“MISTRESS” IN THE TAIL

The strongest naval power in the world, Britain, is not too actively involved in the “submarine race”. This is quite understandable: “mistress of the seas” and so possessed in the oceans a huge advantage over their rivals. As we already know, in the richest country in the world, one after another arriving inventors-“divers”, who yearned to implement their projects. As a rule, they were met by outwardly quite friendly attitude; they were welcomed and allocated funds. But in the end, all “products” was recognized as unusable. In General, this estimate is not very different from the truth, especially in the first half of the nineteenth century. Brand new technical tools, especially those that could shake the power of Britain, the Admiralty tried to hold them off as long as possible. At least in order not to give other powers a reason and example. Such a policy in the nineteenth century was characterized in relation to submarines.

However, in contrast for example, Russia or France, Albion is not in a hurry to improve the first failure samples. For the authors of the project meant the loss of several years of my life wasted, plus the need to relocate in search of a new “sponsor”. The Admiralty also had the opportunity to reside hip, controlling different “trouble” from new vehicles in the future. Meanwhile, continuing as before to produce traditional ships, first wooden, then steel, and later armored, using its well-developed shipbuilding industry and vast experience.
 
Quite a comfortable position; perhaps, except for one thing. This approach has not been helped by the emergence of a private, English jevicki, Guba and their ilk. Islanders created throughout the nineteenth century, surprisingly few projects of submarines, and also a considerable percentage of them were implemented outside of Albion. A kind of “export of ideas” that led to the end of the country to a noticeable lag.
 
Indeed, the first English submarine project came to light only during the Crimean war. It turned out they are even more unique and little feasible, than “imported” – in no small part due to the lack of practical experience. Even brilliant minds gave birth to a very strange “kids”. Suffice it to recall the outstanding mathematician, engineer and economist Charles Babbage, who, reading in the “times” article describing the beginning of the siege of Sevastopol and the difficulties faced by the British fleet in the Black and Baltic seas (the British were forced to give in to Russian coastal fortifications), decided to benefit. He quickly drafted a submarine that deserves at least the rating “very original.” Its 14-metre corps consisted of four compartments; the end, having a pyramidal form, was hermetic, but is used only as ballast tanks to receive water. And two medium-sized, resembling the roof of a country house (“area” up) bottoms were not presenting a kind of trivial of a diving bell. As “engine”, in full accordance with their time, used all the 6 crew members of the doomed to manually rotate the shaft with the propeller. Breathing meant the compressed air supplied as needed from the cylinders spherical shape: covered creepy inside “of the house”, which is the floor splashing water, through the glass in the roof. From the description it appears purely “academic” approach of the scientist to the case. Babbidge still allowed to build on their drawings of the model. Usually miniature copies of future “products” functioned quite smoothly, but not in this case. The project “died” at this stage: triangular in cross-section of the boat readily overturned, were drowned when attempting to dive. And more the Creator of a truly brilliant mechanical computer the underwater case, did not return.
A year later, the same war prompted another British inventor, James Nasmyth, the creation of no less than the original design. It polupodpolno the ship had very impressive for its time, size: more than 21 m in length, 3.6 m in width and about the same in height. And all this with a modest crew of 4 people. Riddle allowed just, if you look at a cross section of creation: his plating took a lot more space than the internal free volume! The wall thickness exceeded 120 cm, it is clear that such housing can be manufactured only from wood. Nasmyth chose poplar, not highly flammable in the wet state, and also possessed of rather elastic wood. The fact that it was intended as a kind of “armor” on an old wooden battleships of the early century. Since almost the entire cylindrical body after the intake of ballast water went under the water, really, to hit such a huge “log” then cannonballs and bombs became a non-trivial task: they are likely to simply rebound from it. But the “Underwater mortar” as they called the boat the inventor, had quite a lethal weapon. In the nose of the submarine was mounted barreled weapon of large caliber, the barrel of which is pre-charged by the kernel and are sealed the usual rag wad. The boats in its military (it is the same one)-lipoproteina condition the barrel of a mortar comes just at the level of the most vulnerable places of an ordinary ship close to the hold. The idea is original, but in this case the submarine could only produce a single shot! Then she had to return to base and recharge mortar, of course, if the opponent would allow such “freedom”.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Resurgam-2” design of Garrett, England, 1879
 
