CORONADO - HUNDRED YEARS OF EXCELLENT SERVICE IN THE NAVYIn 1774 all of sea power by the thunder of artillery fire had spread sensational news – in England there is a new weapon of incredible destructive power. Of course, there immediately followed the queries: what kind of gun, how it shoots? The British politely and with the proper kind of humor replied that to get acquainted with the new weapon only in combat, but is unlikely to follow this advice, because on received impressions, no one knows…

However, even in those days, very limited in the media for a long time to hide such an invention was impossible. It soon became clear that we are talking about a short (length of the barrel to 10 calibres) smoothbore, cast iron cannon, made Karonski (Sigop) foundry plant in Scotland County, Stirling. For this reason, in our literature the word “Coronado” is sometimes written with two letters “p” carronade. Its baptism of fire the new guns got in 1775 during the war of independence in North America and proved to be extremely effective in the fire on wooden vessels from a close distance.

Karondi quickly gained universal acceptance. At first they just put on merchant ships, but gradually they become an important part of the armament of any warship, and then they began to arm and coastal batteries.
At the same weight with the gun karnadi had a significantly larger caliber, but the range is less and accuracy is worse than the guns.
The appearance of karond prepared by the historical process of the development of war at sea and became a response to the ever growing problem of low efficiency of artillery fire in the background of the significantly increasing combat stability of wooden ships.
In the Russian Navy were used karondi the following calibers:
The caliber of pounds a Caliber in inches
96 9
68 8
48 7,7
36 6,75
30 6,4
24 5,95
18 5,35
12 4,7
8 4,1

Take for example Gollandskoe battle 6 (17) July 1788 O. Hogland in the Gulf of Finland during the Russo-Swedish war of 1788 -1790 years. Russian ship of the line “Vladislav” (hull length is 51.9 m) received 34 underwater holes (27 – on the left side and 7 from the right), was damaged wheel and absolutely beaten by the mast. The ship completely lost the combat capability, but confidently kept afloat.
Another, more recent, example. The battle of Navarino 8 (20) October 1827. The flagship of the Russian Navy, “Azov” received 153 holes (of which seven below the waterline), were killed all masts, steggy and Rhea, shot through the sails, broken rigging. Imagine – one hundred and fifty holes in the housing length of only 54,3 m. At such damages the ship is not only not drowned, but has not lost its combat capability, and on October 13 went to sea and came safely in La Valletta in Malta.
Fig. 1. Coronado (from the book
Fig. 1. Coronado (from the book “I perceive the world”)

Fig. 2. Cast-iron 24-pound Coronado (from the book
Fig. 2. Cast-iron 24-pound Coronado (from the book “the Science of naval artillery”)
Agree that the effectiveness of the artillery fire caused a lot of unpleasant questions to the creators of the naval artillery. The answer to this challenge and become karondi. They do not solve the problem completely, it was only in 1822 when he invented the bomb gun, but coronada significantly reduced its severity.
It would seem that all the issues can be removed by increasing the caliber of guns. The larger the nucleus, the more damage dealt by that, but the increase in caliber guns have a limit which, if exceeded, benefits are not compensated for related losses. Heavy guns reduced the rate of fire. They quickly destroyed the ship, which was equipped with, as well as reduced stability and impairs the seaworthiness.
So core 30 – and 48-pounder guns, getting into a wooden ship’s hull, creating holes with a diameter of 6.46 and 7.7 inches. According to the degree of danger of such holes is almost identical. One and the other can be easily and quickly repaired. The advantage of a large core is only that it produces more chips, which is shed to the sides, striking the crew.
Therefore, the increase in weight of the kernel and the gun was unjustified.
But there is another way. According to the theory, the impact force of the projectile is proportional to its energy. It is determined by the mass of the projectile and its velocity at a meeting with a purpose. Therefore, it is possible to increase the mass of the nucleus at the expense of a certain reduction of its speed.
This is a theoretical situation and implemented when creating karondi. When weight equal to a 6 pounder gun Coronado had the caliber of 32 feet, respectively, the mass of its nucleus was larger. But the charge of karondi weighed (about 1/15 the weight of a shell) is less than that of a cannon, in connection with which the speed of the projectile was less. When getting into a wooden ship such a kernel created a very strong kick and punched, and broke and destroyed the lining side.
Position 1805 (number of karond on ships of different rank)
Position 1805 (number of karond on ships of different rank)

Position 1842 (number of karond on ships of different rank)
Position 1842 (number of karond on ships of different rank)

