In General like anything pioneer isn’t a boat, but all its elements were carefully thought out and executed. Therefore, the “Padonkaf” held in testing for almost six months without any serious accidents, and Drzewiecki (of course, he was the first and only member of the crew) even managed to undermine its dynamite mines the goal, however, is anchored. At the same time, he almost died when he tried to pass on the “Photoscape” under the bottom of the yacht “Eriklik”: depth under it was too small, and the submarine “stuck” on the ground. But in the end, the designer managed to bring to his creation the attention of the chief commander of the black sea fleet, which was sent to the Naval Ministry a request for the construction of several such “SCAF” to protect the coast. (Recall that Russian Navy still suffered from serious limitations imposed on it after the Crimean war, and then broke out a new war with Turkey.) However, very modest driving performance “bike” together with a negligible radius (positional position “Padonkaf” could be no more than half an hour due to the lack of regeneration or air) put an end to Sanchez-tolubeeva intentions of the inventor. But not for long.
“Padonkaf” (the first version of the submarine) S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, 1878
Built on the Blanchard plant in Odessa. Type of construction – single -. The displacement of about 2 t Dimensions: length – 4,5 m, width of about 1.5 m, a height of about 2 m body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 5 m. Engine: muscular strength, veloplivd, propulsion – the propeller, the speed of surface/u/2 uz. Armament: two mines of 25 kg, set on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 1 person was Tested in 1878, adopted not adopted
The Drzewiecki moved from Odessa to St. Petersburg. There are only three years he not only developed but also built a new submarine in a much improved and very original. The crew of the “Underwater mine apparatus” as somewhat clumsily called it, is now composed of four people. They were situated not as undemanding cyclists, and as passengers by type of landlord of the carriage: in pairs, backs to each other. However, these “landowners for a walk” diligently continues to pedal, and each of the pairs of powered own shaft connected to golopristan cunning hinge device. Accordingly, one of the shafts is connected with a screw in the aft end of the body, and the second from “mirror” him in the nose. And this compound was flexible, allowing the feed screw to deviate left and right, thereby replacing the vertical rudder and the bow up and down, functioning in the manner of rudders of depth. “Clever machine” (actually a mechanically very complicated and require a fair amount of culture of manufacture) had to order in French, workshops, Guba, who himself became a famous “underwater breeder”.
Despite a very extravagant system of management and propulsion, she was able to develop muscle-powered speed up to 3 knots – decent March of the pedestrian. For this type of “engine” is an undeniable success. Although the submarine could dive under the water completely, normal mode for it was positional, in which over water was made by a small hexagonal tower with portholes, which could see all four crew members. System air supply was completely Autonomous – potentially hazardous “breathing tube” was absent. Enriched with carbon dioxide “napisany” air is pumped through a caustic soda solution and returned to the compartment. As the oxygen content in the breathing continued to decrease to it from time to time added portions of fresh “gas breathing” of the cylinder. Pumping ballast water became mechanized for that purpose now used a small pump driven from the same main shafts. When submerged the water entered the ballast tank by gravity is the simplest option. At this crucial moment, it was important to efficiently operate the front screw to care under, the water was smooth and falling.
The weapons themselves – the powder charge has not changed, but the method of its application has undergone significant improvements. Disappeared impractical and even dangerous rubber sleeves and gloves. Two-pound (32 kg) charge was placed in special recesses in the front and rear of the turret, closed the outside hinged doors. On the sides of each charge is attached to a rubber cushion filled with air under pressure. These mines could be released from storage from inside the boat; the lifting force of the airbags caused them to emerge, and to bury in the bottom of the target. Clearly, the crew needed a completely piece of work that “means of destruction” is slid along the side of the enemy ship, finding the very boat and its hostile intentions.
In General, submarine Dzhevetsky combined as a carefully researched and highly questionable (such as turning screws, “mounding mines”, a muscular engine, etc.). Reasons and reasons to reject the submarine at the Navy Department, no doubt, would be enough, but the inventor took their measures Vasilevskii complete success.
