of the seams (especially the bottom) obezzhirivatel, which was laid in ribbon-ger-MATIC U-20, and then they rivet in one or two rows.
In places of attachment to the body of power components (such as brackets, lugs, hinges and axis) plating increased the additional plates and gussets.
 
All cutouts in the case also reinforced a parts (door, for example) or flat-edging, as is done in the baggage compartment: the floor is simultaneously a hatch for access to engine.
 
Cabin and exterior of the vehicle insulated foam panels 20 mm thick, upholstered in artificial leather. To the sides and the ceiling panels are fastened with screws with anchor nuts, in advance klapannym in the body.
 
The cockpit glazing is combined: windshield silicate (from the tractor), the side — plexiglass.
 
The body is covered with a tent made of tarpaulin insulated with embedded it Windows from Plexiglas. The awning stretched on the frame, welded tubes with a diameter 22×1,5 mm.
 
It would seem that summer in such a body will be stuffy. However, the ventilation system (fresh air enters the cabin through louvers in the hood) copes with its task. In addition, you can open the top hatch or advance klapannym in the body.
 
The cockpit glazing is combined: windshield silicate (from the tractor), the side — plexiglass.
 
The body is covered with a tent made of tarpaulin insulated with embedded it Windows from Plexiglas. The awning stretched on the frame, welded tubes with a diameter 22×1,5 mm.
 
It would seem that summer in such a body will be stuffy. However, the ventilation system (fresh air enters the cabin through louvers in the hood) copes with its task. In addition, you can open the top hatch or remove the awning and go “with the wind” until enough fuel. But it does not end soon under the window of the driver in a special cradle has two 20-litre cans with petrol!
FRONT AXLE (Fig. 4)
 
This farm is tubular with the axis of oscillation, located under the cockpit in the plane of symmetry of the housing. The paneling in the place of fastening brackets that axis strengthened by two lateral stringers on the outside and a steel plate inside.
 
Wheel hubs, steering knuckles and other steering mechanisms completely taken from the sidecar and adapted to the case of “Wolverine”.
 
Shock absorbers on the front, however, as on the rear axle, no. Compression wheels plus high speed tubular farm or equalizers is enough to pay off any tremors. Even on rugged terrain the machine is perfectly copies the terrain, and the wheels do not lose contact with the ground. However, when driving on arable land there unpleasant shaking. But enough to reduce the speed to the shaking completely disappeared.
 
Fig. 4. Front axle
 
Fig. 4. Front axle:
1 — the rotary fist 2 — drive cable, 3 — suspension units axle, 4 — ball joint, 5 — wheel hub, 6,8 — side struts, 7 — Central tube, 9 — the tie rods.

 
REAR AXLE (Fig. 5)
 
It is also taken from the sidecar, but slightly broadened due to the two spline shafts (each shaft length is 140 mm and the size of the slots — 6x21x25 mm), inserted between the couplings. The bridge is attached to the body by means of two welded sheet steel cabinets (Fig. 7).
 
At the ends of the bridge with sliding bearings worn balance weights (Fig. 6). They are made of welded rectangular steel pipe 80x50x3 mm and reinforced gussets. Design of beams is interesting because the axis of the swing coincides with the axis of the axle (drive shaft passes through the bearings). This helped a lot to simplify the kinematics of the drive.
 
The right and left balancers structurally identical, cooked they cool down (to avoid warping) in the same slipway. Bracket tension sprocket was welded later, outside of the bench.
 
The wheel axle quick release, fastened to the clips. Made to simplify the technology of fabrication of beams, because the use of clamps allows you to use pads to quickly put the wheel coaxially with the drive shafts.
 
Torque from the drive shafts, the ends of which sit the blocks leading double asterisks (Fig. 8) with 16 teeth, is transmitted to the roller chains on the driven sprocket (Fig. 9) with 56 teeth mounted on the axis of the wheels. Thus, the ratio of side chain drives in 3.5. Later, the number of teeth of the leading sprocket was increased to 21, which allowed to slightly increase the speed of the vehicle.
 
Idler sprocket (14 teeth), roller chains (PRL-15, 875-2270), ball bearings and cuffs seal taken from agricultural machinery.
 
ing against side of chain gear a 3.5. Later, the number of teeth of the leading sprocket was increased to 21, which allowed to slightly increase the speed of the vehicle.
 
Idler sprocket (14 teeth), roller chains (PRL-15, 875-2270), ball bearings and cuffs seal taken from agricultural machinery.
 