Built in Birkenhead. Type of construction — single -. Displacement overwater/underwater 30,5/32 tons Dimensions: length 13.7 m, diameter 2.1 m housing Material: steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engine: steam engine lamma power about 8 HP, speed overwater/ underwater — 4/2,5 ties. Weapons: not established. Crew: 3 people. Sank on the crossing to Portsmouth in February 1880

 
The most curious thing is that this visionary project was still implemented. In any case, “according to the press”: no drawings and details of the tests “submarine mortars” were not preserved, although England in the mid XIX century it is very strange.
 
But the Crimean war ended. In a sleepy state and went underwater case “mistress of the seas”. Of course, until the next “shot”. Such was the Russo-Turkish war of 1877, when brave Russian lieutenants were attacked on the Danube by Turkish ships per or towed mines. The first attempt failed: the Turks have just discovered our boats and rifle fire tore them a task.
 
In Britain closely observed these “exercises”, the good, the Turkey was under her patronage. And, quite naturally, there was, rather, a revived old as the world idea: to apply for this purpose, underwater or at least polupodpolno the boat. For the implementation it took George Garrett, a former doctor, a former Amateur boxer and freshly baked … a priest. Prokushev after the dedication in San only one year, he began a much more interesting underwater things. In 1878, gain experience with the prototype of the aqualung, he started to build a military submarine. For this purpose George (he was by that time only 35 years old) together with his father founded in Manchester the firm “garret Submariner Navigeyshn”, “promote” five entrepreneurs from the former “textile capital of the world” for a substantial amount of 2000 pounds each.
 
The collected amount was enough to build boats, pompously named “Resurgam” – “Revival” (a priest’s experience here clearly visible). That’s just nothing new to say Garrett failed. The secondary was and body shape (something with a pointed end of the eggs), and inescapable principle of manual rotation of the shaft with a screw and a small tower with portholes for the head the only member of the crew. Trivial remained and ballast tanks, zapolnyatsya and oporozhnenie hand pump, and a cylinder of compressed breathing air. Like any claim to novelty was a just a device for adjusting the depth of immersion, representing a cylinder with a piston, which is moving, you can take or displace water. But this principle was known since Bourn presented here is that in the more modern incarnation. Doubtless the tribute time was the bulb, fed from a battery and covering a close “inside” “Ricordiamo” a dim yellow light. And certainly unsightly look most importantly – weapons. It consisted of a towed mines, to engage which was offered absolutely incredible way. The boat was supposed to come exactly to the anchor chain(!) the goal, after which her commander was missing hands in inescapable leather sleeves with gloves and fastened to a chain link special power. Through this block is skipped rope for towing mines. Then the submarine went out, pulling through the block a mine to the hull of the enemy and it blows up! One procedure is clear that no “revival” as combat units to expect from the product of the Garret was not necessary.
 
However, at least the boat was sinking and floating, what inspired the inventor of the priest and gave a very dubious basis for more than a century later, to call him the “father of the submarine”. Well, not only Russia periodically acted as a “homeland of elephants”; Albion tried to claim the same role. Not to mention that in this case is completely groundless. “Resurgam” hopelessly inferior boats of the Alexander and even the first “bicycles” Drzewiecki.
 
Nevertheless, quite pleased with himself garret decided that it is perfect, except that the “human” engine makes sense to replace with something more comfortable. Less than six months, as an active inventor (what enthusiasm he had) increased the “Revival”. And not just an enlarged and gigantic, in comparison with the prototype: displacement increased more than 6 times. However, the case became even “sloppy”: instead of a relatively neat “balls,” he reminded posited on the side of a large barrel, to the “bottom” and “lid” which was peredelyvalis cones of about the same length. Dubious to the end of 1880-ies of the “industrial age” look and material: trivial iron with wood paneling. But the price of the product inspired by: all the wealth was worth a little more than a thousand pounds. Money the Manchester factory is enough. To accelerate the construction of “Renaissance-2” Garrett gave the order, the professionals of Birkenhead, embodied the idea of the priest very quickly, in a period little more than six months. And I must say, not bad at all: doubtful case kept the water pressure at the depth of 15 m. the inventor Himself believed that his boat can dive and twice the depth, but in the first test has wisely limited himself to a modest 7 metres. Of course, the bet was his life: as often happened in those days, first climbed in their “underwater thing” that is its Creator.
 
