“MOVERS” RUSSIAN SUBMARINES

Two people who moved in Russia “underwater thing” off the ground, deserve a separate story. Chronologically, the first was Ivan Alexander, teacher of drawing and painting, always interested in modern techniques and technologies. Once in France, Louis Daguerre invented a usable method of capturing images, which subsequently became the photo that Alexander immediately made acquainted with the method and opened in St. Petersburg, a photo Studio, one of the first in the world. It is this passion that became a profession, and brought the inventor to the underwater case. In 1853, before the Crimean war, he visited Britain, where a lot of pictures, and beheld the innumerable rows of ships “mistress of the seas”, ready to March to the shores of the Crimea in order to “teach those Russians.”

Russian patriot thought it would be nice to teach the arrogant sons of Albion. To as the “weak” suggests underwater vessel, the Alexander which from the beginning saw a very large and driven by a mechanical engine. Very progressive: remember that ten years later, during the Civil war, American craftsmen continued to exploit their fellow citizens for crankshaft with screw in close boats. That’s just the engine until there was: the steam engine inventor rejected – rightly – as unsuitable for submarines. Meanwhile, the Crimean war ended, and not until then, until Ivan came across an article the other domestic Amateur mechanics, Professor of Russian literature S. I. Baranovsky, who created a workable multi-stage compressor, allows coupled with a pneumatic motor to move the carriage. Both the designer-lover joined their efforts and in 1862 was sent to the Naval Ministry, the project of the submarine with a displacement of more than 300 tons, with pneumatic motor. I must say, the domestic version of the famous French “Plunger” has made an impression on the power (and money) the powers that be. The inventors were able to bring the project to life. In the summer of 1963 a very professional Builder (the future of the Baltic plant, then the plant Carr and MacPherson) engaged in the construction of the boat, having finished its work by the autumn of next year. However, there was plenty of punch and “uluchshilos” from the designer, and the boat (not named) was ready for testing only in the summer of 1866.
She had a very interesting, more not repeated ever shape: triangular in cross-section metal body (I. F. Alexander believed that a bottom will not allow the submarine to dive too quickly) nose curled up “boot”, which housed the control room. This “process” was covered with brass (later replaced by copper sheets) at a length of 5.5 m inside it could work as a normal compass. The rest was covered with 12-mm steel sheets. Alexander thought that such a case will allow you to dive to a depth of 25 m. To control the boat had all the relevant inherent and subsequent designs of the device: ballast tanks, the water of which is purged with compressed air; a pair of horizontal rudders and a large vertical wheel. Characteristic of future submarines became applied Alexander’s placement of the screws in special enclosures, protecting them from accidents. The screws themselves were operated by two pneumatic machine system Baranovsky, develop decent power – more than 230 HP and “Plangere”, a significant part of the very large block was occupied by two hundred of the compressed air! In principle, the supply of fuel can be replenished in the way, what were the other “machine Baranovsky” – manual compressor. But to really get in this way any appreciable fraction of the air under pressure of at least 50 at was a puzzle to be solved is that with the participation of the legendary Hercules.
 
Submarine I. F. Alexander. Russia, 1866
 
Submarine I. F. Alexander. Russia, 1866
 
Submarine I. F. Alexander. Russia, 1866
 
It was built at the plant Carr and MacPherson in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single-material – steel and brass (plating in the bow). Displacement overwater/underwater 355/363 t Dimensions: length – 33,0 m width 3,70 m height to the cabin is 6.7 m. the immersion Depth up to 25 m. Engine: 2 air machines with a total capacity of 234 HP, propulsion – 2 propellers, speed of surface/underwater 6/3,5 uz.. Weapons: – charge mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 22 people Tested in 1863 – 1871, for service not accepted. In 1871 sank when immersed for 30 m, raised in 1873, converted into a rescue pontoon at the Mine squad
 
However, Hercules would not hurt to disperse the boat. When testing (in General, quite successful, with no crashes) submarine developed under water in just 3.5 knots, and the supply of air is enough only for two and a half hours of the stroke. Both significantly inferior to the promised design data (6 knots for 3 hours.) Roughly speaking, the creation of the Alexander might come close to being somewhere on the horizon of a stationary (or very slow-moving) targets, but are unlikely to be able to go back after the attack.
 