 
Fig. 5. Rear axle:
1 — sprocket driven, 2 — tensioning sprocket, 3 — block leading asterisks, 4 — right rocker, 5 — roller chain, 6 — wheel hub, 7 wheel, 8 — left side table, 9 — piece, 10 — spline shaft, 11 — differential, 12 Parking brake, 13 — right table, 14 — brake line, 15 — nut slide bearing 16 in — ear, 17 — nipple (cosmetic), 18 — drive shaft, 19 — spacer, 20 — housing ball bearing, 21 — output shaft, 22 is a clamp.
 
Fig. 6. Balancer
 
Fig. 6. The balancer:
1 — pipe section 80x50x3 mm, 2 — gusset, 3 — brackets tension stars, 4, 7 — housing supporting ball bearings 5 — power ring, 6 — tube rotor bearing, 8, 9 — the fixing clamps on the wheels.
 
 
Fig. 7. Table the ass-it bridge:
1 — seat oiler, 2 — brace, 3 — bearing edge, 4 — pipe-stator of the bearing, 5 — the supporting base of the body of the Rover.
 
Fig. 8. Block leading asterisks: 1, 7 — stars, 3 — hub
 
Fig. 8. Block leading asterisks:
1, 7 — stars, 3 — hub.

 

Fig. 9. Sprocket driven
 
Fig. 9. Sprocket driven:
1 — ring gear, 2 — bolt (6 PCs), 3 — flange, 4 — hub, 5 — a boot.

 
THE ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION

 
From fully motorized. The engine so that it is not filled with water, placed in the engine compartment higher; and the main transmission (or differential) is lower and a bit under a different working angle. The breather gear that’s filled with water, with a rubber hose, the end of which is placed on Board the Rover.
 
This arrangement of power units demanded one frame (Fig. 10). The engine in it (along with motorolano frame) is inserted from above, and the differential — to-bottom. The new frame is welded in a jig from steel pipes with a diameter 38×1,5 & 22×1,5 mm, box of plates and angles and fixed to the body of the Rover at two points.
 
Fig. 10. Frame, engine and differential
 
Fig. 10. Frame, engine and differential:
The 1.5 — attachment points to the body, 2, 3 — nodes engine mounts, 4 — way adjustable adapter, 6 — box-lining, 7, 8, 9, 10 — parts of suspension differential.

 
The WHEEL (Fig. 13)
 
The rim of each wheel has a bend of pipes with a diameter 22×1 mm and is connected by spokes with the disc arc welding. Drive here (see Fig. 11) is pressed or welded from sheet steel 3 mm thick piece with the holes for studs, and the spokes and the connecting bridge sections of tube diameter 22×1 mm. Jumpers serve as supports for tires.
Pneumatic “Wolverine” double-layered. The inner layer is the Luggage from the wagon wheels of the tractor Kirovets, pumped up to a pressure of 60…100 g/sq cm the Outer layer is the same camera, just cut the inseam and are worn over primary as a defensive protector. Keeps the tires on the rim due to friction between them that occurs when pumping air.
 
These wheels allow you to “Wolverine” is not only fast to run on terrain inaccessible to other vehicles to climb the steep slopes up to 23 degrees, but also to overcome water obstacles without any depth restriction.
 
Fig. 11. Wheel rim
 
Fig. 11. Wheel rim:
1 — needle. 2 — disc, 3 — bracket fastening jumpers, 4, 5 — pipe Obol.
 
Fig. 12. Frame tent
 
Fig. 12. Frame tent:
1, 2 and nodes dock with cabin, 3 — bolt mounting adapter spare wheel, 4, 5, 6 — lugs interfacing with the body.
 
 
Fig. 13. Wheel:
1 — pneumatic, 2 — rim, 3 — jumpered, 4 — bolt MB mounting bars (12 PCs).

 
In water it moves due to the rotation of the wheels. The idea was to provide the wheels with a set of quick-fitting (“lambs”) labels discs with blades that are fastened before entering the water. But then this idea was abandoned, since to swim “the Wolverine” it is rarely necessary. Although it floats, even when fully loaded three people and 60 kg of cargo, not bad.
 
However, I must admit that when going out to the beach if it not flat, the front wheels do not “grab” the ground. In such cases, one of the passengers jumped ashore with a rope, pulled up the car until the rear wheels clung to the bottom. When the driver in the car alone, out on the steep Bank and reverse. And here’s “Wolverine” a big advantage: because the main gear sidecar has reverse, the Rover the same speeds ago much and forward!

 
 
A. TIMCHENKO
 

 

 

 

 
 

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