Known shipbuilder, who began his career at home in Denmark, but subsequently collaborated with British shipbuilders, and since 1901 had moved to the United States eight years before the accident the manufacturer has developed and published project is very promising submarine. Large for those times (about 700 tons), it had a steam engine for surface running and electric motor for underwater. And provided the main trick is charging the batteries when the “steamboat”. Estimates regarding speed and range are impressive: in surface the boat could go up to 900 miles of economic progress and, if necessary, to develop a full, equal to 16 knots. Of course, under water features looked much more modest: only 7 knots for 6 hours, after which the batteries had to be recharged again. In addition, we know how much was wrong with the performance of their “products” the designers of the submarines of that time, and to one side is significantly overstating them. However, Howard had taken maximum measures to ensure that his calculations are embodied in life. Strong impression is made of the shape of the hull, largely correspond to some of the most modern submarines. For increased maneuverability in depth, the engineer provided a pair of vertical screws in the middle of the body (almost like Baker, but with a much more balanced arrangement in special mines), however, not neglected and horizontal rudders. He has carefully planned and internal layout, dividing the boat into 6 compartments by watertight bulkheads. Solid body would sink to fifty meters -an excellent result for the time. Took care of Howard and about such “trifles” as the rescue of the crew in an emergency situation, placing the superstructure on a steel boat-a capsule with two entrances from inside the body (about the same lifesaving device had a French “Le Plongeur”). Neatly resolved the problems of crew accommodation with separate cabins for officers and are quite decent even for the later projects the forecastle for the sailors. Impressive look and armament consisted of four torpedo tubes, two of which were in the nose, and the other two in the main control module for firing at objects on the beam. Complement of ammunition “fired” Mina, the original version of shestova. It was attached to a telescopic tube which can be supplied compressed air, delivering a charge directly to the goal; a lot of progress compared to, pop-UPS, and stretch our devices.
Overall, the project Howhard it is possible to estimate very highly; it is well thought out in detail, and practical feasibility. However, although the designer has published his work in London in 1887, quite openly, neither the Admiralty nor Maritime agencies of other countries and wanted to bring his submarine to the metal. One reason – cost. The assessment for the realization of the project required at least 50 thousand pounds, which corresponded to the then price of a small cruiser. No one wanted to risk that kind of money, especially to order from the series. As a result, the history of the submarine was forced to do a number of small and not quite the correct steps instead of to make a big jump.
The project of submarine G. Hovgard, Denmark, England, 1884
Is not built, it remains only at the stage of the project. Type of construction – single -. The displacement of some 740 tons Dimensions: length 42.7 m, width 6.7 m, height of 3.65 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth, estimated at about 45 m. Engine: steam engine power 1400 HP + 4 electric motor, the total power 480 HP, speed, surface/underwater design 15/7 bonds. Armament: four torpedo tubes (2 bow, 2 traversii) and shestova mine. Crew: 12 people Project published in 1887 in London. Boat, it has not been built.
1 – retractable shestova mine; 2 – torpedo tubes; 3 – surge tank; 4 – door; 5 – air tube; 6 – suspension bridge; 7 – chimney; 8 – control room; 9 – boiler compartment; 10 – engine compartment; 11 – battery; 12 – compartment rowing and steering motors; 13 — vertical screws; 14 — lifeboat
An example is the career of John Holland, who in the end the real father of the modern fighting submarine. But started this subject of the British Empire (he was Irish, Catholic and English, rather, hated) with primitive sketches of what looked like American submarines during the Civil war, which left in his mind a deep trace as a time of untapped opportunities for underwater vessels. And rural assistant teachers (something like a laboratory, showing the physical experiences of the students) began to aggressively increase its engineering level study of technical literature. Contributed to emigration from the hated British to the United States in 1873 and was… an accident. Already on arrival at the new home Holland slipped and broke his leg. Fused it bad, and for the six months Amateur engineer created and carefully worked out the project of his first underwater camera. To call it even a “boat” it would be safe it was a “submarine kayak” is definitely the smallest project of the XIX century.