The tests were carried out in a Silver pond of Palace in Gatchina, not too deep, to risk failure at a dangerous depth, and are distinguished then it is very pure and transparent water. So for all underwater movements of submarines were able to observe the Royal family, is situated on a boat in the center of the pond. The strange ship approached, dove under the boat and surfaced the other side. Gleaming portholes on the dome hatch opened, there appeared Drzewiecki, with a nod bringing Empress Maria Feodorovna, a bouquet of choicest orchids, accompanied by the gift with a solemn: “It is a tribute to Neptune, Your Majesty!”. It is not surprising that such a carefully prepared “military operation” has turned into a complete success. Applause the gallant inventor of steel only a small fraction of a “bonus”. Most importantly, the Emperor Alexander III immediately ordered stationed in the retinue of the Minister of war P. S. Vannovsky to issue an order to build five dozen of these wonderful “devices”. The Royal decision is final; since Russia acquired the first series of submarines in their own and in world history. Not spared the mercy and of the “messenger of Neptune”: personally Drzewiecki received 100 thousand rubles – something under a hundred million at current exchange rate.
“Underwater mine apparatus” (the second version of the submarine) S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, 1879
Built on Nevsky plant in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of about 8 tons Dimensions: length -5,80 m, width 1.22 m, height – 1.83 m. Material of hull: steel. Immersion depth up to 7.5 m. Engine: muscular strength, veloplivd, propulsion – 2 propellers, speed of surface/underwater 1/3 of the bonds. Armament: two mines at 32 kg, mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 4 persons was Tested in 1879, served as the basis for a production version
However, the inventor sought an honest day’s work obtained the prize. Serial submarines, simply numbered from No. 1 to No. 50, has undergone regular improvements. The Drzewiecki himself removed the questionable nose screw; thus didn’t need a front pair of “riders”. Of them only one commander, and immersion and emersion are carried out now by moving along the length of the case two massive loads of 320 kg each. The familiar system “Bauer”, it’s simple and attractive, but, as we already know, too slow to change and threat. Had the hull strengthened to increase the maximum diving depth, so when a possible “failure” had a stock for the withdrawal of boats from “the peak”. Some changed the equipment; thus, a nozzle with shut-off valve for the exchange of waste air to fresh air at periscope depth. Yes, this boat Drzewiecki had an “almost real” periscope with prisms and circular rotation located in a waterproof box, is pulled out of the turret in a submerged state. Quite modern and quite well executed. However, many elements of submarines has remained unsuitable for their actual use in war, for example, the same two-pound mines with their air bags.
However, the boat was built fairly quickly, in 1881, in a system included all five dozen. They were built in the capital, and then went to “consumers.” Most of all, 32, entered the Black sea, another 16 remained in the Baltic, Kronstadt. The last pair were intended for experimentation and testing: one boat placed at the disposal of the Engineering Department, and the second went to the Drzewiecki “to produce further improvements.” One of the Baltic units in 1882, for more than six months were tested already in the sea near Kronstadt, after having been under water a total of nearly 100 hours. Although no serious accidents were avoided, the sailors are well-understood more than the modest capabilities of submarines. In 1891, when the triumphant emergence of “a messenger of Neptune” before the Danish Princess Dagmar and Russian Empress in one person was forgotten, the Navy Department, in whose possession was now of a submarine (previously they remained formally in the Engineering Department as the protection of ports) has made its move. The head of the fleet and the Ministry the General-Admiral Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, brother of the king, especially not stand on ceremony and asked for higher resolution on the “razlomna aforesaid submarines in the scrap metal” due to “unsuitability to protect the ports under modern conditions of war.” (Here it should be noted that the terms of reference of naval warfare over the past decade has certainly changed, but few have touched the problems of submarine attacks.) “Divorce” in a more or less usable condition left four boats, all on the Baltic sea. In addition, on the Black sea from pairs of boat hulls built floating buoy catamaran. Liked the idea, and three more similar structures appeared in the Baltic sea. Of course, it’s quite a sad end for an ambitious project, but I must say, is a foregone conclusion: “underwater bike” is really not suited for war, but money to maintain them and the crews required a considerable.
