“EAGLE” THE FIRST-BORN RUSSIAN FLEET

Will have to make a reservation at once — reliable information, which is not causing doubts and questions about the shape and design of the firstborn of the Russian Navy, very little. Therefore, we decided not to give ready answers to all the questions do not encourage readers to blindly take our word for it, but just described the situation for what it is known to us today. Model ship “eagle” had already been built, and authors hats off to the people who once took on a noble mission to show his contemporaries, looked like the legend embodied in the canvas, wood and metal. We also tried to make another small step in this direction and we hope that following us will be a bit easier. So, remember the “eagle” — it’s worth it…

 
The construction of the warship is crucial and expensive. The decision on its creation is accepted as a rule, the highest state! level. And this requires serious prerequisites of both economic and military nature.
 
For a clear understanding of why the country suddenly needed a warship, we’ll have to go a little further during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Romanov) — it is to him at the time and had to make a decision on the construction of the ship.
 
One of the most common in our time has become a misperception that the reforms in Russia began in the era of Peter the Great, and before him, Russia was in hibernation from excess of laziness, whether in a coma after the peasant wars. And the first option thanks to the talent A. N. Tolstoy, author of “Peter the great”, was considered more reliable. Well, actually Peter quite successfully continued the work begun by his predecessors.
 
Miracles do not happen, and all the success Peter was well prepared for economic, industrial, political and cultural transformations of the second half of the XVII century. That is when Alexis appeared in Russia, the first theatre and the first manufactory was carried out reform of public administration which in a slightly modernized form successfully operated with Peter. Even merchant coqui (the so-called Moscow German settlement), where young Peter met with European traditions, did not appear by accident — it was created specifically.
The country could not develop by itself, through internal resources she needed economic partners. Of course, the required and reliable transportation routes. The most cost-effective mode of transport in those days was water, and Russia is gradually squeezed out enemies from their lands, seized by the neighbours in times of Turmoil. The goal was obvious — to go to the seas, but the effort to do this, Russia was still not enough. After all a breakthrough to the Black sea promised a meeting with the Ottoman Empire, which at its peak.
 
However, it should be mentioned that in 1637 the don Cossacks captured the Turkish fortress of Azov and for five years held her (later this period was called the Great Azov sitting). However, in 1642 due to the lack of reliable means of communication don Cossacks had undefeated to leave the castle — a time of real victory has not come yet!
 
Tempting for Russia seemed and the Baltic, but the way she was absent, too — to get there, we had to fight almost all of Europe.
 
 
Stayed way to the South-East. But on the Volga-Caspian routes was total anarchy. Astrakhan was a serious force in the lower Volga, but not the only. The whole Caspian sea region was divided into zones of influence of numerous sultans, shahs, khans and local “politicians” of smaller rank (familiar, huh?). Each of them wanted to have your Kush from trade between States, but the trade itself it did not help.
 
An additional factor of discord was the Cossack freemen, headed by Stepan Timofeevich Razin. We once more heard that he was a robber, and only the nobility but the boyars were exhausted, but the don ataman Razin in 1662 — 1663, there and fought with foreign powers, to engage them in diplomatic relations, and in 1668 — 1669 years has made the Caspian sea a campaign in Persia. And anyway, Stepan Timofeevich in those years was a very prominent figure in Russian political life. Some kind of regional opposition… armed to the teeth.
 
Military-political task Alexis was put hard — dominance in the Caspian region. Instrument for its implementation could only be Navy.
 
So what? The Tsar commanded and the boyars sentenced? It is not so simple. First of all Alexei Mikhailovich and his administration had to solve purely engineering problem. Yes, the fleet is needed, but what? To understand this, it was necessary to analyze the features of the navigation area, the availability of supply bases, the locations of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the shipbuilders and the availability of the necessary specialists. In addition, the decision of the king was influenced by General political and military situation in the world and a strategic line of Russia in this situation.
 
Men sailed across the Caspian sea always. The lake that, for its size is called the sea, is a remarkable variability. It is then bottled, swallowing coastal towns, then goes away, shrinks, freeing large areas of land. For example, now in the Astrakhan region there is a village Tower, located fifty miles from the sea. And the name he was given because of the beacon the time of Peter, standing near this village!
 
