DESTROYERS OF THE XXI CENTURYIn the early 1980s, the years of the cold war at sea has reached its climax. The unprecedented growth of the Soviet Navy — qualitative — inspired West well-founded fear. The USSR not without success, aspherical American goodsto in the oceans— only in 1981-1983 and the sea came holoeye ships from four new series: missile cruiser “Kirov” and “Glory”, the destroyer “Modern” MIC “Swashbuckling”… the Soviet anti-ship missiles at soem characteristics — range, speed, power, warheads, far ahead of the best Western samples. Never a history of Russian fleet was not as Arnim tool miraaj policy, and as the time, separated from us by two decades. Largely it was the merit of Admiral S. G. Gorskaya, nearly 30 years held the post glaucoma of the Navy. He was able to convince party leadership of the USSR that without a powerful Navy ornago our country will not be able to compete with the United States and will Aetna doomed to the “subordinate” position.

It should be recognized that the Western response to the growing “Soviet threat” was thoughtful and rational. NATO countries did not compete with us in the creation of a powerful supersonic anti-ship missiles, knowing that in this direction the Soviet Union has gone far ahead. The Americans, still considering the main striking force of surface ships nuclear aircraft carriers, focused on finding effective remedies. And here they made a bet on the most advanced technology, primarily related to electronic and computer technology. And in the end they had the ships, outwardly little different from its predecessors, but in reality were representatives of the new generation.
In 1982, trials have not left the American missile cruiser “Ticonderoga”, which was a modification of the destroyer type “Sprues”. Knowing that the appearance noogo vehicle in neutral aodah begda attracts the attention of the enemy in the cold war, Americans above the helicopter hangar installed a banner reading: “Stand by the Adm. Gorshkov: Aegis is at Sea!”— “Admiral Gorshkov, be on the lookout: “aegis” and the sea!”
It is characteristic that Glanum trump new steel ship missiles and not even a means of detecting targets, and the so-called “multi-purpose weapon system” (IFRS) “aegis”, which is formally only a control system.
Sformulirovany Americans thesis will briefly memorize something like this: in the modern war to win not the one who has the missiles fly farther, and the one who will know more about the enemy, who quickly react and of all the possible options will choose the best. And the trend is that the “battle space” in which the ship has to use weapons, gradually expanding, and AREM on the adoption of combat tasks is reduced. Introduced in 1960-ies of the combat information control system (CICS) did not satisfy the modern requirements had to bring integrated management to a new level.
The fundamental difference between the system “aegis” from the old CICS is that it integrates all combat and technical means of the ship and manages their resources. Almost all the features of the combat use of weapons is performed using computers of the Central computing complex, and, in accordance with the change in tactical obstinacy, the system may reallocate the existing capacity, depending on priorities. So, when repelling massive air attacks IFRS “aegis” can suspend the search for new targets and all the resources of the radar to direct support has been found. In that case, as I think the probability of destruction approaching the ship, aircraft or cruise missiles has significantly increased.
Only the “aegis” brings together 24 of the subsystem and component weapons. The most important of the subsystems to the computing center, with over 20 powerful computers and to 22 remote display-display of the tactical situation. Another subsystem is a multi-function radar AMBER-1 with phased array antennas installed on the superstructure of the ship — in fact, they are the main outward signs of the system “aegis”. Under favorable conditions they can detect otdushki targets at ranges of up to 450 km.
The first five ships of the “Ticonderoga” is a conventional double universal octanoate to launch anti-ship missiles “Harpoon” anti-aircraft and anti-submarine ASROC. But as 1986 the U.S. Navy did the installation of vertical launch (Ohr) missiles with cells of the container. The application of CIP has improved the survivability of the installation, to increase boezapas and range launched missiles, to reduce the reaction time. The typical download of the Ohr on the sixth and subsequent cruisers “T-kondurova” — 26 cruise missiles “Tomahawk”, 16 plourac’h ASROCK and 80 missiles “Standard-2” — total 122 missiles and two modules.
The total cost for the serial system “aegis” (without the inbound and her arms) in the prices of 1980-ies was approximately $ 300 million — about a third of the cost of the cruiser “Ticonderoga”! Well, this is one of the characteristic features of our time: electronics and computer engineering stanytsia is the most expensive component in the design of a warship. And another interesting fact: “Sprues” and “Ticonderoga” and the size and Cocteau weapons, and anenemy mean almost identical, but one of them Americans took to the class destroyers, and the other to the class of cruisers. That is, the system “aegis” was the main argument in raising the status of the “Ticonderoga” to the next rank.
Meanwhile, in military shipbuilding has been brewing for another important change. To admirals and designers finally realized: the growing cost of warships is hard to reconcile with their extremely low vitality. The death in 1982 of the English destroyer “Sheffield” and “Coventry” in the Falkland Ostrov and severe damage to the American frigate “stark” after being hit by an Iraqi missile in 1987, was forced to abandon further use of flammable aluminum alloys. Once these alloys are allowed to make fleet destroyers and frigates vysokovoltnyi and seaworthy, but now it was more important to ensure the survival of the ship and protect the most important military posts, and internal communications.
344. Destroyer “Arleigh Burke”, USA, 1991
Built at the shipyard “Beth Iron Works”. Full displacement 8315 tons Length at waterline 142 m, width 18 m, draft 6,31 m. Power gas turbine 105, OOO HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: two Ohr MK-41 (90 cells: 28 the Kyrgyz Republic “Tomahawk”, 46 missiles “Standard-2”, 16 plourac’h ASROC), one 127-mm AU and two six-barreled 20-mm gun “Vulcan-Phalanx”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo the PLO, two helicopters. Just ordered 57 ships, by 2002, 34. The latter destroyers is 9238 t, the number of cells Ohr increased to 96.
345. Missile cruiser “Ticonderoga”, USA, 1983.
Built at the shipyard “Inglis”. Full displacement 9589 T. waterline Length 162,3 m, a width of 16.76 m, draft 7.5 m capacity of the gas turbine installation 100 000 HP, speed of 30.5 per node. Armament: two universal PU SAM “Standard-2”, RCC “Harpoon” and plourac’h ASROC, two 127-mm AU and two six-barreled 20-mm machine gun “VUPEN-Phalanx”, three-pipe, two 324-mm and two helicopters. Just 1983-1994 built 27 units, including 22 — with the Ohr MK-41 (122 cells); their displacement is 9613 T.
346. Destroyer “Congo”, Japan, 1993
Built at the shipyard “Mitsubishi”. Full displacement 9485 T. maximum Length 161 m, width 21 m, draft of 6.2 m. the Capacity of the gas turbine installation 100 000 HP, speed 30 knots. Armament: two Ohr MK-41 (90 cells: missiles “Standard-2” and plourac’h ASROC), eight anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”, one 127-mm AU and two six-barreled 20-mm gun “Vulcan-Phalanx”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW, one helicopter. Just 1993-1998 built four units.
347. The frigate “Alvaro de Basan”, Spain, 2002.
Built at the shipyard “Basan”. Full displacement 5802 T. Length overall 146.7 m, width 17.5 m, draught 4.8 m. Capacity diesel gas turbine 58 600 HP, speed 28, 5 USA. Armament: one Ohr MK 41 (48 cells: missiles “Standard-2” and “sea Sparrow”), eight anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”, one 127-mm AU and one 12-barrel 20-mm AU “Merrok,” two twin-tube 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW, one helicopter. Just ordered four ships.