At that time a naval battle was fought at a short distance, therefore a decrease in the range and the deterioration of the accuracy of shooting was of no value. But the reduction of a charge to facilitate the tool approximately to the weight corresponding to 70 shells. In this regard seemed to be very best to replace the long, heavy and cumbersome to maintain guns light guns that required few staff, easy in battle and inflicted a lot more damage.
The inventor of karumadi is the Englishman, Charles Gascoigne, a young Scottish engineer, who at the time of creation of the weapon was only 30 years old. In 1759 he entered the service in Carrascoy iron company, and through his energy and talent ten years later became its Manager. During these years, under his leadership was created coronada.
It was intended for firing cannonballs, explosive shells and buckshot in the middle of the sea battle. To ensure good ballistic qualities of their offspring Gascoyne had to significantly change the technology of the casting and to increase the precision machining of shafts. Now the barrel was cast in the form of a disc, and the channel was drilled. The entire production technology was closely guarded as secret information.
The basic properties of karond
The biggest karondi – caliber 96 pounds – there was in the Russian Navy. Widely considered gauges from 24 to 68 pounds.
The length of the channel with space for coronad all calibers were 7,437 klb. The length of the cylindrical chamber was in the range 0,628 – 0,788 klb. The diameter of the bolt: 0,888 – 0,9 klb.
Conical chamber had only 96-, 48 – and 30-pound karondi production 1830 – 1840 years.
In order to avoid the appearance of cracks in the muzzle of the barrel, karondi had raspal necessary in order to reduce the spread flying out of the barrel of the flame is dangerous for your vessel. With the same purpose it was established the minimum allowable distance extension gun outside the Board. To open the battery of the ships and frigates is equal to 16.5 inches.
The barrel of karnad cast iron. Its average length for various calibers were made: for 48 pounder – 77 inches, for a 36 pounder compared to 68.1 inches and a 24 pounder – 59.5 inches. Unlike guns barrel karnadi had only the breech and muzzle.
Vingrad had a hole in the vertical direction. It consisted of the elevating screw, which provided more accurate and easy aiming of the gun in the vertical plane. The elevating screw was rotated by one person (at least two), while for lifting the breech of a cannon handspun often required four.
Fig. 3. Rear view of cast-iron 24-pounder of coronada (from the book
Fig. 3. Rear view of cast-iron 24-pounder of coronada (from the book “the Science of naval artillery”). Visible ring toreli:
1 – vingrad (the aiming screw is not shown); 2 – Vinogradnoe ear; 3 – tide with a slit for aiming; 4 – pallet, which breech lay on the reference point of the machine; 5 – lug

Fig. 4. Tides for targeting iron 24-pound karondi (from the book
Fig. 4. Tides for targeting iron 24-pound karondi (from the book “the Science of naval artillery”):
1 – tide with a slot at moralnogo belt; 2 – tide with a slot on the belt between the muzzle and the swivel parts; 3 – tide with a slot in the band around muzzle; 4 – improved tide on the belt between the muzzle and the swivel parts

