IN THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE “UNIVERSAL”

IN THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE While the British Admiralty systematically extinguished the enthusiasm of its inventors-“submariners” in former British overseas colonies, and now the most economically powerful nation in the world, energetic engineers to continue their experiments. And, in the end, the United States has become the birthplace of real submarines, suitable not only for experimentation and advertising “horror stories” in the spirit of sir Basil Zaharov, but also for combat use.

However, the path to such submarines was not only long, but also fairly convoluted. And this is understandable: the designers were forced to follow the development of technology. By the end of the century, the most fundamental obstacle facing the release of the submarines to the open sea, became the propulsion system. Earlier it was told about many submarines of the XIX century, which used the different types of power plants: from hopeless muscular power to pneumatic and steam engines, from electric motors to the first internal combustion engines. The vast majority of them had at least some advantages, but also serious common flaws. For the development of great speed and decent range required considerable power. The motors claimed to be the ideal solution for submerged speed: silent, does not require fuel reserves run easily and conveniently operated. However, the primitive batteries of the time did not allow to realize these benefits: range of stroke remained quite small. Moreover, the pure “electric” remained attached to their bases: a means for charging on Board the boat were not available, and upon exhaustion of the charge they were forced to return to a stationary generator on the shore.

 
Meanwhile, the United States has become the birthplace of the submarine with electric drive. In 1884, to their French colleagues, Guba and Seda, new York Professor Josiah So he implemented his original idea. His boat, like most other experimental “device” names are not received, really had a very original look. Of the three crew members, 20-ton steel “eggs” commander-quartermaster, was found on the outside in a diving suit, firmly attached to the bottom compartment. In principle, it could “hide” inside the case, closing the hatch, but its working position assumed exactly as the commander had to perform the most critical operation: the installation pop-up mines on the hull of the enemy ship. They were located front and rear on the kind of “logging” and is attached to the body via a newfangled means of electromagnets. At the right moment the current supply to the magnets is stopped, and the mines are equipped with cork floats pop up, covering the keel of the target. The role of the two other team members were distributed as follows: one pump hand pump air into the suit commander, and the other just ran the motor, representing the main engine. As a subsidiary provided for the infamous hand-drive screw, but it is unlikely one person would be able just to move such a heavy body. But “under electricity” boat allegedly went pretty quickly – up to 7 knots on the surface.
Under water the boat felt only on the depth of the dive (under very decent for the time 20 m). To really move submerged “egg” could not: the main obstacle were the notorious instability at depth. Theoretically, this was a vertical screw ascent or dive contained in the action of the same electric motor, but it did not provide adequate stability. This negates all ideas of the designer, not to mention such a “trifle” as the complete inability of the commander-diver to do anything in motion without the risk of tilting your submarine. Although, I must say., So showed a lot of ingenuity and in creating this boat, and in the development of the second, with a completely original engine. Abandoning incapacitated while “electricity”, he chose steam engine with boiler of Hangman, for work which did not require external heat and thus fossil fuels. The role of the latter played a hot saturated solution of caustic soda, which, when the steam treatment actively allocated by the heat, producing thereby a new portion of steam admitted to the cylinder of the machine. It is curious that this “chemistry” is pretty well worked, with both above-water and submerged. The submarine, which is typical of American military guns, the name “Pixmaker” – translated – “Peacemaker” – developed 5 to 6 knots and could go almost 30 miles to the exhaustion of the supply of caustic soda, weighing over half a ton (680 kg). Arms it was all the same pop-up mines is obviously an anachronism with the advent of self-propelled torpedoes. This, along with a persistent inability to sustain deep and put an end to the “Peacemaker”, and along with its Creator. Josiah spent on his experiments ended, as you can see, a complete failure, a large part of his fortune. In an attempt to save the remaining relatives declared him “mad Professor” and sent to the appropriate hospital. Practical overseas power disliked (and still dislikes) losers.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Pismeyker” design D. Tuck, USA, 1886
 
Built in new York. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of about 8 tons Dimensions: length 9.14 m, width 2.13 m, height 2.3 m. Material of hull: steel set, iron plating. Depth – 12 m. Engine: steam engine with boiler of Honigman on caustic soda, the capacity of about 14 HP, speed overwater/underwater – 6/5 bonds. Weapons: not established. The crew: 2 persons Demolished around 1887