Therefore, before starting destroyer “Arleigh Burke”, designed to be a head unit of a larger series, the Americans proceeded from two fundamental points: the vehicle must have aisaki vitality and have IFRS “aegis”. The armament adopted the same as on the “Ticonderoga” only by reducing the total number of containers of DIP cells from 122 to 90. But the destroyers were quite different. Abominae alloys remained only a design, kouhou chimneys, and the case and all add-ons made exclusively of steel. Moreover, for the protection of critical posts and systems vnoel appeared reservation — 25-mm plates with a total mass of about 70 tons of Course, ACE is a increased “top” AES vehicle and not to reduce the height of the Board, the case had to do much wider than it has been before. Compared to the “SprutCAM”, the speed decreased slightly, but now it is not so Aino: in the list of priorities rapidity of the destroyer is not in the first place. Other eaaaeeny note gas turbine power plant with heat recovery circuit, which allowed to give a 25% fuel savings usersection system of protection against weapons of mass destruction (in particular, all doors in the external contour oborudovani air platforms), the device for the discharge of torpedoes, the system of artillery fire control with laser rangefinders.
Head “Arleigh Burke” was put into operation in 1991, but the construction of the series continues to this day. It is assumed that only the us Navy will consist of 57 ships of this type. One of de Stroganov family had a chance to get some serious combat damage. The twelfth of October 2000, standing at the roadstead of the port of Aden, the USS Cole was hit by suicide bomber driven the boat to the eyeballs stuffed with atrivedi. From the strongest Azria in the Board formed a huge hole, 17 crew members were killed and 39 were wounded. However, as a whole gauchest ship was on ayate — “Cole” remained afloat. Later on the ship for the carriage of heavy cargoes shipped to the United States for repair. 14 months later, he re-entered the system.
348. Destroyer
348. Destroyer “Delhi”, India, 1997
Built at the shipyard “Mazagon Dock” in Mumbai (Bombay). Full displacement of 6,700 t maximum Length 163 m, width 17 m, draft of 6.4 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel-gas turbine unit 64 000 HP, speed 28 knots. Armament: 16 anti-ship missiles “Uranium”, two PU SAM “Hurricane”, one 100-mm AU, four six-barreled 30 mm AK-630, one platetronic 533-mm torpedo the PLO, two mortars RBU-6000, two helicopters. Only 1997-2002 built three units.