The third version of the submarine of S. K. Dzhevetsky. Russia, (1881) on which was built the first series of Russian submarines in the quantity of 50 pieces (designation of positions – the author):
Z – pedal drive to rotate a propeller; N – prop; M – swivel propeller; O’, D,L,- the drive from the pedals to the shaft of the screw; L’ – tank water ballast; Q ballast pump; a reservoir of compressed air that serves as a seat for the crew; P – moving goods; D’ – rail for moving goods; With’ – mines with suction cups; S – actuator for ejection min; Z’, F, N’ is the optical tube; 1 – retractable vent pipe; G access hatch;’ – rings for lifting a submarine, And a fore end
Built on Nevsky plant in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of about 5.8 t Dimensions: length – 5,85 m, width 1.20 m, height – 1,70 m body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 12.5 m. Engine: muscular strength, veloplivd, propulsion – 2 propellers, speed of surface/u 0,5/2,5 bonds. Armament: two mines at 32 kg, mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 3 people In 1881 – 1882 he built 50 units (No. 1 – 50), transferred to the Engineering Department for the defense of the ports on the Baltic and Black seas. In 1883 – 1885 it was proposed to re-equip the boat motor, but the project was not approved. In 1891, formally handed over the fleet and then excluded from the lists, with the exception of 4 units (2 for the experiments, 2 – as a study). The fate of the others is not exactly known, the vast majority dismantled in 1892 – 1895 gg. 2 units converted in 1904 in “polupodvale” boats with petrol and kerosene engines. Both are excluded from the lists of 1909
So after skillfully organized triumph Drzewiecki ended up with nothing. The inventor, however, lose courage, and his creativity has not dried up. He knew all the shortcomings of his creation and sought to correct them as quickly and successfully as possible then technique.
In 1883, when his submarines are still operational, the Drzewiecki went on absolutely the right track, proposing to convert the Bicycle into a submarine with the motor. And this project he was able to break through and to put into practice. At the same time, the designer has removed the function of rotation of the other feed screw, reworked under the control of a conventional vertical wheel. The boat became less exotic, but much more maneuverable. But many of the defects of the original draft was only “plaster”. So two heavy differentone of weight (recall that weight over half a ton!) replaced one, moving with the worm gear on the shaft with the cutting. (Also a definite “deja vu”.) However, the weapons were ridiculous and unfit for action, and habitability has not improved: now the lion’s share of the volume of the block was occupied by the batteries. With them, as with electric, there’s been a major trim. “Outlandish equipment” ordered for the future of the Entente allies and the big bosses in electrical engineering, the French, in the face of the world-known company “Breguet”. The order was passed, suddenly, however, the suppliers refused it. Then resilient Drzewiecki designed all the equipment myself, once again proving that he can not only give bouquets Royal ladies. And not just designed and managed to produce, but he did it gracefully and efficiently, for which he received albeit relatively modest, but much more honorable than “the highest pleasure” award at the specialized electrotechnical exhibition.
Two years later, the boat is already the fourth generation is really quite cheerfully went under the motor with a speed up to 4 knots, although its capacity is only slightly higher than “Cycling”, and the range was quite small, despite the many heavy battery “banks”. (For this reason, the displacement has dramatically increased, almost doubled.) However, all this was a result of the inevitable realities of the then prior art. But these reasonable considerations are, of course, did not satisfy the sailors, who again refused to adopt the updated submarines into service.
The failure ended another attempt of the inventor to use electric traction. This time creative designer suggested a truly original option: water-jet propulsion device with a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor. Special originality of the project was the rotating nozzle allows you to direct the flow of water in almost any direction. So Drzewiecki tried to go back to my original idea of “moving mover”. By turning the nozzle the boat could sink and float, and to turn virtually on the spot. In case of need in case of a leak the same jet engine can be used as a powerful bilge pump. Undoubtedly, innovative ideas that were implemented in practice. In 1885, the submarine was tested. Water cannon acted, but the speed was even lower than with an ordinary screw. Not surprisingly, if you know the values of the corresponding efficiency, but in the late nineteenth century engineers only feels possible technical solutions. But the fifth version of the boat has not received approval from “consumers”, for whom the most important criteria was the speed, range and reliability of the weapons.