And again, as in the case of his first submarine, the second boat of Garret sank, floated and moved under the water like the already familiar steam engine. However, special design. We are talking about the use of the boiler closed type, designed by J. Lamma and used, in particular, in what was then the new York subway. Before diving into a pretty big pot, calculated on solid for the time pressure of 10 ATM, bred pairs, pumped it additionally air to the specified pressure and tightly closed the door of the firebox and out into the chimney. The last cleaned and immersed. Due to the accumulated water and the boiler body to heat a small portion of this water, approximately 1/6 of, turned into steam for a conventional machine. The boat could go under the water, no experience in contacting with the “surface world”. However, very long, less than 4 hours for which she was held no more than 10 miles. In principle, it is enough to attack. What followed next was to rise to the surface and once again heat the water and recharge the boiler with steam. Even quite clever, but certainly very hard for the crew. And not only in such dive-splitex (each of which, as we know, could be the last). The stored heat given to the boiler walls not only water. Inside the case was not just hot, and almost unbearable: temperature after immersion and run the miracle of the boiler was close to 50 degrees!
 
The rest of the equipment was extremely poor: there were no devices such as compass and depth indicator dive and differentone tank. In fact, the boat has always been in the “combat” half-sunk condition, and the water remained a tiny add-on. When the steam pipe is removed and pumped into the ballast tank a little extra water, “Resurgam-2” passed “conditionally underwater” position.
 
Despite all the obvious deficiencies of their offspring, after the first test garret decided on a truly deadly tricks: all around the West coast of England, to go from Liverpool to Portsmouth, where he was waiting for the famous Swedish colleague, Thorsten, Nordenfelt, known in history by the name of their “proto-gun”, or rather, the micralite. And here is the “barrel” out of sight of the shore were three brave men, including the desperate clergyman. The Irish sea a little played out, but this “little” was enough. The waves began to wash over the “pilothouse” (simple fence about a meter high), the crew hurried to hide in the case and close the hatch. Evening came, then night – probably the worst thing in life daredevils. They tried to doze off, but nobody did. Their happiness, in the morning the excitement had subsided. “Resurgam-2” surfaced, but due to lack of any navigational equipment, it is unclear in which direction we should try to go. Maybe garret was about to ask for help from God, but sufferers rescued by a passing steamer.
 
Repeating the feat one of the companions of Garrett no longer wanted. The Builder of the boat offered to deliver it by rail on a special platform, but the designer wanted to appear before Nordenfeldt in all its glory, is sure to it arriving by sea. The compromise found in the form of a small steamer, bought for all the money Manchester firm. The boat was taken in tow and moved on. The couple has already reached the latitude of Wales, when suddenly a storm came up. It was a hefty risk to the steamer, but he survived, but the submarine went to the bottom, obviously, losing the tightness. Fortunately, Garrett and his “crew” quite sensibly moved on Board the tug.
 
If the inventor himself happily escaped the worst, that his finances were “killed to death”. Money the Manchester company has ended, any income of the boat is not brought, even there are no assets left. The wife of the priest found the only use of his share of the stock paste over with them walls instead of Wallpaper. It seemed that the looming unenviable fate. But her husband managed to convince Nordenfeld in the prospect of their plans, not even presenting the fact of a submarine. After a year the bankrupt company was revived, having lost the name “Garrett” in the title. Deserved: now it belonged to both “licensees” – the Englishman and the Swede. Curiously, all subsequent production received the name of Nordenfeld, although the designer stayed right garret; author of rapid-fire cannons basically just gave money, thus entering into history as the author of one of the first series of submarines.
 
