ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE REGULATORMany motorists available means, to improve the performance of various components of your machine. Considerable help in providing them electronics. To take at least a variety of electronic ignition system, which “M-K” repeatedly told. Today we offer the owners of “Lada” and “Cossacks” to build a simple electronic voltage regulator (ZRN), constructed in Kharkiv by B. Krutikova.

It has no mechanical disengageable electric contacts, at the time of starting the generator does not load the motor and battery. Thus facilitating engine starting crank handle with a weakly charged battery. The use of this device eliminates surge in the onboard network, it will not create radio interference. In addition, ZRN allows you to control the system oil pressure.
 
The device has four pins for connection and power supply system of the vehicle (see schematic diagram): “DDM” – to the oil pressure switch, 15 is the n pole side to the positive network, “67” — to the excitation winding of the generator, the “M” to vehicle ground (minus power supply).
The device operates as follows. When the ignition is turned on (S1), terminal “15” is fed a positive voltage on the resistor divider R1, R2 connected to the Zener diode V1, performing function of threshold element. Applied to the Zener diode voltage below the level unlock — ton base of the transistor V2 is missing: semiconductor triode locked. However, the transistors V3—V5 remain closed because the oil pressure at idle the engine is missing and the contact S2 of the oil pressure switch closes, the collector circuit of V2 to ground of the car (via terminal “DDM”). The current in the excitation winding of the generator is missing (in regular voltage regulator in this case, flows tone about 2.5 A) indicates that the H1 lamp of pressure of oil. Such as ERN persists until until after the engine is started, oil pressure will not cause opening of contact S2.
 
Schematic diagram of the electronic voltage regulator.
 
Schematic diagram of the electronic voltage regulator.

 
Now on the collector of V2 through the extinguished lamp of H1 serves a positive voltage of n transistors V3, V4 conduct current. As a result, the transistor V5 opens, and through connector “67” in the excitation coil (OB) generator G1 supplied power from the battery GB1. The generator starts to charge the battery GB1. With the increasing revs of the engine (generator) and an increase in battery voltage increases. At the same time increases and the voltage applied to the Zener diode V1. Once it exceeds the release voltage V1, there is a base current of the transistor V2 and it will begin to open and the transistors V3 — V5 is closed, thereby reducing the current in the excitation winding 0.5—0.7 A: the tension and the tone given by a generator in the on-Board network and the battery, are falling.
 
When the load increases (e.g. when turning lighting fixtures), current consumption increases, the voltage decreases, the transistor V2 is slightly closed and the current flowing through a semiconductor triode V5 is the excitation winding is increasing. The generator gives a higher current in the on-Board network of the vehicle, maintaining a constant voltage therein. For example, in the car “the Zhiguli” with fully integrated lighting at low engine rpm through the transistor V5 and the excitation coil flows a current of about 1.5 A. With increasing speed it decreases to 0.9 A. dissipation at the transistor V5, the power can reach 8W.
In the case of ERN on the signals of the rotation causes large changes in the excitation current of the generator than at normal voltage regulator. This indicates that ERN has time to follow all the changes of the load of the vehicle electrical system, did not cause a significant overvoltage on the field winding having a large inductance. The reason is that at the moment of locking of the transistor V5, the EMF of a winding applied to its emitter in a polarity otricatelniy, not allowing a sharp lock V5. Thus does not occur over-voltage of the collector and the reliability of the output transistor increases.
 
Of the resistors R1 and R2 are selected from a calculation that ERN was supported by the battery voltage (in the on-Board mains of the vehicle) is 13.5—13.8 V regardless of load changes. At this voltage the battery will not charge above the allowable standards, not “boiling” the electrolyte. To raise the voltage of the generator is sufficient to reduce the resistance of the resistor R2 or R4 to 1 Ohm.
 
Check serviceability ERNE, measuring the voltage at terminals “15” and “67”. With the ignition on and the engine off, the voltage at the first the same as that of the battery, and the second it is equal to 0 V. When the engine is running, voltage at terminal “15” at any speed should be at 13.8 to 14.2 V (depending on the settings of ERN).
 
Circuit Board ERN with a scheme of arrangement of parts.
 
Circuit Board of ERN with a scheme of arrangement of parts.
 
Electronic voltage regulator as part of the V5 is permissible to use the transistors КТ803, KT805, КТ817. and instead of two semiconductor triodes V3 and V4 can be set to one n-p-n conduction with a collector current of at least 150mA and the voltage’ on it above 15 In (eg. series КТ503, КТ815). The transistor V2 (КТ315А) can be replaced by КТ312Б, V. Zener Д818Г replaces a similar device brand Д814Б, Д818Д or Д818Е.
 
Elements of the ERN placed on the Board, made of one-sided foil fiberglass method of cutting the foil on the conductive areas. Contact petals of the connector is made of sheet brass. Through the holes in them cost attached to getincome bracket (base ERN). The other two holes are used to install the radiator of the transistor V5, the Radiator is ribbed, size 35 40×45 mm. to the Top screwed plastic case from a standard voltage regulator with vent holes in the upper and lower parts of the side walls. You can use any other container with similar dimensions.
 
When you exit failure warning lamp or oil pressure sensor transistors V3—V5 are locked and the lamp control of the generator. The same result is obtained by reducing davlenia oil below norm. This reduces the possibility of engine run with a faulty lubrication system.

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