But in those days, and now the whole Northern Caspian is a solid shallow water. Settlements along the shores of the sea settled down quite often, but they were all small and did not have enough convenient places for organization of ports. Therefore, both commercial and military fleet in the region has always been represented by relatively small vessels with shallow draft. On the courts of the non-Russian built (kirzhims) we know from the words of Adam Olearius, who traveled to the Volga to Persia with the Holstein Embassy in 1634 — 1689.
 
A three-masted 22-gun warship
 
Russian used planes. The closest known analogue of these vessels Caspian reuse. They were mostly vessels with a length of 8 — 12 meters, a width of 2.8 to 3.5 meter, flat-bottomed, kruglenkoye, sailing and rowing, with a small draft. 24 such planes Stepan Razin made his famous Persian campaign, and he famously defeated the combined enemy fleet of 70 ships.
 
The effectiveness of this fleet is securely confirmed, the question naturally arises — what else is necessary? Moreover, subsequently Peter I actively, successfully and in large quantities used planes in their military operations. However, Alexis was looking at a broader task — he needed not just a fast light warship and a real floating fortress with a powerful artillery and troops on Board. What was needed was an impregnable citadel that prevented even think about the attack on her. But it was not enough. The strategic goal of the voyage was not only Caspian, but also in the Black, Baltic and others seas!
 
This required the court of ocean class, and they have long been built in Europe. You could, of course, to buy a ship for the Caspian sea, but the far-sighted monarch decided to build it on their own. He understood that Russia needs not only the ship and not even the entire Caspian flotilla, Russian
 
The Navy and Maritime shipbuilding industry.
 
Under this perspective formed the technical requirements for the construction of the ship. They argued that the ship should be based on the principles of ocean-going ships with powerful artillery and a large autonomy on the one hand, and a small draft.
 
In Europe in those days, the best shipbuilders was considered Dutch. And the most appropriate prototype for the construction of the ship was recognized as the pinnace is a type of trading ship used for coastal shipping. That is the ship had a considerable capacity with a relatively small draught and among foreign ships most fully meet the peculiarities of the Caspian sea. To all, in the process of building such a vessel Russian masters were able to adopt European techniques of shipbuilding.
 
Overall management of the implementation of the state program was entrusted to the head of the Embassy of the order of Athanasius Lavrent’evich Ordyn-nashchekin. On his orders, the Dutch merchant van Summarized hired abroad a team of experts in the field of construction and operation of marine vessels.
 
The location of the building chose the village of Dedinovo of the Kolomna district, where there was already a large center of shipbuilding of the river, and the area is abounded with forests of oak. According to the Imperial decree in Dedinovo in 1667, was laid in a ship called “eagle”. Together with the masters and foreigners to build the ship and to study foreign methods of shipbuilding had Russian masters I. and Poluektov, S. Petrov.
 
The theoretical drawing of the hull of the ship
 
The theoretical drawing of the hull of the ship “eagle”
 
It must be remembered that the Russian shipbuilding industry until the advent of the “eagle” was not some underdeveloped and primitive. We were able to build ships, including the sea. And it was not frail boats, and ships, navigated successfully in the seas of the Arctic ocean. Large Pomeranian Lodge had a length of 25 meters and width up to 8 meters. And it was not the record size. The most outstanding among the Pomeranian vessels Koch was a true masterpiece of wooden shipbuilding. At the turn of XVI — XVII centuries in Northern shipyards built three-masted Kochi. For steering on these ships used a steering wheel, so that the “eagle” with his calderstones was for the Russian shipbuilding a step backwards. It is not for nothing at the time, the Dutchman Nikolai Vitsen noticed mangazeiskoe Kochi — ships with ice protection, to build in Europe does not know how.
 
In 1685 in Kholmogory there was an ordinary event took Koch built for sailing to the New Land by the peasants of the village Volkovysskoe Ignatius and Timothy Fedorov. In accordance with the surviving certificate of acceptance, pinezhskiy Koch had a length on the keel of 21.6 meters, a width of 6.4 meters and a height of 3.5 meters. These dimensions were almost the same as the “eagle.”
 
In the XVI century in Russia began to operate the first factory, and among them were large enterprises for the production of ropes for the ships. And in the field of manufacturing of fabrics Russian was not only to learn but also something to teach the Europeans. In particular, lagging behind England on the development of wool fabric, linen Russia is not had, and sails for the domestic fleet we have sewed a lot. And carpenters required qualifications in Russia, too, was enough.
 