However, the attack itself was the most problematic moment. The inventor has proposed a very specific, though malpractice weapons. To hit a target was to apply a special “shell”, consisting of two cast-iron boxes filled with gunpowder and a hollow pipe and the United articulated in the manner of scissors. The boat was just something to get under the enemy ship, be located strictly along the keel and releasing the projectile, which, after discharge of ballast weights must have been due to opening the hinge”of the scissors” to clasp the bottom of the target. Then the boat could retreat to a safe distance and detonate the charge through the wires from a galvanic battery.
 
As you can see, the way was so maloosuschestvima that a successful attack would be a real miracle. The placement of charge on the tail of the enemy battered the proportion of divers who could go through the gateway in the nose, in the same “management boot”. However tests have unfortunately confirmed the worst expectations: even with the help of divers to hoist the ball into the bottom goal turned out to be a daunting task. In addition, the boat had standard disease submarines of the nineteenth century: poor resistance at depth and wobbling in the horizontal plane due to the lack of necessary to control the rudders of the devices.
 
In General, the Ministry of the Navy, it became clear that 140 thousand rubles (very pretty for that time amount) spent almost nothing. A formidable weapon failed. Moreover, at the first immersion in General has not been willing to accompany Alexander neither the military nor the civil engineers and shipbuilders! Rescued… “Russian Englishman”, the master of the shipyard, “Mr. Watson”. Paying tribute to his adventurous nature and courage, it is worth noting that inexperienced “foreign volunteer” was almost drowned submarine. It was limited to a accident with rupture of the ballast tanks. Boat managed to surface, the good, the depth of the first dive did not reach two meters.
 
But the thing moving from a dead point: the next test under the water went, rear Admiral A. A. Popov, paving his path example for other officers. At one of the dive boats were observed and the Emperor Alexander II, who expressed his monarch’s favor. The submarine received regular military command, and its commanders became the captain of the 1st rank.
 
In the literature of earlier years was often noted that “the tsarist government ignored the latest ideas I. F. Aixenprovence” and did not allow him to carry out his ideas. It is not so: to the inventor reacted quite patiently. He was able to make the necessary, in his view, improve, in particular, replacing one large ballast tank three, placed in different parts of the body. However, the main disadvantage of the motion of the water is preserved in full. The designer has added a “self-regulator” of immersion, but at shallow depth the boat still jumped up and down, striking the bottom, then jumping to the surface. On big same depth it was in for another danger: careless management of horizontal rudders (which in manual mode is literally required precision), the submarine could fall into your latest “duck”.
 
To test the real limit the safe depth of immersion, in the summer of 1871 the boat lowered to water without crew on 25 m – estimated value provided by the author of the project. There it stood for half an hour and safely recovered to the surface without any damage, confirming the correctness of calculations of the Alexander.
 
However, instead of calm, or at least to observe due caution, one of the representatives of the Marine Technical Committee, rear Admiral Stetsenko ordered the next day to plunge underwater vessel at 30 m. the Excess of 5 m proved to be the straw that broke the camel’s back. Housing started to leak, special pontoons held the boat, and she went to the bottom. And sank it thoroughly: none available at the time funds are not allowed to raise the unfortunate submarine without careful preparation, which took as much as two years – more than lasted the building itself. When the boat finally pulled to the surface, “the train has already left”: the Naval Ministry decided to stop costly experiments.
 
Alexander tried in vain to rescue the child in many different ways. In 1875 he proposed to rebuild his boat in a typical mid-century “semi-submarine”, equipping it with a steam machine for movement on the surface. Submerged (only a meter and a half) as in the case would all the same pneumatic machine. It was assumed that as a result of a displacement of a pseudo-submarine will rise to 630 – 650 t, and move it can excellent for that time a speed of 15 knots. However, when estimations of the Alexander came to analysis to professional engineers, they were quickly convinced that the claimed features are pure fiction (parameters specified in the project, was achieved only half a century later!)
 