 
Meanwhile, the problem with the engine had already had the solution. And found it was there, in America. But not in the United States, and in trying to break away from them Confederate southerners. Already known to the readers of port of mobile in 1862, the inventor Elstat, which left very little reliable information, designed and built unique to the mid-nineteenth century the submarine, which had two types of engines, separately for submarine and surface progress. It was called “Emerick RAM” (“a battering RAM”), It should not be confused with the creation of a northerner Phillips, who had a primitive “human” engine and not advanced further in the project. But Altitu managed to almost finish the work. His “battering RAM” was a solid dimension: a length of nearly 20 m and a width of about three. No wonder the engine for the surface course was a traditional steam engine, Assembly not small and not light, especially with the necessary supply of fuel. The latter was located, like on a normal ship, in coal pits, who were in the bottom of the hull. Over them is actually the steam engine and its boiler. Barely less space and weight occupied “electrical part”. If the motor was still relatively modest size, the batteries are “eaten” almost 40% of the length of the hull in the bow portion thereof.
 
The transition from one engine to another required a lot of accuracy and strict adherence to the sequence of operations. Before diving from the boiler to pit vapor, scraped from the furnace of hot charcoal and ash (they were simply thrown overboard), then fold the chimney, in the manner of a telescope made of several telescopic cylinders, and hermetically closed the hatch behind her. Then disconnected the drive shaft from the steam engine and connected thereto an electric motor. All the boat ready to dive. Had to fill ballast tanks (they are located under the battery compartment), to move and to place horizontal rudders to the desired position. Procedure, at least a few tens of minutes. But she solved the problem of the movement range (under steam), and stealth approaches the enemy (under the motor). The system, which later became the core for many decades.
 
However, despite such innovative solution, the boat Ellita were too many features characteristic of its time. It is, in fact, remained “almost underwater”: even the author himself believed that the immersion depth should not exceed about 1 m in order to operate the vessel with natural light penetrating through the water layer and the portholes in the small commander’s cupola. Very unreliable and was difficult and weapons that are common to all submarines of that time before the advent of self-propelled torpedoes. It consisted of two “lights” metal boxes with powder, connected by chains that were driven into the case. This allowed to produce under the bottom of the ship booby-box as a “chain”, and individually. The idea is that they pop up under the action of Archimedean forces and entangled the enemy’s keel, and then in the course were Elektrostal driven through the wires. Very compelling, but the chances to carry out all these operations in combat conditions was close to zero.
 
Anyway, to experience the “Emerick RAM” and failed. The northerners have come close to Mobile, when the confederates sank the creation of Osti-the one in the Gulf, not allowing him to take certainly worthy of a place among the pioneers of the underwater shipbuilding. Moreover, the inventor has preserved very little information, until what is left is unknown even his name – whether Elstat, whether Instit, date of birth and death. And yet the author of the first submarine with a promising combined engine deserves special mention: he was able to get ahead of their colleagues at least three decades.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Emerick RAM” design Alstete, Confederate States, 1862
 
Built in mobile. Type of construction—single -. Displacement is unknown, according to the calculations of more than 50 tons Dimensions: length of 19.8 m, width 3.05 m, height of 3.36 m. cabin Material: iron. Depth – 1 to 1.5 m. Engine: steam engine + two electric motors, speed unknown. Weapons: a pop-up mines. Crew: 4 — 5 people. Not completed, sunk in 1863 1 – wheel depth; 2 – the galvanic battery; 3 – compressed air cylinders; 4 – coal pit; 5 – steam boiler; 6 – flue pipe; 7 – steam engine; 8 – electric motors; 9 – ballast tanks; 10 – the wheelhouse; 11 – room team

 
Indeed, to bring the idea of the combined unit to practical implementation was only in the early 1890s, and also in America. Navy Department of the United States announced in 1888 competition to design a submarine that is suitable for military use. One of the winners was the industrialist George Baker of Chicago, engaged in very specific production – the manufacture of barbed wire. He was given the appropriate means, and in 1892 the stocks of one of the Chicago yards of the lake water has gone original creation. Outwardly, it resembles a huge egg, even more pronounced than in the works of Guba. And egg, retarded for half a century: the body was made of oak planks, however, a solid thickness. To seal it all covered with several layers of tarred canvas, and on top of, “for strength” – steel sheets. Sam Baker believed that this design can withstand immersion to a depth of as much as fifty meters, but this statement seems to be, at least, too bold.
 