The fate of the “canoes” were predictable: the Ministry of Maritime new homeland resolutely refused its implementation, despite the absolutely ridiculous costs. The reasons are clear: such weapons would find use only in the most extreme circumstances, such as those that took place from the confederates in the Civil war. But it has long ended and no signs of a new, fortunately for the United States, was not expected. Moreover, the country has accumulated enough “economic muscle” to enter the world stage. And places miniature of sabotage means a new picture of the world as it is not observed.
On that creative activity of Irish self-taught and could complete, but helped his fellow countrymen and supporters. “The Fenian brotherhood”, bringing together the most active emigrants from the “emerald Isle” who dreamed of freedom for their ancestral homeland, became interested in the “secret tool” that could hit nagnetatelno-Britain in the stomach, attacking her world Maritime trade and innumerable Navy.
Using original looked ridiculous: the collected money was only enough to model length in 3/4 meter with a spring plant. But this model is sailed on the eyes of admiring “the shareholders”! And the leaders of the society immediately offered Holland to use the funds from the “fighting Fund” (much more solid) and to build a real submarine fit to attack British ships. The inventor only wanted. For over a year and over $ 4,000 (a total of approximately 400 pounds; think of goverdovski the project costing more than 100 times higher!) the stocks of a small shipyard in Albany went to his first submarine. It was not the kayak: with a length of nearly 4.5 m and a width of under a metre inside the case was able to accommodate not only the submarine, but a mechanical engine. And for its time, “the latest fashion” – kerosene engine with two cylinders.
By the way, the body is executed double, with outer and inner covering. For the first time this solution was proposed in 1866, also American of Barbour, who built the original boat for two people with exotic gas engine of Lenoir on illuminating gas. Its outer hull was made of copper to avoid fouling and corrosion, while the inner, located in the
20 to 40 cm, more cheap and durable steel. The gap was mainly filled with wood, the author believed that with all sorts of problems and attacks it will be able to smartservice and the inner hull will not give any dangerous leaks. It is worth noting that, in addition to this innovation, Barbarossa submarine had another, also, which later became generally accepted. We are talking about a protective structure around the propeller in the form of a sort of frame. In General, the draft contained a number of interesting technical solutions, but were doomed to oblivion due to the specifics of the engine. While Barbora and managed to build a prototype, his boat, of course, for service not received and further development she did not receive. Perhaps primarily because of the lack of persistence of the inventor.
Submarine design Holland “No. 1”, United States, 1878
Built at the shipyard in Albany. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater of 2.25 T. the Dimensions; length 4.42 m, width 0.91 m, height 0,76 m. hull Material, steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engines: gasoline motor power 4 HP + pedal-power, speed, positional position – 3,5 ties. Weapons: not established, designed to be towed by a mine. Crew: 1 person After the test designer flooded in September 1879 in R. Pasciak. Raised in 1927, and put into a Museum.
But to Holland it was not to occupy, although it all started not well. Ready submarine equestrian team in the 16 horses brought to the bridge over the river Passaic that were supposed to start testing. But sloppy driver essentially just dumped a future “storm of Britain” in the water. The result was immediate: she sank. However, the river in that place was deep, and a few days later the boat pulled ashore. And then it turned out that the culprit was the manufacturer, poorly executed riveted connection of sheets of both buildings, external and internal. The marriage was fixed pretty quickly, but then it turned out another attack. After flooding kerosene motor refused to work. Meanwhile, the fenians formidable and ubiquitous newsboys wanted result, or the head designer. And Holland has found an original solution. He hired a steam boat boiler which made steam rubber hose, down the hatch bottom of the boat. Steam was supplied directly to the cylinders 4 strong motors, “product” quite cheerfully moved. Customers and onlookers could watch exotic picture of a head with a bushy mustache and a bowler hat, literally protruding from water (fencing the hatch was only a dozen centimeters) and moving in different directions at the length of the “leash”. As a result, the motor managed to blow through and dry, and he earned.
