ON TOP BEFORE THE FALL

AT THE TOP BEFORE THE FALLA clear success with the development of missile cruisers of the “terrible”, in fact, the rocket ships of a new type, clearly required further development. However, before the “continuation of the Banquet” was a significant obstacle. We already talked about the fact that originally it was planned to build ten units, but the program rolled out to four. To a large extent this was due to the change in the direction of shipbuilding. Among the big surface ships in the first place came the anti-submarine cruiser, in fact a helicopter. In the absence of aircraft carriers even modest-sized “Moscow” and “Leningrad” at once were among the most valuable combat units. Of course, require additional care.

Here is the assignment and began designing a new variant of missile submarine, designated project 1134. (At the same time in connection with the new trends he had received and the nominal marking “the eagle”). It was assumed that these rather large “askitiki” can operate in the ocean, defending the “helicopter womb” from all sorts of attacks from under water, from the surface and from the air.

To counter the threat, the enemy aircraft a new type of decided to equip anti-aircraft missile complex “Storm” – the same weapon that carried themselves a helicopter. To reflect the surface forces of the enemy was checked cruise missiles P-35, tested on “formidable”. However, if in the 58th project, they, of course, was the chief weapon, in the case of escorts felt that they would be used only in rare occasions. Therefore, the “halved” and the total number of launchers, and the control channels, leaving only two. As a result, “Berkut” could only shoot dvuhnitochnyj volleys are clearly inadequate to defeat any serious purpose, especially in terms of active anti-radar struggle. Later among the officers there were craftsmen, nalivshiesya to shoot a full volley of 4 missiles, controlled by a regular radar, but only on direct radar visibility.

 

However, according to the idea of designers substantial assistance to the operators on the ship could have a helicopter, this time normally. In the version of targeting it could broadcast to the ship “picture” from your locator where you can select a target and automatically enter the coordinates into the control system of the rocket just before launch. System, for 60 years very advanced, but not the most reliable in the changing modern naval battle.


In addition, the only helicopter claimed not only the missile, but protivolodochnyi – with your option of weapons and equipment. Required to guess what equipment and ammunition necessary to take in a particular case. Most likely, in real military terms, each ship would have to “work” with what was on Board at the time of publication of the hike. But the main trouble came with the anti-aircraft complex.

The development of the “Storm” came very late. Was a long wait for new weapons, or use old. Took the second option turned out to be quite reasonable (really the “Storm” was adopted only in 1969, when all 4 units have already been built), but the “guard” proved to be less armed than the ships which it was intended to protect. Tested the “Wave” could hit air targets only at a distance of direct visibility and is suited mainly for defense, although the two paired installation and looked very impressive. For sharpened by the attack of a 58-x new cruiser was too weak “partner” in the sense of striking power, and “Moscow” and “Leningrad” almost better defend themselves from air attacks alone. Finally put an end to sharing “wise” distribution of newcomers to the fleet. Three of the four 1134 x came on and the theater, while their potential “clients” of the cruiser-helicopter carrier of the first appeal was based in southern waters, and “terrible” either there or in the far East.

 

All this has contributed to some strange classifications: entry into operation of the “newcomers” were the military – industrial complex “large anti-submarine ships” category, under which the Soviet Navy got all the major escort ships, including “singing frigates” project 61, which had more anti-aircraft “accent”. But in 1979, the “Cross” (as it called 1134-nd NATO) attributed to missile cruisers. In principle, the size of “eagles” was appropriate for such claims even though the decision was made “for solidity” to have the fleet as many cruisers.

 

(Note that our sailors went to this strange race classifications after the main “potential enemy”: the same way the Americans did with their rocket destroyers, a few years earlier).

Most of the shortcomings of the first series, mainly related to the late arrival of new types of weapons, managed to eliminate the second, the designation 1134А or “Berkut”. Retaining the same displacement, the ship has become a real cruiser. He finally got the long-awaited “Storm” that allowed you to shoot both air and surface targets, including hiding behind the horizon. Their guidance served more than jamming radar “Sunrise”. Universal was the anti-submarine complex “the Bell” that replaced the purely antisubmarine “Blizzard”. For the first time in our Navy sonar, a new “Titan-2”, placed in the nose bulb fairing. Because of this, had to put the anchors ahead to when they are cast as not to damage the fragile structure, and having increased so much nakloneny the stem. However, as a result, the ship received a graceful sweeping. Improved and the basing of the helicopter: its flight deck lifted, because the first 1134-x, she would have been filled with water. Basically, the ship turned out pretty good. That’s only in the cruiser to get him formally was not necessary due to the lack of special attack missile weapons. (In the West for such one time took starting containers, which were universal anti-submarine missile-torpedoes). However, formally oboznacheniya until the end of the service as a BOD, “the eagle-A” possessed considerable power, in no way inferior to the American colleagues in this class of those years, and with a certain right we can include it in the “cruising” review.