Tireless “photographer” continued his work and after the rejection of the project. In 1881 was followed by the variant with a single steam engine and boiler for oil heating. The idea was based on the then fashionable cauldrons of superheated water, is able to give some amount of steam and after the cessation of heating. (We still dwell on them later.) However, the sense of reality in thought and action has left quite elderly for the times of the inventor, whose age was close to 65-year milestone. He offered his creation to the French Marine Ministry, which was even interested in the boat, but grabbed it is absolutely a terrible price – one million francs. Having been refused, Alexander took to drink and ended her days in a perfect lack of demand.
 
S. K. Drzewiecki
 
S. K. Drzewiecki
 
 
Much more lucky his colleague, Stefan (in the Russian service became Stepan Karlovich) Drzewiecki (1843 -1938.). Rich and well-born Polish nobleman, he received an excellent education in Paris and then worked for a time in Vienna. At the age of only 30 years old he was spotted in Russia, where a young mechanical engineer has got the enviable position of a member of Marine Technical Committee. So, in addition to undoubted talent, he knew the subtleties of communication in sea, and in court circles. Plus, the inventor possessed considerable private means, who built experimental samples of their new products, including submarines, through which he perhaps became best known.
 
The first submarine he built in 1877, completely for the money. However, the boat was quite small and ruin the Polish of a gentleman could not. And original it was enough. Since the shape of the hull, reminiscent of steel hollow dumpling. Inside was placed the only crew member whose head towered over design in a small glass case, that is, the boat was a again, “prepodobny” option. Of course, the engine was still the same muscular force “commander-sailor”, but that the drive does not repeat foreign counterparts. Instead of crankshaft or arms located on a rather comfortable chair “the crew” twisted ordinary Bicycle pedals, rotating through the gear drive shaft with screw. In General, a kind of underwater version of the velomobile, called “Podsnap”. The lower “float” was used as ballast tanks, the water in which immersion was done by gravity, and replacing the hand pump. The depth of the dip had to be adjusted using a cylinder with a piston, changing the volume ratio of “air” and “water” parts “float”. From the description it is evident that the Drzewiecki used “yesterday’s” technical solution, from Bourn to French counterpart Desana from which the “project profit” rubber sleeves and gloves. The latter was necessary in order to operate the weapon, consisting of two containers attached to the sides of the hull had zero buoyancy and provided with air suction cups for attaching to the underwater hull of the victim. Each container contained 25 kg new – fangled explosives, dynamite and operated traditional elektrozapalom, lockable by wire from the boat. Also quite recognizable system. The original was a vertical rudder placed not in the stern and nose. Not the best solution for and so strange vessel, but they could also steer in the manner of a recumbent.
In General like anything pioneer isn’t a boat, but all its elements were carefully thought out and executed. Therefore, the “Padonkaf” held in testing for almost six months without any serious accidents, and Drzewiecki (of course, he was the first and only member of the crew) even managed to undermine its dynamite mines the goal, however, is anchored. At the same time, he almost died when he tried to pass on the “Photoscape” under the bottom of the yacht “Eriklik”: depth under it was too small, and the submarine “stuck” on the ground. But in the end, the designer managed to bring to his creation the attention of the chief commander of the black sea fleet, which was sent to the Naval Ministry a request for the construction of several such “SCAF” to protect the coast. (Recall that Russian Navy still suffered from serious limitations imposed on it after the Crimean war, and then broke out a new war with Turkey.) However, very modest driving performance “bike” together with a negligible radius (positional position “Padonkaf” could be no more than half an hour due to the lack of regeneration or air) put an end to Sanchez-tolubeeva intentions of the inventor. But not for long.
 
