WHY BEES PHOTOGENICALLY?

WHY DO BEES PHOTOGENICALLY?Honeybees live on the Earth for over 10 million years. And of course, tried to adapt to the environment in the wild but not at home… From hibernation they often go weak, susceptible to infectious diseases. And even whole families die. Although, it seems, and here nametype has, as they say, your height. Beekeeper-inventor and long-time subscriber “M-K” S. Kalashnikov developed an original method allowing the bees to facilitate the winter, they create a truly comfortable environment with the use of additional (electric) heating of hives.

However, it had to upgrade the design of the latter. As heaters is proposed here to use… old, familiar to every Amateur photographer electrogenerated. And the required heating temperature using the self-made heat stabilizer with the output stage, is built on a powerful industrial thyristor.
 
Honeybees, as we know, are social insects. Live in large families, with a distinct hierarchical structure. And in the hive (the nest), they try to maintain the cleanliness and order. Even such a severe winter, in General, not terrible. Of course, with proper supply of food, “comfortable” dry “housing”, etc. conditions, the observance of which vigilantly instinct.
 
But people are irresponsible sometimes intervenes in the harmony of nature. Violating the laws of ecology, poisoning the lives of “brothers smaller”. There are even highly resistant bees do not withstand, start to hurt. And in the most difficult time for them — autumn and winter and early spring, they can die.
Don’t know about others, but the gravedigger for his winged Pets I never will. So we decided to facilitate them wintering, hives equipped with a special electrically. And that “comfortable” condition to withstand with extreme precision, designed and electronic controller with output stage capable of delivering to the load up to 20-40 kW (capacity depends on the type of thyristor).
 
Already the first winter my Pets in a modified, fitted with electric hives have shown that I’m on the right track. Convinced that each of bee colonies is much better endured all the vagaries of the weather and welcome the spring, as they say, fully armed. Yes, and feed required for wintering my bees have much less.
 
 
Design the bottom of the hive, equipped with electric heating system:
1 – runners (fir lumber 40X40X500 mm sloped at an angle of 45° ends, 2 PCs.), 2 – front Board inlaid floor (pine “poluvagony”), 3 – basic Board, stacked floor (pine “paneling”. 12 PCs), 4 – Hanumanasana grille, 5 — side panel left (black) — the case of the beehive, 7 — crossmember front (birch lumber 4()X 40 mm), 8 — partition (Board profile, birch) 9 – tick mesh, 10— rear cross member (birch timber 20X40 mm), 11 — electric heater (element EN-9 from the old photopanoramas FG-9 with two attached swivel loops), 12— conclusions spiral electric heater with soldered thereto by connecting wires, 13 — the axis of the turntable (6 mm pin, St3), 14 — emphasis (6 mm pin, St3), 15 — door (birch Board 20 X 130 X 490 mm), 16 — side panel right (mirror-left, birch), 17 — SHR connector (2РМ), 18 — back Board, stacked floor (pine “poluvagony”) .

 
Circuit diagram of temperature controller
 
Electrical schematic of the thermostat.

 
Printed circuit Board disposed thereon the circuit elements
 
A printed circuit Board disposed thereon the circuit elements.
 
By the way, all this is in strict accordance with science. And she, in particular, approves: the minimum energy expenditure of the club of bees when the temperature at its outer boundary is +8°C. that under these conditions, wintering observed optimum feed intake, the lowest content of the intestine from the winged honey plants in the spring. Thereby and the greater persistence of the bees achieved their best preparation for maximum trick in flowering gardens; improving productivity, commodity output of honey from each hive.
Further creative pursuits led to the need for a more rational distribution of the electric heater. Through trial and error that the place he is at the bottom, under the frame (see illustrations). It gives a really uniform heating of the entire interior space of the hive.
 
Analyzing the proposed technical solution, it is easy to see the design at the bottom of the hive “cold corridor”, a sort of “verandah”. This is not a whim of the developer, and dictated by life itself need. In the spring, often so-called “return” of cold, meanwhile, in the hive by the time the temperature it is advisable to keep between +20 to +25°C. And if the “cold corridor” was absent, the bees could be triggered on the flight. In sub-zero temperatures of the outside air is more cheul dangerous. But the presence of the “veranda” anything terrible is not happening. Bees, felt it is not too comfortable from the hive already leave: cold.
 
Regarding the specifics of my proposed revision of the standard 12-frame hives under heated, they are all clear from the illustrations. Bottom part, as this is easy to see, the team. Paul recruited from 40-50 mm boards such as “lining”. It is mounted on two wood-runners. Side walls made of boards section 35X XI50 mm, pasted together by cross-beams, made of bars of appropriate dimensions.
 