However, salt structures was not strange “clothes” of the case. Interest was it a propulsion system as Alstete, consisting of a combination steam engine and electric motor. In accordance with the new trends, as fuel did not provide for the low-calorie coal, and much more convenient for storage and supply of oil. However, “steamboat” is “a steamboat”: a new-fangled oil boiler fed steam traditional and not too powerful steam engine. Again, according to estimates of the author, 60 HP would be enough to disperse the egg in the surface position of up to 12 knots, and again, these characteristics are too high. But, very importantly, the steam engine was to be used not only for movement but also as a generator to charge the batteries. Finally “electric” submarine acquired the long-awaited property of autonomy! Despite advanced by the time the batteries under water submarine Baker could go three hours, however, allegedly on an impressive 9-node velocity. The price is so inflated the estimated indicators, we well know on the French boat; in reality they should have been divided almost in half. In General, this boat, like her contemporaries “at the ship”, could hardly go under water beyond the horizon. But now has the opportunity to emerge, to push a small tube, insert nozzle, start the steam engine and to recharge the batteries. Typical procedure for the 1st and 2nd world wars, and at that time – a very important improvement.
 
Along with such a good combination of motors, the submarine Baker carried the mass much less successful, and sometimes primitive solutions. For example, the filling of the ballast tanks when submerged was carried out by gravity, and its emptying when afloat – a low-power pump pumping. However, in the emergency option provides and purging tank with compressed air. Traditionally unsuccessful and unreliable looked and alignment system on the keel: bow and stern tanks were connected by pipes with valves. In the event of trim turn on the pump, overtaking the water from the filled tank to an empty located at the opposite end.
 
Submarine design D. Baker, United States, 1892.
 
Submarine design D. Baker, United States, 1892
 
Was built in Chicago. Type of construction – single -. Submerged displacement of 20 tons Dimensions: length 11m, width of 2.74 meters, height 4 meters case Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: steam engine, power 60 HP + electric motor power 50 HP, speed overwater/underwater – 12/9 bonds. Weapons: bow 350-mm torpedo tubes (2 torpedoes). Crew: 3 people were Tested in 1892 – 1893 on lake Erie, was sunk in an explosion of hydrogen from batteries in the summer of 1893
 
1 – torpedo tube; 2 — battery; 3 — control; 4 — steam engine and the electric motor; 5 – steam boiler; 6 – flue pipe; 7 – oil tank; 8 — the surge tank; 9 — tank of the main ballast; 10 – observation cap; 11 – propellers; 12 – the mechanism of control propellers; 13 – a tank of fresh water for the boiler; 14 – the wheel

 
Particularly distinguished Baker with propulsion. Instead of the traditional and logical placement of the screw or screws in the rear, he chose two “gondolas” on the sides of the body, in its very middle. It turned out that somewhere between the wheel of the ship and the airship. The latter was reminded that the screws can pivot in a vertical plane, and synchronously – inside the body they connect a complex hinge mechanism. In principle, such a mechanism is allowed to do without horizontal rudders: manipulating one of the screws, it was possible to change the depth of immersion. In fact, of course, such a complex design proved not the best way. The submarine is badly kept the level of immersion, moving in a “sine wave”, as the French electric. The creation of Baker did not save even the presence of torpedo tubes with a spare torpedo. The first tests carried out, by the way, under greenhouse conditions on lake Erie (recall that built the boat in the middle of the American continent!) demonstrated its unreliability. Unfortunately, the inventor did not manage to implement even a very modest ideas for improvement. A year later, he forgot to close the top hatch in the process of charging the batteries from shore generator. (Under the operating conditions used this charging method as a more economical.) Poured a heavy downpour, water got into the cups with the electrolyte with the active release of hydrogen, which exploded from a spark, killing both the boat and its Creator. Naturally, the further development of the design of the late manufacturer of barbed wire, as you can see, sometimes highly questionable, not received.
 