 
“Padonkaf” (the first version of the submarine) S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, 1878
 
Built on the Blanchard plant in Odessa. Type of construction – single -. The displacement of about 2 t Dimensions: length – 4,5 m, width of about 1.5 m, a height of about 2 m body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 5 m. Engine: muscular strength, veloplivd, propulsion – the propeller, the speed of surface/u/2 uz. Armament: two mines of 25 kg, set on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 1 person was Tested in 1878, adopted not adopted
 
The Drzewiecki moved from Odessa to St. Petersburg. There are only three years he not only developed but also built a new submarine in a much improved and very original. The crew of the “Underwater mine apparatus” as somewhat clumsily called it, is now composed of four people. They were situated not as undemanding cyclists, and as passengers by type of landlord of the carriage: in pairs, backs to each other. However, these “landowners for a walk” diligently continues to pedal, and each of the pairs of powered own shaft connected to golopristan cunning hinge device. Accordingly, one of the shafts is connected with a screw in the aft end of the body, and the second from “mirror” him in the nose. And this compound was flexible, allowing the feed screw to deviate left and right, thereby replacing the vertical rudder and the bow up and down, functioning in the manner of rudders of depth. “Clever machine” (actually a mechanically very complicated and require a fair amount of culture of manufacture) had to order in French, workshops, Guba, who himself became a famous “underwater breeder”.
 
Despite a very extravagant system of management and propulsion, she was able to develop muscle-powered speed up to 3 knots – decent March of the pedestrian. For this type of “engine” is an undeniable success. Although the submarine could dive under the water completely, normal mode for it was positional, in which over water was made by a small hexagonal tower with portholes, which could see all four crew members. System air supply was completely Autonomous – potentially hazardous “breathing tube” was absent. Enriched with carbon dioxide “napisany” air is pumped through a caustic soda solution and returned to the compartment. As the oxygen content in the breathing continued to decrease to it from time to time added portions of fresh “gas breathing” of the cylinder. Pumping ballast water became mechanized for that purpose now used a small pump driven from the same main shafts. When submerged the water entered the ballast tank by gravity is the simplest option. At this crucial moment, it was important to efficiently operate the front screw to care under, the water was smooth and falling.
 
The weapons themselves – the powder charge has not changed, but the method of its application has undergone significant improvements. Disappeared impractical and even dangerous rubber sleeves and gloves. Two-pound (32 kg) charge was placed in special recesses in the front and rear of the turret, closed the outside hinged doors. On the sides of each charge is attached to a rubber cushion filled with air under pressure. These mines could be released from storage from inside the boat; the lifting force of the airbags caused them to emerge, and to bury in the bottom of the target. Clearly, the crew needed a completely piece of work that “means of destruction” is slid along the side of the enemy ship, finding the very boat and its hostile intentions.
 
In General, submarine Dzhevetsky combined as a carefully researched and highly questionable (such as turning screws, “mounding mines”, a muscular engine, etc.). Reasons and reasons to reject the submarine at the Navy Department, no doubt, would be enough, but the inventor took their measures Vasilevskii complete success.
 
The tests were carried out in a Silver pond of Palace in Gatchina, not too deep, to risk failure at a dangerous depth, and are distinguished then it is very pure and transparent water. So for all underwater movements of submarines were able to observe the Royal family, is situated on a boat in the center of the pond. The strange ship approached, dove under the boat and surfaced the other side. Gleaming portholes on the dome hatch opened, there appeared Drzewiecki, with a nod bringing Empress Maria Feodorovna, a bouquet of choicest orchids, accompanied by the gift with a solemn: “It is a tribute to Neptune, Your Majesty!”. It is not surprising that such a carefully prepared “military operation” has turned into a complete success. Applause the gallant inventor of steel only a small fraction of a “bonus”. Most importantly, the Emperor Alexander III immediately ordered stationed in the retinue of the Minister of war P. S. Vannovsky to issue an order to build five dozen of these wonderful “devices”. The Royal decision is final; since Russia acquired the first series of submarines in their own and in world history. Not spared the mercy and of the “messenger of Neptune”: personally Drzewiecki received 100 thousand rubles – something under a hundred million at current exchange rate.
 