The front grille is fastened Hanumanasana. And so, that between her and the floor remains one — pass 10X450 mm for bees. In parallel Handymanual the grid is hardwired in the profile Board that separates (along with bar 40X40 mm) 45-mm “cold corridor” from the rest of the design of the hive.
 
In the upper part have formed a “veranda” — a new passage for the bees. Its size throughout the profile is also 10 X 450 mm. Rear bottom part of the hive closes (along with the cross bar 40 X 20 mm) 20 mm wooden door. Tight going in is made for it in the side walls of the socket, it has a swivel (you can use loopback) connection with the floor. And from the rest of the structure of the hive bottom part separates tick bars, for fixing which have special slots in the side walls and the recess in the core Board.
 
The heating element is located in the centre of the bottom at a certain angle in order that it does not accumulate debris and wax chips. Terminals for connection of the heating element is withdrawn to the side wall of the bottom. As such used a homemade (or from old electric heaters — irons, kettles), but it is better to use standard connectors SHR or 2РМ.
 
Now — about the thermostat. Its circuit diagram (see Fig.) pretty simple.
 
When you turn on the switch (SAt) voltage is supplied to the transformer T1. 15—20V, derived from its secondary winding, rectified by a diode bridge VD2—VD5 and smoothed by the filter C2R3C1.
 
Stabilized using VD1 power is supplied to the transistor VT1, which under the action of the base voltage works and its collector current opens the transistor VT2. As a result, the emitter load R2 latest occurring positive voltage of 10-11 V, which is supplied to the control electrode of the thyristor VS1 powerful type ПТЛ100. Load devices serve the aforementioned elements of EN-9, connected in parallel (up to 400 pieces). Install them, as already mentioned, inside the hive. EN-9 begins to heat up and release heat in podravje space.
 
As soon as the temperature reaches the specified limits (at the level of the bottom bars of frames, where one of the hives is a mercury contact thermometer), work the EEOC and sauntered chain base of VT1. This transistor will be closed. This will result in locking and VT2. Resistor R2 will not be the same voltage drop. Therefore, a powerful thyristor VS1 is also closed. This means that the load will not pass current. The elements of EN-9 will cease to be heated, and the temperature inside the hives will start to fall. But this process keeps track of the EEOC. And as soon as the contacts of a mercury thermometer breaks, the cycle of operation of the circuit again.
 
Now a few words about the design and details of the device. Collected it (see illustration) on the PCB from double-sided foil fiberglass 2 X 62 X 100 mm. All the details of the scheme, except the diode Assembly KTS405, located at the top. And their selection is not so critical. In particular, the Zener diode Д814Д can be replaced Д813 or the like of the semiconductor device. Electrolytic capacitors — type To a-50. Resistors R1…R3 — compact, low-power, with a tolerance of ±20% of the nominal value or the like. Resistance R1, R2 of the type MLT-0.5 W, resistance R3 — MINTS 1.0 W. Denominations: R1 is 82 ohms, R2 — 1,3 kω, R3 — 200 Ohms.
Step-down transformer T1 can be taken from any transistor radio from the mains (“Minsk”, “Naroch”, “Air”, etc.) or done independently. For its production using a standard set of ø-12 mm. thick 20/24 Network winding has 2800 turns of wire PEL-0,13. The secondary contains 109 turns of PEL-0,8.
 
Thyristor ПТЛ100 can be replaced with more powerful and modern industrial instruments T3-250, Т122-25, T123-T123 200-250, Т132-50, Т151-100, Т161-160, Т161-160, Т171-200, Т171-250 (the last number in the name indicates the current in amperes). Instead МП42Б suitable ГТ104 (B, C), ГТ108, ГТ203В, ГТ305 with any index, ГТ326 (A, B), ГТ340 (B, G, D), and instead of KT315—КТ312 (A, b), КТ325 (A, B, C) КТ358В. And as load resistor I recommend to use the appropriate number (one per hive) elements (from photopanoramas FG-9) — EN-9 with parameters U=220V, P=160 W, R=300 Ohms. And not with an open winding (those should not be applied), and closed. Connecting wires from the thermostat to the hive is performed by a wire type RPS appropriate section.
 
And again. Remember that hives are outdoors with painted them with a voltage of 110 volts. This requires accuracy in work. The hives are connected to the thermostat only when device is off. Wires should be double insulated, were not to interfere, not lying on the road.
 
All connections must have good contact with no bare areas. Just making sure everything is, as they say, honor to honor, include the device in the network 220 V. 20-30 minutes check the heat in the hive, which opens the door bottom and determine (to the touch), heat is there.
 
In winter the temperature in the hive is set from +2СС to +4СС. And after the flight the temperature was raised to 20°C… +25°C.
 
Finally, don’t forget to put in the apiary the feeder the bees with warm water.
 
I wish you success!
 
S. KALASHNIKOV, Moscow

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