Moreover, the design of submarines with a combined power plant at that time began to engage not only enthusiastic Amateurs, which can be safely attributed Baker and professionals. We are talking primarily about Gheorghe Howgate.
Known shipbuilder, who began his career at home in Denmark, but subsequently collaborated with British shipbuilders, and since 1901 had moved to the United States eight years before the accident the manufacturer has developed and published project is very promising submarine. Large for those times (about 700 tons), it had a steam engine for surface running and electric motor for underwater. And provided the main trick is charging the batteries when the “steamboat”. Estimates regarding speed and range are impressive: in surface the boat could go up to 900 miles of economic progress and, if necessary, to develop a full, equal to 16 knots. Of course, under water features looked much more modest: only 7 knots for 6 hours, after which the batteries had to be recharged again. In addition, we know how much was wrong with the performance of their “products” the designers of the submarines of that time, and to one side is significantly overstating them. However, Howard had taken maximum measures to ensure that his calculations are embodied in life. Strong impression is made of the shape of the hull, largely correspond to some of the most modern submarines. For increased maneuverability in depth, the engineer provided a pair of vertical screws in the middle of the body (almost like Baker, but with a much more balanced arrangement in special mines), however, not neglected and horizontal rudders. He has carefully planned and internal layout, dividing the boat into 6 compartments by watertight bulkheads. Solid body would sink to fifty meters -an excellent result for the time. Took care of Howard and about such “trifles” as the rescue of the crew in an emergency situation, placing the superstructure on a steel boat-a capsule with two entrances from inside the body (about the same lifesaving device had a French “Le Plongeur”). Neatly resolved the problems of crew accommodation with separate cabins for officers and are quite decent even for the later projects the forecastle for the sailors. Impressive look and armament consisted of four torpedo tubes, two of which were in the nose, and the other two in the main control module for firing at objects on the beam. Complement of ammunition “fired” Mina, the original version of shestova. It was attached to a telescopic tube which can be supplied compressed air, delivering a charge directly to the goal; a lot of progress compared to, pop-UPS, and stretch our devices.
 
Overall, the project Howhard it is possible to estimate very highly; it is well thought out in detail, and practical feasibility. However, although the designer has published his work in London in 1887, quite openly, neither the Admiralty nor Maritime agencies of other countries and wanted to bring his submarine to the metal. One reason – cost. The assessment for the realization of the project required at least 50 thousand pounds, which corresponded to the then price of a small cruiser. No one wanted to risk that kind of money, especially to order from the series. As a result, the history of the submarine was forced to do a number of small and not quite the correct steps instead of to make a big jump.
 
Project submarine G. Hovgard, Denmark, England, 1884
 
The project of submarine G. Hovgard, Denmark, England, 1884
 
Is not built, it remains only at the stage of the project. Type of construction – single -. The displacement of some 740 tons Dimensions: length 42.7 m, width 6.7 m, height of 3.65 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth, estimated at about 45 m. Engine: steam engine power 1400 HP + 4 electric motor, the total power 480 HP, speed, surface/underwater design 15/7 bonds. Armament: four torpedo tubes (2 bow, 2 traversii) and shestova mine. Crew: 12 people Project published in 1887 in London. Boat, it has not been built.
 
1 – retractable shestova mine; 2 – torpedo tubes; 3 – surge tank; 4 – door; 5 – air tube; 6 – suspension bridge; 7 – chimney; 8 – control room; 9 – boiler compartment; 10 – engine compartment; 11 – battery; 12 – compartment rowing and steering motors; 13 — vertical screws; 14 — lifeboat

 
An example is the career of John Holland, who in the end the real father of the modern fighting submarine. But started this subject of the British Empire (he was Irish, Catholic and English, rather, hated) with primitive sketches of what looked like American submarines during the Civil war, which left in his mind a deep trace as a time of untapped opportunities for underwater vessels. And rural assistant teachers (something like a laboratory, showing the physical experiences of the students) began to aggressively increase its engineering level study of technical literature. Contributed to emigration from the hated British to the United States in 1873 and was… an accident. Already on arrival at the new home Holland slipped and broke his leg. Fused it bad, and for the six months Amateur engineer created and carefully worked out the project of his first underwater camera. To call it even a “boat” it would be safe it was a “submarine kayak” is definitely the smallest project of the XIX century.
 
