The range of direct shot a 48-pound karondi in the first half of the nineteenth century was 127 yards. When sloping the shot with the angle of elevation of 1° the same coronada shot at 175 yards, and the elevation of 9° to 700 fathoms.
In the melee, and in the hands of karondi turned out to be a very strong weapon. This was particularly the case during the battle of brig “mercury” 14 (26) may, 1829, with two Turkish battleships. The main armament of the brig was 18 karond caliber 24 pound, and one such Coronado in melee is comparable to the 36-pounder gun. But “mercury” there were only 18 (9 on each side), and two Turkish ships -184 guns of different caliber.
There is no reason to repeat here the progress of the battle are well known, but it is important to note that the Russian gunners showed their superiority. A good shots, they broke the mast first one and then the second Turkish ship that decided the outcome of the battle. Thus, a total of 18 karnad, plus, of course, the skill and courage of Russian sailors who helped to win the victory over the significantly superior forces of the Turks.
Typical coronada was the gun caliber 5.95 inches. The channel length of its barrel with the breech – 44.25 inch, just guns – 59.5 inches, muzzle – 26.89 inches, the length of the breech – 17.35 inches, a length of vingrad and toreli – 15.24 inches.
Characteristics: the bore was closed with a curve – slope and passed into a cylindrical chamber with poluchennym bottom. Usually the length of the cylindrical chamber at karond was within 0,628 – 0,788 klb. This sample length of the chambers, with slope equal to one caliber. The diameter of the bolt – 5.41 inches, which was 0.9 klb, if established norm 0,888 – 0,9 klb. Later samples 96-, 48 -, and 30-lb karond production 1830 – 1840s had a conical chamber with a flat bottom.
Fig. 5. Machine Borisov for a 24-pound karondi:
1 – press; 2 – bearing of the machine; 3 – support wheel; 4 – timber platform; 5 – rear pillow; 6 – the basis of the machine; 7 – emphasis of the elevating screw; 8 – aperture port; 9 – drum; 10 – axis; 11 – guide bar of the machine; 12 – hole for the curious; 13 – hook fastening Lopera; 14 – side pillow; 15 – front airbag platform; 16-head; 17-block platform; 18-block machine
Fuse was at right angles to the axis of the gun and had standard diameter for use with a rapid-firing tube. The tide was a sink, but the tide has been increased for fastening of a sight, a castle, or a drummer. In the front part of the barrel there was raspal.
The drawing shows only copper Matka and cap screw. Over the neck of the seeds they had tidal ring Vinogradnoe ear. It is passed through the pants.
Toreli at the bottom and the breech was pan – tide, which breech lay on the reference point of the machine. Over torily and on the friezes at the beginning and at the end of the muzzle were carried out tides with slits for sight. Karondi caliber 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 68 96 pounds and had the same construction as the above gun.
Until the beginning of XX century the word “gun” meant only the barrel and the machine has always been treated separately. A single set of the trunk the machine was only when managed to ensure the rollback of the barrel with a stationary machine.
For naval gun machines were presented with the special requirement that they had to ensure:
– sufficient angles of horizontal and vertical aiming;
– decrease the recoil force in the design of the vessel and the rollback of the gun;
– light pointing the gun horizontally and vertically, and the ease of rolling it to the Board;
– normal operation with a minimum number of workers;
– ease of mounting in its stowed position;
– to occupy a minimum of space on the deck of the ship.
In the domestic marine artillery for karnad used American, English and Kongresowy machines and machine Borisov. American and British machines without wheels, and Kongresowy – with wheels.
American koronarnom the machine itself is simple in design, was characterized by serious shortcomings that complicate its combat use. Forward weapons on Board after loading required considerable effort. In addition, during the shot often the imbalance of the entire system. The front end of the machine often rested on the edge of the lower jamb of the port. All this further complicates the setup. Barrel guns, little has moved beyond the Board, so the flame emitted from the barrel could singe Board.
In the English press these defects corrected. However, it turned out to be more complex, forward weapons on Board still required significant effort, and the recoil was sharp and restless.
In addition to these disadvantages, the English and American machines were still too long, and it is difficult their placement in the public batteries of the ships. To cope with this problem, the Russian Navy has developed a machine Borisov. Its main feature was a shortened platform. At the same time was made, and other improvements.
The platform of the machine consisted of two parallel bars with a thickness of 6 inches, fastened with two pillows. The bottom inner edge of the beams strengthened with metal ferrules. The machine glided over the upper surface of the bars. At the bottom of the machine there were a guide bar, which was part of the gap between the bars of the platform.
He kept the machine on the platform and ensured its back and forth movement, eliminating any distortions.