In museums there are numerous examples of firearms large and small caliber, the workmanship is not inferior to European products.
 
In General, the construction of its own fleet Russia was ready !
 
The captain of the ship with a very good salary and the assignment of the titles “captain” and “Corsica-General” was appointed David Butler — one of the most famous specialists of the time. At the same time developed and approved the first prototype ship of the Charter of the 34 articles, which once again indirectly confirms that Alexei Mikhailovich, the construction of one ship to keep going.
 
The Russian army in those days consisted mainly of archers. They were all small proprietors, and the service was not the only occupation — main income would be for their own business. In contrast, the “eagle” served for the basis of a permanent contract and, thus, these people are the first soldiers of the regular army, which can be called “eagle” the first ship of the Russian Navy. However, to the ship on a permanent basis was seconded and the archers are the first soldiers of the modern marine corps.
 
Now often remembered (and in Holland almost as often than in Russia), that Peter the great studied shipbuilding in Amsterdam. But in fairness it should be mentioned that he is about the Dutch masters was not a very high opinion. Peter is not without reason believed that the British had achieved in this art to greater heights by putting the matter on a scientific basis.
 
 
But that was later, and during the “Orla” ship builders did not do the drawings, and the secrets passed on by inheritance. Never was and drawings, “eagle.” Did not exist in those years and the tradition to produce preliminary models of the ships — it appeared in England a little later. Therefore, to restore the appearance of the first Russian ship proved to be difficult.
 
The basis for the reconstruction of the ship was recording the sailing master of the ship “eagle” by Jan Strasa preserved in the archives of the statement of utilization of the ship’s hull 1676 and the book Nicholas by two “Aeloude Hedendaegsche en Scheeps Bouw en Bestier”, published in Amsterdam in 1671, which was first outlined the basics of ship design of the time. Van Summarized and David Butler also left notes about the main dimensions of the ship.
 
Further reconstruction was checked in other sources. This difficult problem was solved by Sergey Kuznetsov, Executive Director of the Astrakhan regional public Fund “eagle”. To Kuznetsova in various handbooks and monographs used a reconstruction made by engineer S. Luchaninova and marine painter E. Voishvillo, first published in the journal “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 10 of 1969. After the analysis of this reconstruction Kuznetsov it revealed significant deviations from the information gleaned from the above mentioned sources. The results of this work it was decided to do all the work, that is, with a clean slate, starting with the main dimensions and hull form.
 
After a thorough analysis of all available information and design of the study was identified the principal dimensions of the ship. Under the modern rules of tonnage measurement of ships, maximum length 25 m, calculated length is 24.3 m, maximum width of 6.4 m, the midship depth — 3.9 m, draft with a displacement of 160 tons was 2.0 meters. These data are considered as completely accurate is impossible, but rather to identify them is unlikely — that’s for sure.
 
In accordance with the Royal decree, as galanoy figures on the ship were instructed to set the image of the eagle, but in reality, for one reason or another fulfilled the figure of a lion, which, however, was the traditional solution for contemporary European shipbuilding. The same image of the eagle found its place on the aft wall of Utah among the herbal pattern. There, above the figure of the eagle, was cut’ and the name of the ship — “eagle”.
 
Surviving images and descriptions managed precisely enough to restore the appearance of the ship, but its internal structure remained a mystery for us. To reveal it was only possible through the analysis of diagrams the General layout of similar ships of the time.
 
Eagle. Reconstruction E. Voishvillo
 
The device of the ship were as follows. The lower part of the ship from the bow to the stern was divided into three spaces — the cargo hold, provisions store rooms pantry and kruyt camera to store gunpowder and weapons. On top of these premises were closed deck, which is called a cannon, and that there is large-caliber guns, “eagle”, and twelve of them looked at the world through the side gun ports, and two through stern.
 
In the bow of this space were sailing the warehouse and pantry skipper, who, most likely, one room. Here, among the guns, was and beds team. Sleeping facilities for members of the team did not figurativley.
 
Officers were located in the aft separated by light partitions into separate cabins. Interestingly, at the time of the battle the shields were removed to make enough space for maintenance tools. Ventilation was carried out through lattice covers and similar cargo hatches. The height of the gun deck, ranged from 1.8 meters to 1.9 meters. At this altitude, was situated the main deck.
 