Characteristic symptom of karond was the lack of axles. Instead, at the bottom, near the center of gravity of the trunk, there was a lug in the form of a ring where you insert the iron axle, replaced axle.
In the Russian Navy of coronada appeared during the reign of Empress Catherine II. Naval heritage got her in very poor condition. “We have surplus ships and people, but there’s no Navy, no sailors…” said the Empress. No better was the case with the production of artillery shells. To remedy the situation, Catherine II ordered to write of England’s best craftsmen and “not be hindered by the size of the salary, but would unmistakably pouring cannon than ours, pour a hundred and ten a lot of good”. Fulfilling the will of the monarch, the commander of the Russian Navy Admiral S. K. Greig, a Scot by birth, went straight to the Charles Gascoyne, who by that time was considered one of the most respected engineers and metallurgists of Europe.
1772 on the initiative of the commander of the Russian Navy Admiral NOLs, an Englishman by birth, Carrascoy company ordered 1000 of the guns. Since then, within a few years of British large-caliber guns were delivered to Russia on very favourable terms.
And then, with the assistance of Gascoigne Russia has bought from this company molds of the guns and four of the drilling machine. In this regard, the enterprising Scot had a lot of trouble. He was accused of selling secret technology to the Russians. Political scandal was soon hushed up, but large financial losses were inevitable.
At this time, an old friend of Gascoigne, Samuel Karlovich Greig (also had Scottish roots) and gave him the invitation of the Russian Empress Catherine II. The proposed terms seemed generous in 1786, Gascoigne arrived in Russia and were very excited to be working here till the end of his days (he died in 1806).
For a start, he had to change difficult to pronounce for Russians, the name Charles for Karl Karlovich, but his surname he retained unchanged, and entered the history of Russian metallurgy and arms manufacture.
Karl Karlovich began with the renovation of the Alexander and Konchezerskogo ironworks in Karelia. On Konchezersky cooked the best Russian cast iron for the production of guns, and on Alexander poured the barrels of the guns and different shells for them. For two years, Gascoigne brought these plants to the metallurgical enterprises of Europe, and trade quality guns and shells has increased several times.
Technology Carrascoy of the company were made karondi and guns, which we have called karonski. With the expansion of production guns at the Alexandrovsky plant, from buying them in England refused. On the breech of these guns was cast in the image of the Russian coat of arms a double-headed eagle, and under it the old Slavonic script was the inscription of the name of the plant and the name of his boss.
Then Gascoigne was founded by three new foundry plant of Kronshtadt (1789), Lugansk (1795), which soon became the main supplier of guns and shells for the black sea fleet, and the St. Petersburg (1801), later transformed into Putilov. As a result, in the end of XVIII – first half XIX centuries of the Russian army and Navy were fully provided with first-class artillery pieces and shells of domestic production.
From 1787 karondi were installed in the 100-gun ships.
In 1805 published a staff Position, and determined the kind and caliber of guns for different types of vessels. For vehicles karondi was adopted as auxiliary weapons. Brigs and a lugger armed with only karamadai. Thus, by the end of 1830-ies in service with the Russian naval artillery was bombing the gun, long gun model 1833 seven calibers, unicorns, mortars and karondi caliber 6-, 8-, 12-, 18-, 24- and 36 pounds.
All the frigates put two 8-pound karondi. Some vessels instead of 8-pounder and 6-pounder guns, 24-pound karondi. On ships built in 1826 – 1832 for the Baltic and black sea fleets, on the top deck and in an open battery was usually the 24-pound karondi.
In the second quarter of the XIX century in connection with the transition to odnokolernyh armament of ships and frigates, their main weapons are 36-pounder gun, and 24-pound karondi as additional weapons were placed in open batteries. In this regard, had to abandon the use of karond large caliber.
For vessels of less tonnage of Brigs, tenders, schooners and the Lugers. karondi was the main armament, allowing Russian naval smoothbore artillery karondi ranked second after guns.
The implementation of this provision has led to an extremely large number of genera and calibers of guns on the ships. For example, a 120-gun ship “Warsaw” of the black sea fleet had 10 kinds of guns, characterized by the nature and caliber.
The number of karond on ships is constantly increasing. This is evidenced by the following data. In 1790, a 100-gun ships carried four 24-pound karondi. The total number of guns reached 112, and the mass ejected in a volley of metal trading 2440 pounds. In 1805, on the same ships, there were already 20 24-pounder coronad for a total of 114 guns. The weight discharged in a volley of metal was trading 3485 pounds.
Even more impressive are data on the frigates.
1805 – open battery of 16 6-pound cannons or 16 24-pounder karond – only 44 guns. The weight discharged in a volley of metal – 922 trade the pound or (if you install karnad) 1267 shopping pounds.
As shown, the combat power of ships and frigates in our fleet is constantly growing and the number of guns and their caliber. Bombarding ships usually were with the fleet, so there was no need to arm them with strong artillery for operations against enemy vessels. State 1805 scoring three-masted ships relied 14 24-pounders karnad and two-masted – 10 24-pounder karnad.
However, these tools due to the short range of the shooting was ineffective at bombarding ships. When the ship was in the squadron, they were not used, and in a single voyage of karondi did not provide defense against vessels of the enemy, because it required long-range weapons.
The range of direct shot a 48-pound karondi in the first half of the nineteenth century was 127 yards. When sloping the shot with the angle of elevation of 1° the same coronada shot at 175 yards, and the elevation of 9° to 700 fathoms.
In the melee, and in the hands of karondi turned out to be a very strong weapon. This was particularly the case during the battle of brig “mercury” 14 (26) may, 1829, with two Turkish battleships. The main armament of the brig was 18 karond caliber 24 pound, and one such Coronado in melee is comparable to the 36-pounder gun. But “mercury” there were only 18 (9 on each side), and two Turkish ships -184 guns of different caliber.
There is no reason to repeat here the progress of the battle are well known, but it is important to note that the Russian gunners showed their superiority. A good shots, they broke the mast first one and then the second Turkish ship that decided the outcome of the battle. Thus, a total of 18 karnad, plus, of course, the skill and courage of Russian sailors who helped to win the victory over the significantly superior forces of the Turks.
Typical coronada was the gun caliber 5.95 inches. The channel length of its barrel with the breech – 44.25 inch, just guns – 59.5 inches, muzzle – 26.89 inches, the length of the breech – 17.35 inches, a length of vingrad and toreli – 15.24 inches.
Characteristics: the bore was closed with a curve – slope and passed into a cylindrical chamber with poluchennym bottom. Usually the length of the cylindrical chamber at karond was within 0,628 – 0,788 klb. This sample length of the chambers, with slope equal to one caliber. The diameter of the bolt – 5.41 inches, which was 0.9 klb, if established norm 0,888 – 0,9 klb. Later samples 96-, 48 -, and 30-lb karond production 1830 – 1840s had a conical chamber with a flat bottom.
Fig. 5. Machine Borisov for a 24-pound coronada
Fig. 5. Machine Borisov for a 24-pound karondi:
1 – press; 2 – bearing of the machine; 3 – support wheel; 4 – timber platform; 5 – rear pillow; 6 – the basis of the machine; 7 – emphasis of the elevating screw; 8 – aperture port; 9 – drum; 10 – axis; 11 – guide bar of the machine; 12 – hole for the curious; 13 – hook fastening Lopera; 14 – side pillow; 15 – front airbag platform; 16-head; 17-block platform; 18-block machine