349. The design view of the destroyer DD-21
349. The design view of the destroyer DD-21 “Zumwalt”
In 1993 — two years after the construction of the “Arleigh Burke” — system “aegis” was adopted outside of the United States. Golounin the ship with her, was the Japanese destroyer “Kongo”. In design, armament and electronic equipment in almost exactly the same “Arleigh Burke”, but surpassed it in size. By the way, with his vodom in operation Grune that separates the cruiser and destroyers, were finally erased: a displacement “Congo” caught up “Ticonderoga”. That is, today, such classes of ships, like frigates, destroyers and cruisers lost their characteristic features and are used for selection in accordance with established and other Strune traditions.
Confirmation of these words can serve as mejdunarodnyi the project, known KVK “Orizon” (“Horizon”), In anticipation of the unification of Europe Velikobritaniya, Italia and Francia come together, this Proektirovanie new multipurpose Ko-Rabl, and in peraih two strung it imenovao destroyer, and one frigate. The truth is, between osvetnici this consortium there is a contradiction, and the fate of this project still easing of tumunu. Pouchulu him prismatrivalsya and Ispania, but swam NVG did not stavku own razrabotku. And in 2002 sostav ispanskogo the Navy became head frigate “Alvaro de Basan” — first ay European korabl equipped with system “aegis”. Arhitekture he Napo-minuet reduced “Arleigh Burke” with one DIP and a single smokestack. However, the word “reduced” does not indicate that korbl chalk. Naoborot, with full load displacement 5,800 t he among all Fregata and destroyers Zapadnoi Europe is almost the largest, a little utupua, Ruso that asterisk French korablyam type “Du-Ken” and “Tourville”. Just by 2005 Espen-Tsy plan to have e build four frigates of the “Alvaro de Fables”.
Command of the Soviet Navy, zacharo-tively unsurpassed shock Harek the performances of our missile weapons, unfortunately, came to realize otstavanie in oblasti IFRS. To razrabotke of analogy “Aegis” system “Mercedes-Passat” — in the Soviet Union began late, and now it ustanovlena only two ships — avanessa heavy cruiser “Admiral Gorshkov” and “Admiral Kuznetsov”. Moreover, to fully operational level to bring her, apparently, and failed. In any case, the long-suffering “Varyag”, towed recently and China, from its octanoate refused at the stage of construction of the ship.
The collapse of the Soviet Union and the 1991 actually put an end to the development of a new multipurpose ship, designed to replace destroyers like “Modern” MIC type “Udaloy”. Judging by the pre-conceptual design, this ship largely had to remind the “Arleigh Burke” — have an increased width, the local reservation, IFRS phased array antennas, two modules of the CIP. Alas, hopes for the implementation of this project in metal today can be considered zero.
However, some of the ideas of Russian shipbuilders realized in the distant India. In 1997 at the shipyards of this country with the help of Russian, specialistou was built head destroyer “Delhi”. In architecture it was the development of our military-industrial complex type “Udaloy” and equipped solely with Russian weapons. Overall this is a fairly modern ship, although to the level of “Arleigh Burke” and “Congo” he clearly does not hold.
And in the US and in 2002 work began on the creation of beago ship of the new generation, known as DD-21 — “destroyer the XXI century”. In General, destroyer it is difficult to call — it will be judaise length of 210 m and a displacement of 12 tonnes, made by technology “stealth” and absolutely devoid of any aesthetics. The mast and the pipe is not provided — instead, they will have only one nositelya add-in phased array radar antennas on the I sloping sides. Aft is the hangar and the runway. Case in ASEM for will have daoine the bottom and Daunou Board; the bow with a reverse slope of the talus resembles the nose of the French cruisers of the late nineteenth century. It is assumed that the armament will consist of multiple missiles and DIP and two new 155-mm guns designed to bombard the shore and is able to produce 12, sarada a minute at a distance of 100 miles! The speed of the destroyer, the monster is 30, USAA, the crew will consist of 125 people. The lead ship is planned to lay and 2005-2006, and for him the name of “Zumwalt” in honor of the leader of the Marine Department of the United States.
Attributing DD-21 class, Esencia, Americans have filled the word “destroyer” a new meaning: now it really is “the destroyer”, able to deal with sea and land by the enemy. In fact, it fits and developed a dozen years ago the concept of “ship-Arsenal”, and his equally obosnovanno could name at least a cruiser, even a battleship… But one thing is clear: with his Avodah in operation the face of the world fleet will change dramatically, and the division of the surface ships in many classes and will finally remain past.

Recommend to read

    The history of the Moscow Likhachev automobile plant dates back to 1916, when on the outskirts of Moscow began construction of a plant with the name AMO (Automobile Moscow Society),...
    When connecting such a power source as an ordinary galvanic battery for flashlight, not so easy to achieve a reliable attachment of wires to flat pin made of thin sheet metal. Moreover,...