The fate of the “canoes” were predictable: the Ministry of Maritime new homeland resolutely refused its implementation, despite the absolutely ridiculous costs. The reasons are clear: such weapons would find use only in the most extreme circumstances, such as those that took place from the confederates in the Civil war. But it has long ended and no signs of a new, fortunately for the United States, was not expected. Moreover, the country has accumulated enough “economic muscle” to enter the world stage. And places miniature of sabotage means a new picture of the world as it is not observed.
 
On that creative activity of Irish self-taught and could complete, but helped his fellow countrymen and supporters. “The Fenian brotherhood”, bringing together the most active emigrants from the “emerald Isle” who dreamed of freedom for their ancestral homeland, became interested in the “secret tool” that could hit nagnetatelno-Britain in the stomach, attacking her world Maritime trade and innumerable Navy.
 
Using original looked ridiculous: the collected money was only enough to model length in 3/4 meter with a spring plant. But this model is sailed on the eyes of admiring “the shareholders”! And the leaders of the society immediately offered Holland to use the funds from the “fighting Fund” (much more solid) and to build a real submarine fit to attack British ships. The inventor only wanted. For over a year and over $ 4,000 (a total of approximately 400 pounds; think of goverdovski the project costing more than 100 times higher!) the stocks of a small shipyard in Albany went to his first submarine. It was not the kayak: with a length of nearly 4.5 m and a width of under a metre inside the case was able to accommodate not only the submarine, but a mechanical engine. And for its time, “the latest fashion” – kerosene engine with two cylinders.
 
By the way, the body is executed double, with outer and inner covering. For the first time this solution was proposed in 1866, also American of Barbour, who built the original boat for two people with exotic gas engine of Lenoir on illuminating gas. Its outer hull was made of copper to avoid fouling and corrosion, while the inner, located in the
20 to 40 cm, more cheap and durable steel. The gap was mainly filled with wood, the author believed that with all sorts of problems and attacks it will be able to smartservice and the inner hull will not give any dangerous leaks. It is worth noting that, in addition to this innovation, Barbarossa submarine had another, also, which later became generally accepted. We are talking about a protective structure around the propeller in the form of a sort of frame. In General, the draft contained a number of interesting technical solutions, but were doomed to oblivion due to the specifics of the engine. While Barbora and managed to build a prototype, his boat, of course, for service not received and further development she did not receive. Perhaps primarily because of the lack of persistence of the inventor.
 
Submarine design Holland
 
Submarine design Holland
 
Submarine design Holland “No. 1”, United States, 1878
 
Built at the shipyard in Albany. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater of 2.25 T. the Dimensions; length 4.42 m, width 0.91 m, height 0,76 m. hull Material, steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engines: gasoline motor power 4 HP + pedal-power, speed, positional position – 3,5 ties. Weapons: not established, designed to be towed by a mine. Crew: 1 person After the test designer flooded in September 1879 in R. Pasciak. Raised in 1927, and put into a Museum.

 
But to Holland it was not to occupy, although it all started not well. Ready submarine equestrian team in the 16 horses brought to the bridge over the river Passaic that were supposed to start testing. But sloppy driver essentially just dumped a future “storm of Britain” in the water. The result was immediate: she sank. However, the river in that place was deep, and a few days later the boat pulled ashore. And then it turned out that the culprit was the manufacturer, poorly executed riveted connection of sheets of both buildings, external and internal. The marriage was fixed pretty quickly, but then it turned out another attack. After flooding kerosene motor refused to work. Meanwhile, the fenians formidable and ubiquitous newsboys wanted result, or the head designer. And Holland has found an original solution. He hired a steam boat boiler which made steam rubber hose, down the hatch bottom of the boat. Steam was supplied directly to the cylinders 4 strong motors, “product” quite cheerfully moved. Customers and onlookers could watch exotic picture of a head with a bushy mustache and a bowler hat, literally protruding from water (fencing the hatch was only a dozen centimeters) and moving in different directions at the length of the “leash”. As a result, the motor managed to blow through and dry, and he earned.
 