Fuse was at right angles to the axis of the gun and had standard diameter for use with a rapid-firing tube. The tide was a sink, but the tide has been increased for fastening of a sight, a castle, or a drummer. In the front part of the barrel there was raspal.
The drawing shows only copper Matka and cap screw. Over the neck of the seeds they had tidal ring Vinogradnoe ear. It is passed through the pants.
Toreli at the bottom and the breech was pan – tide, which breech lay on the reference point of the machine. Over torily and on the friezes at the beginning and at the end of the muzzle were carried out tides with slits for sight. Karondi caliber 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 68 96 pounds and had the same construction as the above gun.
Ironeddie machines
Until the beginning of XX century the word “gun” meant only the barrel and the machine has always been treated separately. A single set of the trunk the machine was only when managed to ensure the rollback of the barrel with a stationary machine.
For naval gun machines were presented with the special requirement that they had to ensure:
sufficient angles of horizontal and vertical aiming;
decrease the recoil force in the design of the vessel and the rollback of the gun;
light pointing the gun horizontally and vertically, and the ease of rolling it to the Board;
normal operation with a minimum number of workers;
ease of mounting in its stowed position;
to occupy a minimum of space on the deck of the ship.
In the domestic marine artillery for karnad used American, English and Kongresowy machines and machine Borisov. American and British machines without wheels, and Kongresowy – with wheels.
American koronarnom the machine itself is simple in design, was characterized by serious shortcomings that complicate its combat use. Forward weapons on Board after loading required considerable effort. In addition, during the shot often the imbalance of the entire system. The front end of the machine often rested on the edge of the lower jamb of the port. All this further complicates the setup. Barrel guns, little has moved beyond the Board, so the flame emitted from the barrel could singe Board.
In the English press these defects corrected. However, it turned out to be more complex, forward weapons on Board still required significant effort, and the recoil was sharp and restless.
In addition to these disadvantages, the English and American machines were still too long, and it is difficult their placement in the public batteries of the ships. To cope with this problem, the Russian Navy has developed a machine Borisov. Its main feature was a shortened platform. At the same time was made, and other improvements.
The platform of the machine consisted of two parallel bars with a thickness of 6 inches, fastened with two pillows. The bottom inner edge of the beams strengthened with metal ferrules. The machine glided over the upper surface of the bars. At the bottom of the machine there were a guide bar, which was part of the gap between the bars of the platform.
He kept the machine on the platform and ensured its back and forth movement, eliminating any distortions.
At the bottom of the front and rear edges of the platform were attached pillow. The front of the platform made in the form of a semicircle. It was placed on a side cushion and fastened to it with an iron pin that held the platform in place during the shot. After 1861 on the pillows of the platforms began to make iron ferrules in the form of a loop, and the iron pin was replaced with copper.
Horizontal movement was provided by the platform: its front part is turned around styra, and moved back on the deck. The upper surface of the platform was exactly the level of the lower jamb of the port. This allowed the machine to run for a sufficient distance ahead. At the rear of the platform the sides were Obuchi, which is attached to the rotary sesni.
These Obuchi used when mounting the gun in its stowed position.
With the rear part of the platform turned to the right until the hole in the iron bracket aligns with the hole in the side butt. Then the platform was attached to the onboard butt bolt.
The basis of the machine was a thick Board with two iron slabs. They had the appearance of a small elevation and was installed on top of the front of the Board. In the middle of the Board to its bottom surface is attached to a guide bar. From below the guide beams are fixed two blocks for the Lapps. The axis of the vertical clamp passed through the eyelet of coronada and recorded a cast-iron slabs to the Board. At the rear of the machine, there were two lugs which were laid side Tali.
Fig. 6. Machine 8-pound karondi (from the book
Fig. 6. Machine 8-pound karondi (from the book “the Science of naval artillery”):
A – side view; B – top view; 1 – eye of the brücke; 2 – emphasis lifting screw; 3 – the basis of the machine; 4 platform; 5 – the back cushion; 6 – hull; 7 – slab; 8 – axis; 9 – pin machine; 10 – pin platform; 11 – front airbag