However, he is unlikely to be possible without third party suddenly formed the “consortium” is one of the most famous and also the most mysterious weapons manufacturers in the future – peerage of England by Basil Zaharov. This Greek adventurer became the commercial representative of the firm of Nordenfeldt in 1877, at the age of just 27 years. And selling gerlowski boat was his finest hour and Zakharova’s career sharply went up. It worked just filigree: using extremely strained Greco-Turkish relations, managed to convince the Greek government that a new weapon can give enormous benefits. Moreover, Zakharov asked for the boat “a little”, 225 thousand francs. Indeed, a small price, but an experienced trader know what he was doing. Immediately after signing a “secret agreement” on the construction of submarines under the project of Garret he ably made the necessary information leaks to the Turks.
 
And exacerbating her “horror stories” in the spirit: “Greece has the means to destroy all of the Turkish fleet, unexpectedly and without loss to themselves”.
 
Meanwhile; working on the Greek “miracle weapon” was neither good, nor bad. Laid “Nordenfeld-1” (his own behalf and did not receive) in 1882, launched relatively quickly, after 9 months, but then within two years were slowly added. Only in 1885 was held with the trials by Zakharov called as many as four dozen observers from various countries, including “mistress of the seas”. But just as the British representative of the assessed product quite modestly, noting the curious fact that the boat sinks with certain difficulties, while the “previous easily immersed, but hard surfaced”. Maybe it was just a subtle British humor, but, anyway, home designer, his work is not impressed.
 
Submarine
Submarine “Nordenfeld-1” design Garret England – Sweden, 1885
 
Built in Stockholm. Type of construction – single -. The surface displacement 60 t Dimensions: length of 19.48 m, width of 2.74 meters, height of 3.36 m wheelhouse hull Material: steel. Immersion depth: -15 m. Engine: steam engine type “compound”, 100 HP, speed, surface/underwater – 6/4 bonds. Armament: 350 mm torpedo tubes in the nose. Crew: 3 people. After the test, in 1886, purchased by Greece. Included in the fleet, but not really used

 
1 – torpedo tube; 2 – steam machine horizontal rudders; 3 – accumulator of boiling water; 4 – steam boiler; 5 – tank main ballast; 6 – steam engine shaft of the propeller; 7 – heat exchanger; 8 — pull-out viewing hood; 9 – extendable chimney; 10 – steam engine vertical screws; 11 – vertical screws; 12 – fencing of vertical screws; 13 – pump
 
But the Turks, excited by vague but monstrously exaggerated rumors became the real victim of the hunter money. Zakharov sold them two submarines, and much greater size and for a good price. Here it is “the concessionaires” have tried: if the Greek “Nordenfelt” was created in Sweden, Turkish built in England, winning almost 2 years. In may 1886, the first of two units have reached Turkey in the hold of the transport in the form of “designer”. To collect it himself arrived garret, successfully performed the task in 4 months.
 
In fact, submarines-the opponents had much in common. First of all, it concerned the propulsion system, consisting of a 2-cylinder steam engine system “compound” and steam boiler, as well as “heat storage” – the volume of the tanks which have accumulated in the boiling water obtained in the boiler above the water. If you need to take in case cleaned the chimney, and along with the turret for steering, closed all the valves and turned the machine on powered by steam produced from boiling water. Despite his huge margin (the “Nordenfeldt-1” “batteries” contain up to 8 t of boiling water with a total displacement of the boat 60 t) under water submarine could pass only on the strength of 15 miles at a speed of not more than 4 knots. However, at that time the result looked impressive, if it were reached consistently.
 
The same was the arms – only 356-mm torpedo tubes in the nose, while the Turkish boat near the Greek version seemed so big, with almost three times the displacement. Has not changed and curious principle of immersion and retention of the submarine at the desired depth.
 
For this purpose, Garrett suggested using … screws, driven by a small steam engine. The immersion was carried out by two forces: besides the usual set of water in ballast tanks, in effect cited these same screws, tighten the boat to the depths. But, upon reaching the desired limit, the pressure of sea water blocked the special weight placed on the valve stem of the steam line auxiliary machines.
 