In the bow, just behind the head (on the tank), installed two bow guns, and behind them — the space marine galley and winch for lifting anchors. On the aft wall of the tank, rather on the guard rails of a deck tank, hung the ship’s bell, this has been the traditional place to host it.
Next is the coaming of the cargo hatch and it is the ship’s lifeboat. For the main mast on the sides, it was established another six naval guns of smaller caliber. If the campaign had far, then this place could stand for live cell “food”.
 
Then began the aft superstructure (s), in which were the saloon and gun storage room. The room of the wardroom, if necessary, performs the function of operating, so a Cabinet with medical supplies was there as well.
 
The aft superstructure was another room — the captain’s cabin, which was cabin and navigation. In front of her housed arm calderstone (steering device). Statement for disposal of this building was called “the attic” as well as other add-ons of the ship. Is little doubt the location of the bilge pump, it was in the mine, as part of the premises of cruit camera.
 
 
In addition to the main naval artillery, consisting of 22 guns, the “eagle” should be required and equipped with small-caliber guns for boarding combat, which were established by planiram of bulwarks and railings of decks fore and aft superstructures. Subsidiary firepower — small-caliber cannons, harquebuses hand combat, muskets and the blunderbuss could be located on Mars for the attachment of the fire on the deck of the enemy ship.
 
During the battle on the main deck of the ship brought boxes with hand weapons — pistols, blunderbuss, boarding sword, and other equipment. The same boxes were on the deck of the tank, and Utah.
 
About guns mentioned above, but it makes sense to come back to this armament of the ship. In any directory where there is an article about the “eagle”, just mention it — on 22-gun.. However, speaking about the number of guns, not to mention about their quality. In academic journals, as a rule, do not speak about guns as some kind of generalization, and the musket. It is already certain, but there are a lot of questions. Try to understand.
 
At the time, had a circulation of several species of shells. Moreover, in different countries, they differed from each other. In Russia produced food, unicorns (at that time they were called “enrage”), howitzers and cannons, differing from each other mainly by the elongation of the trunk. The large ratio of barrel length to caliber (30 — 50) had arquebuses (the European equivalent of culebrina). The short — howitzers. For the musket should have a gun with lengthening of 20 to 30 calibers. The unicorns took an intermediate position between the guns and howitzers.
 
Strictly speaking, the documents are one and the same instrument often called cannons, and musket, so that it is not necessary to make these names too big value.
 
Russia was a little behind Europe in the manufacture of iron guns, which, however, more than offset by the high quality of bronze casting. On the effectiveness of bronze guns were better than cast iron. So this gap is quite conventional. The ratio of copper and tin in the alloy was the same as in Europe, ten to one. Overall, Russia was even slightly exceeded in the development of artillery in particular, to that time, there were regular regimental artillery. A whole 100 years before Europe! Weapons production in pre-Petrine Russia was highly developed, and a lot it to other countries. So, only 1646 Tula-Kamensky plants sold to Holland 600 guns, and the next year another 360. Delivered abroad cast-iron cannon and musket barrels, swords, balls, bombs.
 
By the way, gun production is very successfully engaged in the monasteries — for example, in Solovki. Well, in between prayers…
 
On the frigates of the time were usually mounted 24-pounder, but, as a rule, prefer more guns of smaller caliber. This was particularly true for tasks that had to be addressed “Eagle.” Large ships on the Caspian sea, it is unlikely to be met, and for the scrapping of the ship twice and even three times less tonnage had enough contact with 3 to 5 cores in sizes from 80 to 90 mm. in addition, small-caliber artillery can reduce draught of the ship, which in conditions of the Caspian sea could be crucial. The stock cores when Peter was administered at 500 pieces for the gun! Here’s another way to reduce the draft, because “eagle” stock cores were probably no less than Peter’s ships.
 
A three-masted 22-gun warship
 
Against the long-barreled arquebuses with their range of evidence and the nature of the sea battles of those times. On swinging the ship to conduct aimed fire at long distances is simply impossible. Although served guns the sailors, but the tip was carried out only on the ship’s gunner, and it took a lot of time. Therefore, an effective shooting began at distances of not more than three hundred meters.
 