The story of the project is not completed. Another step on the path to modernity managed to make the third of the series 1134-x, “the eagle-B”. They became first of all replace the steam turbine propulsion system of modern gas turbines. Soviet designers used a combination of propulsion (for economic progress) and “afterburning” turbine, which at full speed can work at the same time, developing a third more power than its predecessors. GTU has enabled much faster in just a few minutes, to score the highest speed and, if necessary, rapidly slow down and change direction by reversing. However, new business is not without a few spoonfuls of tar. One of them is an unpleasant fact associated with the fact that when working only propulsion turbines, ships could develop too modest speed of about 15 knots. As a result, had the majority of hikes with the “companions” of other types all the time to run the main turbine. (Greetings from the German light cruisers of type “K” times of the 1930-ies with their low-power cruising diesels).

Another questionable decision was the huge pipe for the exhaust, in principle, it is not necessary for turbine installation. The reason was the attempt of the designers to get rid of thermal radiation, can become a convenient point of pickup to missiles with infrared homing. It was assumed that the temperature of the output stream will be able to significantly reduce due to the huge cross section of the outlet of the “gas pipe”. (It is interesting that such homing was interested just in our fleet but while Americans are not particularly concerned about coming out from the pipes of their ships “warm”). By increasing the power of the mechanisms and regular (not too large) increase in the tonnage managed once again to enhance the combat capabilities. Two paired “storms” was added two units of anti-aircraft missiles short-range “Wasp” in the original installations omit, brings to mind the old days hiding in the Barbet guns. Here, too, PU “hiding” in the cellar, getting another pair of missiles, and then quickly moved above the deck in readiness for the next volley. Intensified and artillery armament is 57-mm guns last “Berkut” received automatic 76 graph paper. For close defense against aircraft and cruise missiles there was a 30-mm multi-barrel AK-630, the Soviet equivalent of the “Volcano” that transcends the “American” in almost all respects. In the end, despite the overall similar appearance, 1134-B was very different from his not too successful progenitor. It is understood and NATO members, honored some of its designations – “Kara”.

However, the gradual removal from the “real” missile cruisers was there: and “Berkut” and “Berkut-B” was indeed the escort ships in the American spirit, intended primarily for air defense and anti-submarine warfare. Their anti-ship, the more impact the ability remained quite modest; they, of course, could defend, but to destroy the aircraft carrier – hardly. And here in the mid-1970s, Soviet designers started a new project, which received a numerical designation code 1164 “Atlant”. To save time and money took the constructive solutions developed at 1134-B. This applies to both the case and power plants. To increase economic progress in propulsion turbines used a special heat recovery circuit – TUK, which allowed to raise it to 18 knots. However, this gas turbine has become not only very sophisticated but also very complex. Engineers have also proposed to increase the thickness of the skin to in General is very modest for a long 8 years. (Recall, for example, the American cruiser of the Second world with them two to three times more solid lining). However, even this measure will significantly increase the life of the body – an important factor from the point of view of marine Finance. However, the displacement of the new ship has increased by almost a third, but he now could reasonably be considered a cruiser.


And arms fully consistent with the classification. The strike force was provided by 16 missiles P-500 “Bazalt”, capable of hitting targets at a distance of 500 km. However, when using sophisticated guidance systems that receive data from satellites and from aircraft – long-range scouts, T-95, and from its own helicopter. But the cruiser of the project 1164 can give full volley with individual guidance in all the sixteen missiles, and it was believed that almost any air defense system and electronic warfare of the enemy will not be able to prevent the “leak” at least three of them. This would be enough even for any of the largest US aircraft carrier, which was the main goal of the new Soviet cruiser.

 

AT THE TOP BEFORE THE FALL

But he could not only attack, but to fend for themselves. In the stern was located launcher missile “anti-aircraft guns of Fort” a very original design. 64 rockets were placed in drums for 8 pieces hidden under the deck. After each start-up through a special hatch this revolving drum is turned so that under the hatch was the next “bullet”. In principle, the system resembles the American cell vertical launch, though considerably more complicated in design and, most importantly, is not universal. However, it is worth remembering that it was created early utilitarian overseas “SOT”.

Complement “the Fort” two units of SURE short-range “OSA-M”. Quite powerful by modern standards and can be considered artillery: coaxial 130-mm automatic installation of radar capable of for a minute or two to turn into a sieve, the ship of medium size. And six 30-mm mnogestva AK-630M, United in pairs with a stand-alone guidance system should be pretty good with the aircraft and cruise missiles. Deserves respect and anti-submarine weapons, it seems, are purely for the shock side of the ship. In contrast to the American 324 mm “vitulka”, we have the Navy continued to use the 533-mm torpedoes, very unpleasant not only for submarines but also for surface ships. Provided they are also quite modern hydroacoustic equipment, including unique hydroacoustic station with two antennas in the forward Bulba and towed unit.