The valve worked well and blocked the flow of steam, the screws was off to haul the boat down, and she was podplyvaet because even in? filled to the brim with the ballast tank retains positive buoyancy. The external pressure decreased, the sinker is again outweighed his, the valve is opened and the machine is again started to rotate the screws. Hence was born the above conclusion, the British expert. In principle, the idea is ingenious, because nothing threatened to send the boat into excessive depth, even in an emergency. Or almost nothing: at the first shot the torpedo out of the administration of the Turkish firstborn suddenly it facilitate the nose went up sharply. Feed – downward. Of course, no valves were not able to work, the boat is completely lost “orientation in space” and went to the bottom of the tail forward. Fortunately, depth in the site of testing was small, buried in “limiter”, “Abdul Hamid” (as he called the submarine from the Zakharov-Nordenfeld-Garrett) managed to emerge, and thus saved for the designer, in this time inside. However, the Turks did not show enthusiasm in the “continuation of the Banquet”. For “Abdul Hamid” was not able to gain is a small team of “brave”, a total of 6 people! Indeed, a submerged submarine has been very shaky, continuously swaying from side to side, that did not help neither morale nor a just confidence that they will be able to get to the saving surface. Inside a solid 30-meter casing with a diameter of more than 3.5 m, it was even impossible to walk any movement led either to an increase in the amplitude of the oscillations of the “pendulum” or the appearance of the trim. Unlikely, having undergone such an adventure in the deep after surfacing, the mariners could use his “artillery” represented by two 25-mm metralleta sample, of course, Nordenfeld.
All this predetermined the end of the epic; however, not without national connotation of the then Ottoman Empire. The second unit, called “Abdul Majid” not even managed to collect her pieces, especially “mechanics” and the equipment, just pilfered resourceful “employees”. By the way, Garrett was quite proud of the fact that for your money, with customers receiving a full set of appliances, providing its functioning, including compasses, pressure gauges, depth gauges, automatic valves, devices for cleaning air and so on.
 
“Majid” was followed by “Hamid”; as ready and passed the test boat are not exploited and temporarily put on a funny in anticipation of the brave, fate decided it the same (or other) thieves. And temporary “standing” has become a constant. When in 1914, with the entry of Turkey into the war German experts inspected the scrap metal, he made sure that none of the boats can not what to carry out combat missions, but also just to swim. However, “iron corpse” has endured and even the defeat in the war, going to final disassembly only in 1921.
 
So “nordenfjeldske” (but in reality-gerlowski) submarine formally managed to stay in the service for 35 years, never not going to sea. And “Abdul Majid” is not entering into a line! An instructive example of how can “die” ships that do not need any country with a developed “grabbing” nor by the sailors.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Abdul Hamid” (“Nordenfeld-2”) design of Garrett, England, 1886
 
Built in Chertsey (a suburb of London), going to Istanbul. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater 245 T. Dimensions: length 30.48 m, width 3,66 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engine: steam engine type “compound”, 250 HP, design speed surface/underwater – 10/5 bonds, real – about 6/3 ties. Armament: 350 mm torpedo tubes in the nose, two four-barrelled 25-mm gun of Nordenfeld. Crew: 7 persons, In 1886 – 1887 he built 2 units, “Abdul Hamid and Abdul Majid”. Disassembled sent to Istanbul. Really contains only 1 unit, “Abdul Hamid”. Was tested, starting with the 1887 Unfit for combat by 1914, scrapped in 1921

 
And “the concessionaires”, which received a respectable sum, continued its activities. Zakharov “betrothed” Nordenfeld small then the company “barrow Shipbuilding” in a few decades became the basis of the shipbuilding branch is rapidly gaining momentum the company “Vickers”, one of the shareholders which became sir Basil. It is in barrow-in-Furness in 1887 and built another version of “Nordenfeld” that promised to completely outshine the previous one. Indeed, Garrett has made a noticeable effort to improve their submarine. First of all, it was a lot more predecessors: submerged displacement was up to 245 tons and a length exceeded 38 m. More “boat” lines: bow and stern parts were carried out very sharp, with a positive impact on running performance. New steam engine with 4 cylinders rare system of “dual compound” was a solid power 1200 HP Steam fed her already two boilers (respectively, with two pipes). A rare case: the first transition at a respectable distance from barrow to Portsmouth (remember, just became fatal for garmoshka of the firstborn, and his Manchester-Liverpool firms) not only went Bang, but also demonstrated the ability to develop on the surface of the “regular” 18 knots is a great speed for any submarine within the next half a century!
 