And the speed loader small guns is also higher, and due to this it was possible to increase the density of fire. The presence on the ship troopers also indicate a predisposition to melee. Thus, all the evidence for short-barreled small-caliber artillery. Because of this, and we will proceed.
 
A simple ergonomic analysis shows that “eagle” guns of the maximum caliber could not be longer than a 1.8 — 1.9 meters, otherwise they simply would have been impossible to maintain. Then, according to the average data of the naval artillery of the time, they should be six-pound caliber gun about 89 mm. Weight of each gun was about 860 kg and it consisted of 4 — 5 people. On the upper deck, respectively, was to establish a two-pound cannons, about 60 mm with a barrel length of no more than 1.4 m long and weighing 350 kg each, the calculation of which consisted of two people. This is the average statistics.
 
At the same time the fire was only on one side. With this in mind, for maintenance main naval artillery was required at least 38 people. The rest of the team was to manage the sails, it’s 10 — 15 people. The fire of the supporting artillery during a firefight could lead Marines, and after landing fire support carried from the height of the ship part of the crew, liberated from the work with sails.
 
The gun fired iron or iron nuclei, and of large lead shot (the fraction). It is likely that the eagle could use red-hot — preheated “light” cast iron core. Then for this, these guns had to be special braziers to heat the kernels.
 
The development of hull design and General layout of the ship it became clear that when placing the guns on the gun deck, their guns can’t reach the gun ports. Therefore, or guns at the time had the excessive carriages (assumption is unlikely — too much time when you could return them to flip), or… On our reconstruction, we decided to place them on the special platforms, more likely.
 
So whether it happened or otherwise — today it is impossible to say. The only thing we know for sure is that all the guns installed on the ship, was of bronze and of the same type as were manufactured specifically for “eagle” in the Russian plant. What, in General, unusual for the time, when one deck of one ship were to be found side by side gun, made in different countries and at different times.
 
A very difficult question of what flags were carried to the ship. The opinions of experts were divided. Among the options was the tricolor flag that we use now. There is a perception that it was introduced by Peter I, slightly altering the Dutch. This version raises some doubts, because the king to the issue of symbols was taken very seriously and could hardly. so primitive to borrow from the Netherlands their main state symbol.
Although the Royal decree has ordered the flags to represent the eagles, but the fate galanoy figures casts doubt on the careful performance of this item. There was still the coat of arms of the Astrakhan khanate, which also could represent on the flag. This coat of arms had a long history, and at first it was a picture of a wolf standing in the crown, the image was only a head of a wolf in the crown. The latest transformation has survived in the form of the coat of arms of Astrakhan, where the blue field is a Golden crown of the Eastern type with red top and green with red lining, and below it — white Oriental sword with the edge on the left. In this form the coat of arms was depicted on a big state emblem of the Russian Empire, on the right wing of the eagle at the top.
 
It’s hard to go past the symbol of St. Andrew — the legendary Baptizer of Rus. Blue St. Andrew’s cross and is now a symbol of the Navy of Russia. The proposed appearance of the ship, the author introduces the three most probable symbols. Nevertheless, the question remains open. In addition, the mast could be raised and the personal standard of the commander of the fleet or the signs of high officials in this period on the ship.
 
The ship, based on its tacticities characteristics, could solve a number of problems.
 
His first task, of course, was the defense of the city. “The eagle” at the same time could use his artillery to support the fortress guns, and easy to change your location, concentrating fire on the most dangerous areas, he remained a very difficult target. To storm Astrakhan, inevitably would have to cross the river, and here the “eagle” with his mobility and high protection was essential to disrupt this crossing it was easy. In addition, from the ship at any time could be landing in the rear of the advancing enemy.
 
The second task of the ship is to serve as flagship of the fleet, that is to be host to command the fleet and its main striking force. At this time the Caspian sea was not just the ship, comparable in power a broadside.
 
The third task is to support the troops fire their powerful guns, which it was impossible to place on the planes. He himself to come close to shore to direct the landing of paratroopers was impossible because of the high rainfall — up to two meters, but he could hold a light assault boats under the Board and at the right time to use them. In addition, the Caspian sea was not the supply bases, and in the case of long military operations capacious cargo holds “eagle” can be used to supply the Navy or army.
 
And last but not least problem for such a ship — representation. At the time, such effects have attached great importance. Other Caspian States could not boast of such a ship, and their representatives, he could make an impression.
 