Unfortunately, almost traditionally, a new weapon failed to catch up with designers and shipbuilders, therefore, developed in 1974 Atlant managed to lay only in 1976. And came into operation headache “Glory” even six years later, Recalling the state of Affairs in the Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese and 1st World wars. Hastily created overseas “Ticonderoga” joined the US Navy after only a year. It is clear that the Americans managed to take better account of all the scientific and technological innovations. Even more pleased that our missile cruisers could compete with similar units of the “potential enemy”. “If” – if not the absolute loss in the economy and subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union. Before the tragic end, the great powers managed to build only three ships. Americans, as we know, more than 20. In addition, the cruiser of the project 1164 had its Achilles ‘ heel – the only radar “Wave” to illuminate the purposes of the anti-aircraft complex “Fort”. Its rejection or scrapping of weapons the enemy leaves the ship, if not naked, then at least protection from the dangerous air direction.


More successful than the Soviet Union competed with the United States in the field of creation of nuclear cruisers. Introduced in the 1960s overseas firstborn – “long beach” – did not give rest to our admirals. Since 1968, was considered a variety of projects: originally it was supposed to create a small ship, with a displacement of about 8000 tons, like the Americans, the prestigious nuclear cruiser swelled in the eyes for a variety of reasons, from the purely technical to the desire to fit in as much combat power. The result was “Orlan”, or project 1144, full load approaching the good old battleships. There’s nothing you can say, a real “heavy” cruiser.

Formidable impact weapon steel new protocoalele missiles “Granit”. They are already on the head “Kirov” had several guidance systems, from conventional radar with the use of powerful highly placed naval radar to Autonomous radiation of enemy radar. (It was considered that this option would be particularly effective against the new American ships with the system “aegis”, a powerful work which is difficult to disguise). Also provided for transmission of television images from the rocket that helped to adjust her flight in the case of particularly strong interference or creating false targets. In addition, the “Granite” had a unique for anti-ship missiles with a velocity exceeding more than 2.5 times the speed of sound. This allowed me to not worrying too much about bringing in the middle portion of the trajectory: the missile overcame the “middle field” so quickly that target could not escape capture. More than impressive and looked the part of a huge battle semitones missiles. In addition to the traditional nuclear warheads (up to 350 kilotons), and provided “non-nuclear” variant weighing about a ton, most of which were explosive. Thinking about the possibility of the use of P-500 against shore targets, for which the warhead was filled with about 750 striking elements – armor piercing, high explosive and incendiary in any set. In General, even in the non-nuclear version power 20 missiles, by the way, located in the inner mines in front of the body, as on the same “Ticonderoga” (though not quite vertically but at an angle of 60 degrees) was impressive. The power of this light of the new explosives had been unprecedented in Maritime history, leaving behind the largest artillery shells Japanese and American battleships of world war II. In subsequent units of project 1144.2 management system has undergone further improvement: now after the missile could not follow: they ruled their flight themselves! One of the missiles, “the gunner,” flying at high altitude, suggests the rest. If it was hit by enemy air defenses, the baton was picked up the next one. Given the high speed of flight and the masses of the chances to destroy this terrible “shell” for light missiles and shells, the U.S. air defense systems were very slim.

Too expensive and precious to “disposable” ship to “store” tried to give more stability. To do this, even had to revive the production of ship armor – art, firmly forgotten since the 1950-ies. The protection scheme is reminiscent of “box” construction of the first of the Washington cruisers. Quite understandably, the classic “linkory” variant with the armored citadel would have raised the displacement to an unacceptable level, and antenna and equipment in the cutting and add-ons you’d still be vulnerable.

From the main enemy (air) cruiser covered solid umbrella with three “domes”. At long range comes in the missile complex “Fort” that have passed through his zone of action of the aircraft or the missiles were transferred to the jurisdiction of ZORO “CCA”, “cleaned up” the remains of the 30-mm multi-barrel machine guns. On the last cruiser series, “Peter the Great”, the possibility of air defense has increased considerably due to entering into service the new rocket complexes. OSU replaced completely automatic, not requiring in the process of shooting, reloading, and control of human intervention, “Dagger”, and 30-mm guns – a unified missile and artillery complex “Dirk”, is able to produce per minute up to ten thousand 30-mm projectiles and eight short-range missiles. Both weapons had no analogues in the world. Excellent defensive qualities were supplemented with powerful anti-submarine weapon: it “Kirov” at some point of a long process of creation was intended as the lone ocean hunter nuclear submarines! From this application the huge cruiser in the end refused, but he and his companions were the most powerful ships of the PLO by the Soviet Union.

In General, the Soviet nuclear missile cruiser quite confidently claim to be the most powerful warships in history, of course, excluding carriers whose power is to them carried by the air group. Our designers here were “ahead of the rest”, but a costly one. A huge ship with the nuclear installation proved to be truly Golden. And built 1144-e in the period of the incipient crisis in the country. The first three units were commissioned with an interval of four years; however, the Navy managed to get away from the “protracted” even some benefit through the continuous improvement of equipment and weapons. But then came the collapse of the country, with consequences for all its institutions, including for the Navy. The latest in the series, “Peter the Great”, was not a Soviet but a Russian ship since commissioning. Unfortunately, it currently remains the only representative of the nuclear cruisers, the rest are under repair or laid up. However, the latest plans call for their commissioning by 2020, with a significantly upgraded weapons and equipment. It remains to wait and hope that Russia will again become the owner of a unique atomic cruising fleet.

V. KOFMAN

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