But the rest of the chassis parameters of the situation was much worse. Garret remained consistently loyal to his ideas regarding the preservation of the positive buoyancy of the submarine. In the third reincarnation of this stock ever reached 25%, even with the full amount of water in ballast tanks. Accordingly, as soon as stopped working “immersive” screws, boat rushed to the surface as a plugged tube a half-empty bottle. It’s a shame for the inventor, who in other respects showed great diligence. The hull is now divided into 5 compartments, one of which was able for the first time to allocate cabins. They were supposed to place four officers: a curious interest for the crew of nine, reminiscent of a modern relationship. However, the cabins were rather conventional baffle, and the lion’s share of the internal volume, the two largest compartment, boiler and machinery, held, of course, the steam plant. And not only occupied, but also poisoned the air. In a submerged position continued to emit deadly carbon monoxide gas (carbon monoxide), with no color, no smell, no taste. The garret often experienced its influence, and once got food poisoning so that a couple of weeks hovered between life and death. So 9 hours at the calculated air supply for underwater speed, was undoubtedly the limit of human capabilities team.
 
Another Achilles heel was the range when driving under water. Although the storage tanks had a capacity of 27 t of boiling water (more than 10% of displacement), increased dimensions and weight of the boat allowed her to pass on this stock is not more than 20 miles of a four-node move. Much better things were on the surface: if the coal was filled, not only regular bunker 8 t, but also ballast tanks (a role played positive buoyancy), the submarine could walk 1000 miles 9-speed hub. In principle, not bad.
 
Now it was ready to attach the boat “in good hands”. Thanks to the efforts Zakharova, her show was included in the program of the jubilee naval parade at Spithead, on the 50th anniversary of her accession to the British throne of Queen Victoria and held in the summer of 1887. It was there that he produced the first successful launch torpedoes, weapons that became for many years the chief for submarines. (“Nordenfeld-3” already had two torpedo tubes, also located in the nose, one above the other because of the very sharp shape of the hull at the bow.) However, the shot was fired from the launching position, and not on purpose, but in the area where the meeting is not threatened by any of the participants of the parade. However, the demonstration made a strong impression on the crowd of high-ranking bureaucrats and the public, including the Royal family, in particular, the Russian Tsar Alexander III, who fell victim to advertising promotions, giving the order to purchase “miracle of technology”.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
Submarine “Nordenfeld-3” design of Garrett, England, 1887
 
Built in barrow-in-Furness. Type of construction — single -. Displacement underwater 245 T. Dimensions: length 38,1 m, width 3,66 m. body Material: steel. The depth of the dip – yum. Engine: the steam engine of the type “dual-compound”, the power of 1200 HP, speed, surface/ underwater -18/5 ties. Equipment: two 350-mm torpedo tubes in the nose, one 47-mm gun Hotchkiss (not installed). Crew: 9 persons was Tested in 1887, sank in the transition to Sweden in November 1888 Raised, no longer used

 
Fortunately, in Britain the “bride” went considerable and, I must say, quite competent Commission headed by the chief inspector of the mine case Admiral by Diovam. The verdict was absolutely disappointing. Our sailors and engineers surely noticed the complete unwillingness of the “Nordenfeld” to take him in the natural elements. In addition, the conditions for the crew was considered “unbearable” is a real sentence for such a way of Garrett. In General, submarines from Russia refused.
 