So, a three-masted ship of the “pinnace” under the name “eagle” in the summer of 1669 in Nizhny Novgorod received the standard weapons of the 22 guns of Russian manufacture and after the service departed to the place of permanent deployment with other ships in the fleet. Belonged to twenty-meter single-masted yacht known as “Grosseto”, bot and two Navy. Grossart also equipped with artillery in quantity from four to six guns, was to perform the functions of a messenger or representative of the vessel.
 
Any additional information about the bot and navah history is not preserved, but it preserved the narrative of the Persian campaign of Stepan Razin, which ended in a triumphant return to Astrakhan just in the summer of 1669. There he met Governor Semyon Lvov on 36 boats with 4000 archers. As a result of negotiations Razin paid off, sacrificing the production of 13 planes, 5 brass cannons and 16 iron. Thus, in Astrakhan formed the most powerful in the entire Caspian region naval fist 22-gun “Eagle” as the flagship.
 
With the name of Stepan Razin is linked to another indestructible legend of the “eagle.” Many sources still claimed that the ship was captured and burned by the Cossacks Stepan Timofeyevich, during the storming of Astrakhan. Nevertheless, the discovered inventory inspection of the abandoned vehicle outright refutes this assertion. The appearance of such legends, in General, justified. Because “eagle” with the artillery was a formidable force and could be a decisive factor in the raging battle, therefore tactical soobrajeniam it had to be destroyed first.
 
A three-masted 22-gun warship
 
Three-masted 22-gun warship “eagle”
 
Try, however, to put yourself in the place of “Corsica-General”. Ship the Butler with no support in confined water was not more dangerous than tanks without the infantry is on one side. On the other, the crew who lived here, in Astrakhan, and fully experienced the consequences of “the economic and political crisis”, could not be considered completely reliable. Taking note of these facts, the captain decided in bloodshed not to participate, especially because he gave an oath to protect Russia from external enemies and not to understand the internal strife.
 
At the same time, and Razin was not necessary to engage in battle without obvious result.
 
These considerations decided the matter — the “eagle” in battle did not participate and therefore remained unharmed for the solution of its main task — to be an instrument of deterrence.
 
Caspian rulers, and previously highly respected Russia, understood that simultaneously with the “Eagle” on the Caspian sea, there was a real owner. And, although complete domination was far away, the beginning he was supposed to.
 
The service of the ship, despite raging around passions and revolts, were quiet. From time to time he went to sea, maneuver under sail, fired from cannons. That is passed normal operation for maintaining the combat capability of the ship as a fighting unit. He never had to participate in a bloody and dramatic sea battles and land on an enemy shore their archers-Marines.
 
Based on this, many people consider the service “eagle” and his appearance event, if not a failure, unimportant in the history of Russia. Some even ignore its existence, and as the first Petrovsky ship called frigate “goto Predestination” that is quite wrong.
 
But if you think this way, the establishment and improvement of strategic missiles — the same lesson is absolutely meaningless. After all, the only real benefit appeared only then, when they started to launch satellites into space. It thus can be considered, and the designation of “eagle” — to be a stern warning to everyone “take a bite out of someone else’s pie”. Along the way was prepared for the first Russian shipbuilders capable of building large naval vessels, and the first men, they are able to serve. In this sense the firstborn of the Russian Navy can be considered one of the most successful ships, he fulfilled his task without making a single shot and without losing a single sailor.
 
Tips on modeling
 
Frame from the bow to the stern, constant — 470 mm, set of oak, siding pine. Plating of the main hull and bulwarks — carvel planking, lining the sides of the bow and stern superstructures clinker.
 
The color of the bottom — dirty-white, the sides light brown. Barotne Board and tamping in the area of the fixing anchors — dark brown. The inner part of the cannon ports, including the covers inside, red. Side of the bow and stern superstructures green.
 
‘s the figurehead of the, moldings, pins — yellow, gold. On the stern the name of the ship depicted in black letters. Naval guns (harquebuses) — bronze.
 
Standing rigging is black, running white (light). The inner lining of the hull and superstructures is yellow.
 
The figures also shows the Dutch sailor and Sagittarius.
 
E. KRASNOSHCHEKOV, A. ZHIKHAR, the engineers-shipbuilders

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