 
“Underwater mine apparatus” (the second version of the submarine) S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, 1879
 
Built on Nevsky plant in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of about 8 tons Dimensions: length -5,80 m, width 1.22 m, height – 1.83 m. Material of hull: steel. Immersion depth up to 7.5 m. Engine: muscular strength, veloplivd, propulsion – 2 propellers, speed of surface/underwater 1/3 of the bonds. Armament: two mines at 32 kg, mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 4 persons was Tested in 1879, served as the basis for a production version
 
However, the inventor sought an honest day’s work obtained the prize. Serial submarines, simply numbered from No. 1 to No. 50, has undergone regular improvements. The Drzewiecki himself removed the questionable nose screw; thus didn’t need a front pair of “riders”. Of them only one commander, and immersion and emersion are carried out now by moving along the length of the case two massive loads of 320 kg each. The familiar system “Bauer”, it’s simple and attractive, but, as we already know, too slow to change and threat. Had the hull strengthened to increase the maximum diving depth, so when a possible “failure” had a stock for the withdrawal of boats from “the peak”. Some changed the equipment; thus, a nozzle with shut-off valve for the exchange of waste air to fresh air at periscope depth. Yes, this boat Drzewiecki had an “almost real” periscope with prisms and circular rotation located in a waterproof box, is pulled out of the turret in a submerged state. Quite modern and quite well executed. However, many elements of submarines has remained unsuitable for their actual use in war, for example, the same two-pound mines with their air bags.
 
However, the boat was built fairly quickly, in 1881, in a system included all five dozen. They were built in the capital, and then went to “consumers.” Most of all, 32, entered the Black sea, another 16 remained in the Baltic, Kronstadt. The last pair were intended for experimentation and testing: one boat placed at the disposal of the Engineering Department, and the second went to the Drzewiecki “to produce further improvements.” One of the Baltic units in 1882, for more than six months were tested already in the sea near Kronstadt, after having been under water a total of nearly 100 hours. Although no serious accidents were avoided, the sailors are well-understood more than the modest capabilities of submarines. In 1891, when the triumphant emergence of “a messenger of Neptune” before the Danish Princess Dagmar and Russian Empress in one person was forgotten, the Navy Department, in whose possession was now of a submarine (previously they remained formally in the Engineering Department as the protection of ports) has made its move. The head of the fleet and the Ministry the General-Admiral Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, brother of the king, especially not stand on ceremony and asked for higher resolution on the “razlomna aforesaid submarines in the scrap metal” due to “unsuitability to protect the ports under modern conditions of war.” (Here it should be noted that the terms of reference of naval warfare over the past decade has certainly changed, but few have touched the problems of submarine attacks.) “Divorce” in a more or less usable condition left four boats, all on the Baltic sea. In addition, on the Black sea from pairs of boat hulls built floating buoy catamaran. Liked the idea, and three more similar structures appeared in the Baltic sea. Of course, it’s quite a sad end for an ambitious project, but I must say, is a foregone conclusion: “underwater bike” is really not suited for war, but money to maintain them and the crews required a considerable.
 
The third version of the submarine of S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, (1881) on which was built the first series of Russian submarines in the quantity of 50 pieces (designation of positions - the author)
 
The third version of the submarine of S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, (1881) on which was built the first series of Russian submarines in the quantity of 50 pieces (designation of positions – the author):
 
Z – pedal drive to rotate a propeller; N – prop; M – swivel propeller; O’, D,L,- the drive from the pedals to the shaft of the screw; L’ – tank water ballast; Q ballast pump; a reservoir of compressed air that serves as a seat for the crew; P – moving goods; D’ – rail for moving goods; With’ – mines with suction cups; S – actuator for ejection min; Z’, F, N’ is the optical tube; 1 – retractable vent pipe; G access hatch;’ – rings for lifting a submarine, And a fore end
 