The brave Irishman (indeed, it is unlikely he had time to get out of the “trap” at the slightest wave) paid tribute. Holland has demonstrated that his boat can dive and float, and even stayed under water for an hour at a depth of about 4 m. moreover, when the motor speed was 3.5 knots – not bad at all, if you remember a much more professional and much larger French “electric”. But it was only in 1878. But, nevertheless, everything is clearly understood that the attack of the British on the sea was postponed for a long time. One person physically could not manage the engine and the submarine and use weapons. Not to mention her complete inability to swim even at small excitement. In the end, after a year the designer has perpetrated on his creation execution. He took the boat all more or less suitable and liquid equipment and sank it all in the same Passiage. Almost half a century later in 1927 when the Holland has long belonged to the history of submarine building and it took a big head, submarine found, picked up and deposited in the Museum of the small town of Patterson, where she took the place of the main exhibit.
Meanwhile, the inventor continued his work almost without any interruption. Fortunately, the Irish nationalists, the money has been found. In 1879 it ordered a second submarine at a greatly improved project. Now its displacement amounted to about 18 tons, and to take the case on a harness is hardly possible. Considerably more powerful was the motor, still working on gasoline. If the first boat that it can be used only in positional status, now the motor can operate in the mode of full immersion, but instead of burning fuel it is supplied compressed air. Accordingly, there are two large storage tank of this “underwater fuel”, located in the bow and stern and occupying about half the length of the housing. Air there you can upload from a stationary compressor on the basis of, and through the motor, so that the principle of autonomy is quite respected. Another thing, the engine itself did not differ high reliability. But the reserves of compressed air strongly “oppressed” crew, nominally consisting of three people. They had to huddle in the Central compartment, cluttered to overflowing mechanisms. So experienced a boat with only two: the Holland and the mechanic. However, the third was to be the operator of the weapon, which was very original. Designer long searched for something appropriate and, in the end, turned to the famous inventor John Ericsson, who at this time, various throwing mines with a request to give time for the previously developed “pneumatic gun.” For Erickson this device has already become the past, and he willingly went to meet him. Eventually the boat came a long pipe (over 3.3 m) caliber 229 mm, designed for ejection by means of compressed air “mines” in length of 1.83 m with a charge of about 45 kg. In essence, this “Mina” represented the prototype of a torpedo, yet not self-propelled. After the shot, it theoretically could go under water about 40 m or more 250 m on the surface. However, the actual characteristics turned out to be several times worse (the usual state of Affairs for underwater technology of the XIX century). Testing after passing a couple of meters under the water propelling the torpedo popped up to the surface where “ran” for another 20 m, then abruptly dived and struck the bottom. It is unlikely that such a result could be considered a success.
However, customers of the Fenian is not stopped. And so they had to wait for the completion of construction of two years (mainly through their own fault: the money periodically over). Failed to maintain secrecy. The owners of the shipyard sold the drawings and detailed information of the submarine’s potential “victims” – the British. Moreover, information about “the Irish instrument of revenge” has infiltrated the Newspapers, where the boat was christened “Fenian RAM” (“the Fenian RAM”). While Holland was running the test and improved throwing apparatus (in the end, achieving in practice the firing range of 40 m), the tension grew. The us government has turned its gaze on the group of potential rebels, according to tradition, accusing them of the worst of the country’s crime – tax evasion. The fenians did not wait to confiscate their “fighting hope”, and in November 1883 the “group of friends” kidnapped “RAM” and the next, yet unnamed boat, were in the building. They just took in tow a small steamer, and port security, it was stated that this is done by order of Holland, who actually did the gamble was not involved. Moreover, his work suffered greatly, unfinished submarine sprang a leak and went down in the process of towing. But it is quite ready “Fenian RAM” still managed to deliver in new haven. Feel full masters of Irish conspirators, who had no idea about the port laws and “rules of driving”, tried to “drive” the boat in the Harbor, as teenage punks in a stolen car. The result was similar: in the categorical form has demanded to stop to interfere with “honest people”. The boat just pulled ashore in a desolate place and left. Holland, of course, was very worried, but what could he do – the money was not his. (By the way, the second submarine was worth 18 thousand us dollars, 4.5 times more than the first.)