Submarine S. K. Dzhevetsky sample 1881, converted into a ship in 1885 (the fourth option):
1 – battery; 2 – servomotor; 3 – ballast tanks; 4 – moving the load; 5 – chain that can move cargo along the guide rod; 6 – place unit; 7 – prismatic periscope Degenera; 8 – vent pipe; 9 – vertical rudder
Built on Nevsky plant in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. The underwater displacement of around 11 tons Dimensions: length – 6.0 m, width – 1.35 m, height – 1,66 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 12 m. Engine: electric motor, power 1,5 HP, thruster – thruster, the speed of surface/underwater – 3/4 ties. Armament: 2 mines at 32 kg, mounted on the bottom of the ship when afloat. Crew: 2 people Converted from serial (third) option in 1884 – 1885 was tested in 1885, for service not accepted. Preserved to the present time, is the exposure CVVM in Saint-Petersburg
Despite all the setbacks, Drzewiecki left of its activities. Already in the mid 90-ies of the XIX century, he has tried to save your submarine from the main fault, a very bad weapons. To do this, Drzewiecki tried to “cross” them with another of his invention, perhaps the most famous and rightly bears his name. This is the outer lattice torpedo tubes, lungs and quickly installed on almost any enclosure. However, the increased resistance would only reduce the already negligible speed. Marine Ministry refused this option. And was thus not quite right.
It turned out 20 years later, while unfortunate for us, the Russo-Japanese war 1904 – 1905 years. Then the Russian sailors returned: and whether any submarines? Japanese ships fired on and Port Arthur, until he fell, and Vladivostok enough with impunity: fight back gave them only the shore batteries and surface ships, not so often coming to the meeting with a stronger opponent. But submarines could say its weighty word. In 1900, rear Admiral V. K. Vitgeft approached his superiors with a proposal to try to put pressure on the Japanese, pointing to the far East several submarines Dzhevetsky, even in the “bike” version, but armed with torpedoes. Unjustly forgotten Wilhelm Karlovich, who was killed in battle in the Yellow sea, saying it is a fair word about the fact that while the submarines are still unsatisfactory as means of fighting, but they can give the enemy a strong moral impact one fact of its existence and the possibility of a sudden attack from the depths. But sensible proposal has gone largely unnoticed until then, “while the fried cock does not peck”. And with the beginning of hostilities to take action it was too late. However, few truly heroic efforts of our inventors and divers to save the situation deserve a separate discussion.
And truly tireless Drzewiecki continued their development in spite of everything. When the serial “Cycling shorts” have already come into operation and their shortcomings became apparent, he offered a completely different version of the submarine, in many respects very advanced.
First, it was assumed that a fairly large (surface displacement of 55 tons, underwater – 63 t) will have a combined engine – steam for movement on the surface and an electric motor for scuba diving powered by a 400 batteries. At the same time claimed features looked extremely impressive: the power of “steamboat” 300 HP, electric motor – 100 HP, which in theory could provide the speed to 15 and 10 nodes, respectively. Serious imagined and range, as much as 600 miles on the surface and 30 miles at the “hide and seek”.
Underwater podobrany destroyer, 1892
However, engineers from the Marine Technical Committee has criticized the project (not deservedly so), and in particular characteristics (which turned out to be absolutely right: they managed to achieve only 40 years later). But the author knew the prospect of submarines. And, according to popular tradition, the designer of the submarines took his ideas abroad. In 1892, after a thorough processing of the project taking into account the observations of our sailors, Drzewiecki filed a new option for the competition in France. Now his ship had 190 tons displacement and two steam engines; weapons also doubled and consisted of four lattice torpedo tubes of his own design. The naval Ministry of France commended the work won her the second prize. (This despite the fact that the first was not one.) And by the way, and soon the Frenchman, Lobe built submarine “Narval” (about it we will tell you more), many features of which repeated the project of submarine Dzhevetsky.
And Drzewiecki continued to create ideas and projects. In 1897 he gave his famous “vodorodny the destroyer”, in fact, polupodpolno boat with the same combined steam and electric engine. Here, the idea came close to practical implementation: the Marine Ministry gave a positive conclusion, even carried out experiments to test the “water protection”. The designer and his assistants (among whom were the famous theorist and shipbuilder A. N. Krylov) “lick” the drawings and ideas for five years – and, in the end, without avail.
This series of failures – at quite sensible ideas – could break anyone. But not Drzewiecki. During the Russo-Japanese war, he managed to finally fulfill the idea of submarines with a combined (gasoline and electric) engine in practice. And this at the age of 60 years old man by the standards! So restless inventor had managed to single-handedly go almost all the way underwater shipbuilding for half a century, from the primitive foot “Podos-cafe” to the almost classical “Mail”. But more about that in a future release.
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