Built on Nevsky plant in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of about 5.8 t Dimensions: length – 5,85 m, width 1.20 m, height – 1,70 m body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 12.5 m. Engine: muscular strength, veloplivd, propulsion – 2 propellers, speed of surface/u 0,5/2,5 bonds. Armament: two mines at 32 kg, mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 3 people In 1881 – 1882 he built 50 units (No. 1 – 50), transferred to the Engineering Department for the defense of the ports on the Baltic and Black seas. In 1883 – 1885 it was proposed to re-equip the boat motor, but the project was not approved. In 1891, formally handed over the fleet and then excluded from the lists, with the exception of 4 units (2 for the experiments, 2 – as a study). The fate of the others is not exactly known, the vast majority dismantled in 1892 – 1895 gg. 2 units converted in 1904 in “polupodvale” boats with petrol and kerosene engines. Both are excluded from the lists of 1909
 
So after skillfully organized triumph Drzewiecki ended up with nothing. The inventor, however, lose courage, and his creativity has not dried up. He knew all the shortcomings of his creation and sought to correct them as quickly and successfully as possible then technique.
 
In 1883, when his submarines are still operational, the Drzewiecki went on absolutely the right track, proposing to convert the Bicycle into a submarine with the motor. And this project he was able to break through and to put into practice. At the same time, the designer has removed the function of rotation of the other feed screw, reworked under the control of a conventional vertical wheel. The boat became less exotic, but much more maneuverable. But many of the defects of the original draft was only “plaster”. So two heavy differentone of weight (recall that weight over half a ton!) replaced one, moving with the worm gear on the shaft with the cutting. (Also a definite “deja vu”.) However, the weapons were ridiculous and unfit for action, and habitability has not improved: now the lion’s share of the volume of the block was occupied by the batteries. With them, as with electric, there’s been a major trim. “Outlandish equipment” ordered for the future of the Entente allies and the big bosses in electrical engineering, the French, in the face of the world-known company “Breguet”. The order was passed, suddenly, however, the suppliers refused it. Then resilient Drzewiecki designed all the equipment myself, once again proving that he can not only give bouquets Royal ladies. And not just designed and managed to produce, but he did it gracefully and efficiently, for which he received albeit relatively modest, but much more honorable than “the highest pleasure” award at the specialized electrotechnical exhibition.
Two years later, the boat is already the fourth generation is really quite cheerfully went under the motor with a speed up to 4 knots, although its capacity is only slightly higher than “Cycling”, and the range was quite small, despite the many heavy battery “banks”. (For this reason, the displacement has dramatically increased, almost doubled.) However, all this was a result of the inevitable realities of the then prior art. But these reasonable considerations are, of course, did not satisfy the sailors, who again refused to adopt the updated submarines into service.
 
The failure ended another attempt of the inventor to use electric traction. This time creative designer suggested a truly original option: water-jet propulsion device with a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor. Special originality of the project was the rotating nozzle allows you to direct the flow of water in almost any direction. So Drzewiecki tried to go back to my original idea of “moving mover”. By turning the nozzle the boat could sink and float, and to turn virtually on the spot. In case of need in case of a leak the same jet engine can be used as a powerful bilge pump. Undoubtedly, innovative ideas that were implemented in practice. In 1885, the submarine was tested. Water cannon acted, but the speed was even lower than with an ordinary screw. Not surprisingly, if you know the values of the corresponding efficiency, but in the late nineteenth century engineers only feels possible technical solutions. But the fifth version of the boat has not received approval from “consumers”, for whom the most important criteria was the speed, range and reliability of the weapons.
 
Submarine S. K. Dzhevetsky sample 1881, converted into a ship in 1885 (fourth edition)
 
Submarine S. K. Dzhevetsky sample 1881, converted into a ship in 1885 (the fourth option):
 
1 – battery; 2 – servomotor; 3 – ballast tanks; 4 – moving the load; 5 – chain that can move cargo along the guide rod; 6 – place unit; 7 – prismatic periscope Degenera; 8 – vent pipe; 9 – vertical rudder
 
Built on Nevsky plant in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of around 11 tons Dimensions: length – 6.0 m, width – 1.35 m, height – 1,66 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 12 m. Engine: electric motor, power 1,5 HP, thruster – thruster, the speed of surface/underwater – 3/4 ties. Armament: 2 mines at 32 kg, mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 2 people Converted from serial (third) option in 1884 – 1885 was tested in 1885, for service not accepted. Preserved to the present time, is the exposure CVVM in Saint-Petersburg
 
Despite all the setbacks, Drzewiecki left of its activities. Already in the mid 90-ies of the XIX century, he has tried to save your submarine from the main fault, a very bad weapons. To do this, Drzewiecki tried to “cross” them with another of his invention, perhaps the most famous and rightly bears his name. This is the outer lattice torpedo tubes, lungs and quickly installed on almost any enclosure. However, the increased resistance would only reduce the already negligible speed. Marine Ministry refused this option. And was thus not quite right.
 