The boat quietly rusting for a quarter century. All the attempts of the Fenian someone to sell it were not successful: they were not the best traders than “divers”. Only in 1916, it was pulled and put in an exhibit in the collection of funds in favor of the rebels in Dublin. After another decade it was acquired by collector of rarities, then gave the submarine the city of Patterson, where it can be seen today.
Submarine design Holland “No. 3” “Fenian RAM”, USA, 1881
Built at the shipyard in Albany. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/ underwater 17,5/19 t Dimensions: length of 9.45 m, a diameter of 1.83 m. Material of hull: steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engines: gasoline motor power 15 HP speed positional position – 3,5 ties. Weapons: pneumatic propelling 229-mm torpedo tubes. Crew: 2-3 people In 1883, abandoned in 1916 turned into a Museum piece. There are up to date
A few words about the mysterious third boat, not a survivor of “the kidnapping”. In fact, it was only a model of the new submarines with a displacement of about 1 tonne, made of wood. Holland it was needed for testing of individual components, mainly the system of holding at a certain depth, which, we recall, was the Achilles heel of all underwater vessels of the last century. At the same time he wanted to try a new engine, supposedly worked by gunpowder. In any case, inaccuracy, the Fenian, loosely cover the hatch, put the point in this option. In the end, hurt the inventor is fully dispersed with a pretty original patriots of their country and continued a personal path through different tracks.
First of all, he appealed to the Ministry of the Navy with a proposal to build an improved version of “the Fenian RAM”, but received another rejection. But quite unexpectedly found a private investor, also known inventor Edmund Zalinski. He left his mark in history primarily as the author of “dynamite guns” – pneumatic propelling device, firing thin-walled projectiles filled with dynamite, in fact, the “aerial torpedoes”. Zalinski vigorously promoted his instruments, but it was limited to only a few samples. The idea to combine the two innovations, the ship moving under water and his arms seemed to be quite fruitful. The author believed that she will find the external demand – the dreams that dreamed of each inventor, but to realize that only the desperate adventurers of the type of Basil Zakharov.
In 1884 Zalinski and Holland became the founders and co-owners of the new company with the distinctive title “Nautilus Submariner boat company” (a twist of fate, the name “Nautilus” was inextricably linked with the underwater case). And next year, Holland started to build the fourth boat, which entered the history of shipbuilding as “Boat Zelinskogo”.
However, to verify this obvious fact and failed. When launching accident: the stocks collapsed, and the boat fell on a sharp beam. The whole project is under threat: the money the company had at the end. However, zalinski-hollandsche creation is failed in a year the normal way to launch and testing. It should be noted that “ran” it rather quickly: all the same a kerosene motor is allowed to develop on the surface in the absence of disturbances up to 9 knots. However, the patched body seemed unreliable, and the money is finally exhausted. The company, both the inventor and a number of friends and colleagues Zelinskogo involved in the case, was on the beans.
A familiar result. But I must give credit to Holland: a stubborn Irishman did not lose heart, though, and said that this crash pushed him back a good dozen years. It is not so. With each subsequent submarine inventor was adjusted and honed the most important elements of the design. The hull of his boat differed more successful lines, control devices became more reliable. The main thing Holland groped for a long time: the internal combustion engine is explicitly allowed to become the primary means of movement of the submarine. Just had to grab the tail of luck. And hard immigrant did it. And not just to carry out their plans, but also to become a “legislator underwater fashion” worldwide. How you will learn in the following editions of “Marine collection”.
Noticed mistape? Highlight it and press
, to inform us. Ctrl+Enter Recommend to read TRADITIONS AND INNOVATIONS The end of the Second world war and the beginning of the war "cold" put shipbuilders leading countries of the world in a very difficult situation. What will be the fleet of the near... “OVERTAKE, NOT CATCHING” Composed at the end of the Second world war on Stalin's personal order long-term plan of development of the Navy (see "modelist-Konstruktor" No. 6 in 2002) were struck by its size. It is...