So “the consortium” could not get vital at the time of ordering. And soon lost the main domain. A year later, the boat set out to overtake in Sweden, close to Nordenfelt. The campaign ended on the rocks near the Danish coast. But even after his “death” submarine who brought nothing but losses, and some profit. The boat is still lifted, then “privatized” personally, the future sir Basil supposedly in the expense of insurance. Garret’s left with nothing. He made another project about the same size as the “floater”, but realize it could not. Not helped by shopping talents Zakharova: to invest money or “buy on the vine” the submarine was not wanting either among governments or among individuals. the Firm was finally dissolved, with Nordenfeld and Zakharov successfully continued to prosper, but the designer is left with no money and no reputation. Garrett emigrated to the United States; during the Spanish-American war of 1898 he served in the insignificant rank of corporal in the engineering troops in Puerto Rico. Bad climate finally finished off former British inventor, soon died there, caught dengue fever.
 
Together with Garrett ended and “nordenfjeldske” line of submarines. They did not become a breakthrough; still, the submarine, unable to dive, was an oxymoron even in those days. The main stumbling block in the way of their development is the engine – the steam engine. In spite of original tricks that allowed her to work some time under water “spare” pair, the range remains insignificant, as, indeed, and speed. Required a brand new solution, providing a combined power plant. I must say, garret thought about installing the motor, but he was stopped by a huge mass of batteries which, in conjunction with the tanks with boiling water, threatened to take away almost all the free space and the displacement.
In fact, attempts to build the classic “nordenfelt”, or, more correctly, “Garrety” not limited to the activities of this “company”. In 1885 a patent and the documentation for “Greek option” acquired by Germany, then still not a great naval power, is extremely interested in the “antidote” against a large fleet of its main enemy, France. The Germans had a bit of time reworking the draft, trying to make the “product” more efficient. In particular, the German engineers lengthened hull, improved hull, and installed a powerful steam engine lamma (working on the same principle of using a stored pair). Measures were beneficial. When testing built in Kiel and Hamburg the two boats managed to reach 6.5 node under water and 12 on the surface. As you can see, the vast majority of early submarines names were not: a bit too exotic it seemed these boats. No exception and the first “Germans”; they were called just “submarines” (Unterseeboot), with the addition of rooms 1 and 2. Thus was the famous designation of U-boot, the mention of which subsequently kholodilo the blood of sailors from ships around the world. The boats, despite some improvements of the characteristics possessed ancestral faults gerlowski submarines, primarily, with a tiny range under water. They had been tested, including in joint exercises with surface ships, but in a system of U-1 and U-2 and was not included.
 
In Britain the development of submarines by the efforts of Garret didn’t stop there. But the result was about the same. Almost simultaneously with the emergence of the Union of Nordenfeld-Garrett, in 1886, at the home of the inventor has conducted very successful experiments with electric submarines. One of them was designed and built by John Wadlington. Its a small “Porpoise”, of course, could not be compared with the dimensions “products” by Gustave, Side, but looked quite competitive on the background of “lemon” from Guba. The designer has provided and carefully performed all the necessary items and have supplied their offspring curious innovations. One of them became additional screws, placed vertically in special mines. They allowed the boat to take not only “normal”, by filling the ballast tanks to zero buoyancy and control of the horizontal rudders, but to do the aforementioned in place, no progress. The case set off the vertical screws and the submarine surfaced or submerged, not moving in the horizontal direction. Another interesting innovation was the spotlight mounted on the low deckhouse and covering the space under the water at a distance of a dozen meters. So, even if partly, solved the problem of “blindness”. “Porpoise” had a highly developed system of mechanical automation, regulating, in particular, the trim and the depth of immersion. Seriously looked and weapons; it was supposed to have two Whitehead torpedoes, but because of the small size of the carrier and without devices, in a special grip at the sides of the hull. To use their engines and release the grippers to release you from within. Then newfangled guns seemed to the author of the project was weak, and he added to the torpedoes and a mine attached to the tether cable. As with many other boats of the nineteenth century, it was supposed to give the opportunity to float underneath the goal, then from a safe distance with the closure of circuits carried out the explosion. In General, a pretty decent “product”, if not… “Not” in this case refers primarily to the engine and chassis data. Of course, what you can demand from an 8-horsepower electric motor? But as “French electric”, Waddington and that is not even close to able to achieve the estimated data, modest in themselves: it was assumed that at least on the surface at the speed of 6.5 KTS. “Porpoise” will be able to go 60 miles. On tests it turned out that this is too optimistic. Under water, the range is further decreased, becoming roughly equal to that of “areacompletely” boat of Garret. But even those on the surface of the water was a solid reserve. In General, the verdict from the Admiralty: “cannot be adopted” is quite reasonable. But, unlike the stubborn French colleagues, Wadlington their work did not continue. Thus, Britain lost some precious experience in the development of submarines.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Porpoise” design Waddington, England, 1886
 