It turned out 20 years later, while unfortunate for us, the Russo-Japanese war 1904 – 1905 years. Then the Russian sailors returned: and whether any submarines? Japanese ships fired on and Port Arthur, until he fell, and Vladivostok enough with impunity: fight back gave them only the shore batteries and surface ships, not so often coming to the meeting with a stronger opponent. But submarines could say its weighty word. In 1900, rear Admiral V. K. Vitgeft approached his superiors with a proposal to try to put pressure on the Japanese, pointing to the far East several submarines Dzhevetsky, even in the “bike” version, but armed with torpedoes. Unjustly forgotten Wilhelm Karlovich, who was killed in battle in the Yellow sea, saying it is a fair word about the fact that while the submarines are still unsatisfactory as means of fighting, but they can give the enemy a strong moral impact one fact of its existence and the possibility of a sudden attack from the depths. But sensible proposal has gone largely unnoticed until then, “while the fried cock does not peck”. And with the beginning of hostilities to take action it was too late. However, few truly heroic efforts of our inventors and divers to save the situation deserve a separate discussion.
 
And truly tireless Drzewiecki continued their development in spite of everything. When the serial “Cycling shorts” have already come into operation and their shortcomings became apparent, he offered a completely different version of the submarine, in many respects very advanced.
 
First, it was assumed that a fairly large (surface displacement of 55 tons, underwater – 63 t) will have a combined engine – steam for movement on the surface and an electric motor for scuba diving powered by a 400 batteries. At the same time claimed features looked extremely impressive: the power of “steamboat” 300 HP, electric motor – 100 HP, which in theory could provide the speed to 15 and 10 nodes, respectively. Serious imagined and range, as much as 600 miles on the surface and 30 miles at the “hide and seek”.
 
Underwater podobrany destroyer, 1892.
 
Underwater podobrany destroyer, 1892
 
However, engineers from the Marine Technical Committee has criticized the project (not deservedly so), and in particular characteristics (which turned out to be absolutely right: they managed to achieve only 40 years later). But the author knew the prospect of submarines. And, according to popular tradition, the designer of the submarines took his ideas abroad. In 1892, after a thorough processing of the project taking into account the observations of our sailors, Drzewiecki filed a new option for the competition in France. Now his ship had 190 tons displacement and two steam engines; weapons also doubled and consisted of four lattice torpedo tubes of his own design. The naval Ministry of France commended the work won her the second prize. (This despite the fact that the first was not one.) And by the way, and soon the Frenchman, Lobe built submarine “Narval” (about it we will tell you more), many features of which repeated the project of submarine Dzhevetsky.
 
And Drzewiecki continued to create ideas and projects. In 1897 he gave his famous “vodorodny the destroyer”, in fact, polupodpolno boat with the same combined steam and electric engine. Here, the idea came close to practical implementation: the Marine Ministry gave a positive conclusion, even carried out experiments to test the “water protection”. The designer and his assistants (among whom were the famous theorist and shipbuilder A. N. Krylov) “lick” the drawings and ideas for five years – and, in the end, without avail.
 
This series of failures – at quite sensible ideas – could break anyone. But not Drzewiecki. During the Russo-Japanese war, he managed to finally fulfill the idea of submarines with a combined (gasoline and electric) engine in practice. And this at the age of 60 years old man by the standards! So restless inventor had managed to single-handedly go almost all the way underwater shipbuilding for half a century, from the primitive foot “Podos-cafe” to the almost classical “Mail”. But more about that in a future release.
 
V. KOFMAN

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