The brave Irishman (indeed, it is unlikely he had time to get out of the “trap” at the slightest wave) paid tribute. Holland has demonstrated that his boat can dive and float, and even stayed under water for an hour at a depth of about 4 m. moreover, when the motor speed was 3.5 knots – not bad at all, if you remember a much more professional and much larger French “electric”. But it was only in 1878. But, nevertheless, everything is clearly understood that the attack of the British on the sea was postponed for a long time. One person physically could not manage the engine and the submarine and use weapons. Not to mention her complete inability to swim even at small excitement. In the end, after a year the designer has perpetrated on his creation execution. He took the boat all more or less suitable and liquid equipment and sank it all in the same Passiage. Almost half a century later in 1927 when the Holland has long belonged to the history of submarine building and it took a big head, submarine found, picked up and deposited in the Museum of the small town of Patterson, where she took the place of the main exhibit.
Meanwhile, the inventor continued his work almost without any interruption. Fortunately, the Irish nationalists, the money has been found. In 1879 it ordered a second submarine at a greatly improved project. Now its displacement amounted to about 18 tons, and to take the case on a harness is hardly possible. Considerably more powerful was the motor, still working on gasoline. If the first boat that it can be used only in positional status, now the motor can operate in the mode of full immersion, but instead of burning fuel it is supplied compressed air. Accordingly, there are two large storage tank of this “underwater fuel”, located in the bow and stern and occupying about half the length of the housing. Air there you can upload from a stationary compressor on the basis of, and through the motor, so that the principle of autonomy is quite respected. Another thing, the engine itself did not differ high reliability. But the reserves of compressed air strongly “oppressed” crew, nominally consisting of three people. They had to huddle in the Central compartment, cluttered to overflowing mechanisms. So experienced a boat with only two: the Holland and the mechanic. However, the third was to be the operator of the weapon, which was very original. Designer long searched for something appropriate and, in the end, turned to the famous inventor John Ericsson, who at this time, various throwing mines with a request to give time for the previously developed “pneumatic gun.” For Erickson this device has already become the past, and he willingly went to meet him. Eventually the boat came a long pipe (over 3.3 m) caliber 229 mm, designed for ejection by means of compressed air “mines” in length of 1.83 m with a charge of about 45 kg. In essence, this “Mina” represented the prototype of a torpedo, yet not self-propelled. After the shot, it theoretically could go under water about 40 m or more 250 m on the surface. However, the actual characteristics turned out to be several times worse (the usual state of Affairs for underwater technology of the XIX century). Testing after passing a couple of meters under the water propelling the torpedo popped up to the surface where “ran” for another 20 m, then abruptly dived and struck the bottom. It is unlikely that such a result could be considered a success.
 
However, customers of the Fenian is not stopped. And so they had to wait for the completion of construction of two years (mainly through their own fault: the money periodically over). Failed to maintain secrecy. The owners of the shipyard sold the drawings and detailed information of the submarine’s potential “victims” – the British. Moreover, information about “the Irish instrument of revenge” has infiltrated the Newspapers, where the boat was christened “Fenian RAM” (“the Fenian RAM”). While Holland was running the test and improved throwing apparatus (in the end, achieving in practice the firing range of 40 m), the tension grew. The us government has turned its gaze on the group of potential rebels, according to tradition, accusing them of the worst of the country’s crime – tax evasion. The fenians did not wait to confiscate their “fighting hope”, and in November 1883 the “group of friends” kidnapped “RAM” and the next, yet unnamed boat, were in the building. They just took in tow a small steamer, and port security, it was stated that this is done by order of Holland, who actually did the gamble was not involved. Moreover, his work suffered greatly, unfinished submarine sprang a leak and went down in the process of towing. But it is quite ready “Fenian RAM” still managed to deliver in new haven. Feel full masters of Irish conspirators, who had no idea about the port laws and “rules of driving”, tried to “drive” the boat in the Harbor, as teenage punks in a stolen car. The result was similar: in the categorical form has demanded to stop to interfere with “honest people”. The boat just pulled ashore in a desolate place and left. Holland, of course, was very worried, but what could he do – the money was not his. (By the way, the second submarine was worth 18 thousand us dollars, 4.5 times more than the first.)
 