At the bottom of the front and rear edges of the platform were attached pillow. The front of the platform made in the form of a semicircle. It was placed on a side cushion and fastened to it with an iron pin that held the platform in place during the shot. After 1861 on the pillows of the platforms began to make iron ferrules in the form of a loop, and the iron pin was replaced with copper.
Horizontal movement was provided by the platform: its front part is turned around styra, and moved back on the deck. The upper surface of the platform was exactly the level of the lower jamb of the port. This allowed the machine to run for a sufficient distance ahead. At the rear of the platform the sides were Obuchi, which is attached to the rotary sesni.
These Obuchi used when mounting the gun in its stowed position.
With the rear part of the platform turned to the right until the hole in the iron bracket aligns with the hole in the side butt. Then the platform was attached to the onboard butt bolt.
The basis of the machine was a thick Board with two iron slabs. They had the appearance of a small elevation and was installed on top of the front of the Board. In the middle of the Board to its bottom surface is attached to a guide bar. From below the guide beams are fixed two blocks for the Lapps. The axis of the vertical clamp passed through the eyelet of coronada and recorded a cast-iron slabs to the Board. At the rear of the machine, there were two lugs which were laid side Tali.
Fig. 6. Machine 8-pound karondi (from the book “the Science of naval artillery”):
A – side view; B – top view; 1 – eye of the brücke; 2 – emphasis lifting screw; 3 – the basis of the machine; 4 platform; 5 – the back cushion; 6 – hull; 7 – slab; 8 – axis; 9 – pin machine; 10 – pin platform; 11 – front airbag
On the sides of the machine in its rear part is attached to two support wheels which rolled on the deck. The inner face of the supports snugly against the outer surfaces of the platform. Thanks to this support, and guide bar, hold the machine on the platform and ensured its smooth, without distortions, the movement of the platform. When you roll back the rear part of the machine go beyond the platform and supported by pillars. The wheels are cast iron, they were equipped with ratchet mechanisms, which greatly hindered the rollback and allow the wheel to rotate freely in the forward weapons on Board.
A very important characteristic of any of the guns were rolled back.
Usually on ships to take all measures to reduce its magnitude. To achieve this goal have used a thick rope, called brücke. It was pulling in Vinogradnoe ear, passed through rings on the frame of the machine, and the ends fastened to abujam the side of the vessel. The length of the brücke was chosen based on the fact that at full recoil the distance between the barrel of the gun and the Board was sufficient for easy loading.
Forward the guns to the side after the shot was made with the help of the Lapps and system blocks are installed on the machine and at the sides in front of the platform. Top front bag were fixed to the SJC, which in turn is attached to the ends of the Lapps. From this SAC the Lapps went to the blocks on the guide bar of the machine, then to the side blocks of the platform and through the holes in the side surface of the platform was bred out.
Overall, the machine Borisov was more convenient and compact, allowing you to use it even in a very limited free deck space. However, even a very useful innovation did not eliminate the fundamental shortcomings of the machine, besides the presence of pillars made the machine more complex, and wheel bearing at the back spoil the deck.
Machines for karond smaller caliber had a similar device, of course, were smaller and simpler. For example, full length guns of a calibre 4.1 inch – 41 inch, length of muzzle – 18.54 inches and the length of the breech – 11.96 inches; length – 26 inches, platform length 42 inch; machine width of only 10.5 inches, platform width is 14 inches. The machine had a full set of rings and butts rigging for artillery.
Despite its small size, the machine was used in the same way as for larger guns. Such tools are put on barges, landing craft and small sailing vessels. With a relatively small weight of the machine is easily rolled to the side.
From small craft ports were missing so the gun was standing on the deck or on special supports. Small boats had only one gun, and bigger boats put a battery to four guns. Usually they were used to support landing or forming parties. The amount of ammunition on a small ship was very limited, so the weapon was intended as a deterrent or for short-term fire on close targets.
In closed raids guns and open top panels, usually held the paper to the Board and fixed by anchor. The gun was put in the middle of the port, the trunk is brought into a horizontal position and closed grommet. Trousers were fitted and the Bay were placed on the breech of the gun.
In conclusion – another example of martial practice, this time the Baltic fleet, indicating the efficiency of karnad in battle. It happened on may 21 (June 1) 1789 during the war with Sweden. Russian 22-gun Kotter (almost the same brig) “mercury” under the command of Lieutenant-captain R. V. Kroun, disguised as a merchant ship in a dead calm came on the oars to the stern of Swedish 44-gun frigate “Venus” and suddenly the enemy opened fire from karond across the Board. The Swedes tried to answer two small retirednew guns, however, fire a 24-pounder karnad was so devastating that after a half-hour battle the enemy surrendered.