On the sides of the machine in its rear part is attached to two support wheels which rolled on the deck. The inner face of the supports snugly against the outer surfaces of the platform. Thanks to this support, and guide bar, hold the machine on the platform and ensured its smooth, without distortions, the movement of the platform. When you roll back the rear part of the machine go beyond the platform and supported by pillars. The wheels are cast iron, they were equipped with ratchet mechanisms, which greatly hindered the rollback and allow the wheel to rotate freely in the forward weapons on Board.
A very important characteristic of any of the guns were rolled back.
Usually on ships to take all measures to reduce its magnitude. To achieve this goal have used a thick rope, called brücke. It was pulling in Vinogradnoe ear, passed through rings on the frame of the machine, and the ends fastened to abujam the side of the vessel. The length of the brücke was chosen based on the fact that at full recoil the distance between the barrel of the gun and the Board was sufficient for easy loading.
Forward the guns to the side after the shot was made with the help of the Lapps and system blocks are installed on the machine and at the sides in front of the platform. Top front bag were fixed to the SJC, which in turn is attached to the ends of the Lapps. From this SAC the Lapps went to the blocks on the guide bar of the machine, then to the side blocks of the platform and through the holes in the side surface of the platform was bred out.
Overall, the machine Borisov was more convenient and compact, allowing you to use it even in a very limited free deck space. However, even a very useful innovation did not eliminate the fundamental shortcomings of the machine, besides the presence of pillars made the machine more complex, and wheel bearing at the back spoil the deck.
Machines for karond smaller caliber had a similar device, of course, were smaller and simpler. For example, full length guns of a calibre 4.1 inch – 41 inch, length of muzzle – 18.54 inches and the length of the breech – 11.96 inches; length – 26 inches, platform length 42 inch; machine width of only 10.5 inches, platform width is 14 inches. The machine had a full set of rings and butts rigging for artillery.
Despite its small size, the machine was used in the same way as for larger guns. Such tools are put on barges, landing craft and small sailing vessels. With a relatively small weight of the machine is easily rolled to the side.
From small craft ports were missing so the gun was standing on the deck or on special supports. Small boats had only one gun, and bigger boats put a battery to four guns. Usually they were used to support landing or forming parties. The amount of ammunition on a small ship was very limited, so the weapon was intended as a deterrent or for short-term fire on close targets.
In closed raids guns and open top panels, usually held the paper to the Board and fixed by anchor. The gun was put in the middle of the port, the trunk is brought into a horizontal position and closed grommet. Trousers were fitted and the Bay were placed on the breech of the gun.
In conclusion – another example of martial practice, this time the Baltic fleet, indicating the efficiency of karnad in battle. It happened on may 21 (June 1) 1789 during the war with Sweden. Russian 22-gun Kotter (almost the same brig) “mercury” under the command of Lieutenant-captain R. V. Kroun, disguised as a merchant ship in a dead calm came on the oars to the stern of Swedish 44-gun frigate “Venus” and suddenly the enemy opened fire from karond across the Board. The Swedes tried to answer two small retirednew guns, however, fire a 24-pounder karnad was so devastating that after a half-hour battle the enemy surrendered.
V. Dodonov

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