The boat quietly rusting for a quarter century. All the attempts of the Fenian someone to sell it were not successful: they were not the best traders than “divers”. Only in 1916, it was pulled and put in an exhibit in the collection of funds in favor of the rebels in Dublin. After another decade it was acquired by collector of rarities, then gave the submarine the city of Patterson, where it can be seen today.
 
Submarine design Holland
 
Submarine design Holland “No. 3” “Fenian RAM”, USA, 1881
 
Built at the shipyard in Albany. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/ underwater 17,5/19 t Dimensions: length of 9.45 m, a diameter of 1.83 m. Material of hull: steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engines: gasoline motor power 15 HP speed positional position – 3,5 ties. Weapons: pneumatic propelling 229-mm torpedo tubes. Crew: 2-3 people In 1883, abandoned in 1916 turned into a Museum piece. There are up to date

 
A few words about the mysterious third boat, not a survivor of “the kidnapping”. In fact, it was only a model of the new submarines with a displacement of about 1 tonne, made of wood. Holland it was needed for testing of individual components, mainly the system of holding at a certain depth, which, we recall, was the Achilles heel of all underwater vessels of the last century. At the same time he wanted to try a new engine, supposedly worked by gunpowder. In any case, inaccuracy, the Fenian, loosely cover the hatch, put the point in this option. In the end, hurt the inventor is fully dispersed with a pretty original patriots of their country and continued a personal path through different tracks.
 
First of all, he appealed to the Ministry of the Navy with a proposal to build an improved version of “the Fenian RAM”, but received another rejection. But quite unexpectedly found a private investor, also known inventor Edmund Zalinski. He left his mark in history primarily as the author of “dynamite guns” – pneumatic propelling device, firing thin-walled projectiles filled with dynamite, in fact, the “aerial torpedoes”. Zalinski vigorously promoted his instruments, but it was limited to only a few samples. The idea to combine the two innovations, the ship moving under water and his arms seemed to be quite fruitful. The author believed that she will find the external demand – the dreams that dreamed of each inventor, but to realize that only the desperate adventurers of the type of Basil Zakharov.
 
In 1884 Zalinski and Holland became the founders and co-owners of the new company with the distinctive title “Nautilus Submariner boat company” (a twist of fate, the name “Nautilus” was inextricably linked with the underwater case). And next year, Holland started to build the fourth boat, which entered the history of shipbuilding as “Boat Zelinskogo”.
 
The reason is clear: the basis of weapons was precisely the pneumatic dynamite gun, located in the nose. Terms of use seemed truly monstrous. The submarine controlled the only member of the crew, was out on “shock position” no more than a few hundred meters from the future victim, just to target her nose to dial in the feed tank differently enough water so that the barrel gained the proper elevation, and to make a shot. It is clear that the chances of being hit were infinitesimal. After all, in itself, a dynamite gun was very inaccurate weapons, and, combined with excitement and rolling the tiny 15-m pumps and complex manipulations during the shot she was just useless.
 
However, to verify this obvious fact and failed. When launching accident: the stocks collapsed, and the boat fell on a sharp beam. The whole project is under threat: the money the company had at the end. However, zalinski-hollandsche creation is failed in a year the normal way to launch and testing. It should be noted that “ran” it rather quickly: all the same a kerosene motor is allowed to develop on the surface in the absence of disturbances up to 9 knots. However, the patched body seemed unreliable, and the money is finally exhausted. The company, both the inventor and a number of friends and colleagues Zelinskogo involved in the case, was on the beans.
 
A familiar result. But I must give credit to Holland: a stubborn Irishman did not lose heart, though, and said that this crash pushed him back a good dozen years. It is not so. With each subsequent submarine inventor was adjusted and honed the most important elements of the design. The hull of his boat differed more successful lines, control devices became more reliable. The main thing Holland groped for a long time: the internal combustion engine is explicitly allowed to become the primary means of movement of the submarine. Just had to grab the tail of luck. And hard immigrant did it. And not just to carry out their plans, but also to become a “legislator underwater fashion” worldwide. How you will learn in the following editions of “Marine collection”.

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