Built at the shipyard in the city of Sicom (a suburb of Liverpool). Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of about 7 m. Dimensions: length 11.3 m, diameter of 1.98 m. Material of hull: steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engines: electric motor, 8 HP, speed, design of surface/underwater – 6,5/4 knots (test is not met). Armament: two 350-mm torpedoes with no vehicles, pop-up mine. Crew: 2 people. Was tested in 1886 not adopted
 
1 – tanks of compressed air; 2 – battery; 3 – headlight; 4 – zip camera; 5 torpedoes; 6 – bracket; 7 – the pop-up mine; 8 – motor; 9 – vertical screws; 10 — detachable ballast; 11 — ballast tanks

 
And this despite quite safely past the test “Porpoise”, in contrast to held in the same 1886 experiments with a different ship purely English design. We are talking about the “Nautilus” (loved and still love this mollusk creators submarines) is a joint creation of two designers, Andrew Campbell and James ash. Their submarine with a displacement of just over 50 t had a number of interesting features. One of them was the propulsion system: since the inventors could not get a powerful enough motor (at that time, those were very rare), then I set two, each respectively rotating your screw. So, the Nautilus became the first twin-screw submarine. And one of the last on which to dive and ascent used the old principle of water displacement, first used in the project of their countrymen Bear on. Eight cylinders with a diameter more than half were located four on each side.
 
Submarine ash and Campbell, England, 1886
 
Submarine ash and Campbell, England, 1886
 
Was built in London. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater 52 t Dimensions: length 18.3 m, diameter 2.5 m Material housing: steel. Immersion depth: 15 m Engines: two electric motors, capacity 45 HP, speed, design of surface/u – 6/4 knots the test is not achieved. Armament: two 350-mm torpedoes with no vehicles. Crew: 6 people. Was tested in 1886, adopted not adopted

 
They served as a kind of piston, advancing from the body or hiding it, either manually by or from the main drive motors. Respectively, to change the number of accepted boat of water, and she either sank or rose to the surface. These same cylinders according to the idea of Campbell and ash, can control the trim tabs. The rest of their submarine had all the normal time for device and components: main ballast tanks, pumps for filling and emptying, compressed air, a small cabin with portholes. As the weapons were supposed to be two torpedoes, mounted on the sides. That provided a very original way of applying them: using their “displacement cylinders” boat was supposed to take an inclined position so that the released torpedo hit directly in the bottom of the target. Option, of course, totally killer action, but hardly feasible in practice. As shown by the first tests. Fortunately, they hung out at the pool, dock Tilbury, where the depth does not exceed 7 – 8 m. the Crew filed cylinders, and… the Nautilus instantly went down. With such speed that the pointed cigar is just stuck in the muddy bottom of the pool. Il is so firmly seized its prey, it took several very unpleasant hours to finally push the cylinders up. Was also insufficient cruising range. According to the calculations, it is roughly consistent with that of “Porpoise”: 60 miles on the surface and only 8 miles underwater. But these are more than modest characteristics also proved to be unattainable. The result is disappointing: the main British shipbuilder W. white personally signed negative feedback.
 
Thus ended the “electric” story of submarines “mistress of the seas” in the nineteenth century. Everything seems logical and natural: sailors products with dubious properties turned out to be unnecessary. But unclaimed steel and domestic inventors, in principle, are not inferior to their colleagues abroad. And this has led the greatest naval power in the world to stagnation, out of which was very difficult.

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