“SUBMARINES” IN INFANCY

The idea of the hidden attacks of the enemy on the water appeared almost simultaneously with the emergence of military courts. The desire is understandable: a sudden attack could even the odds is weak compared with the obviously more powerful enemy. Night actions, the use of disguise and another flag for convergence followed a decisive volley or boarding why not just take resourceful sailors. But all receptions of this kind was a typical Amateur. So the temptation to have the technical means to “secret rendezvous” and the strike is more than understandable, as well as persistent search for ways, how is the desire to exercise.

Don’t need to be an expert sailor to figure out what is the most promising attack from under the water. Indeed, if the attacker is not visible, is not so important the number of guns, torpedo launchers, and even missiles. Underwater vessel threatened to become a real “wonder weapons”, but creating long centuries remained an unrealizable dream. From the idea to its realization in life was, perhaps, the greatest quest of all combat vehicles of the fleet.
 
Centuries of work on the creation of “secret courts” was on practically the same scheme. Another inventor, who suffered a “brilliant idea” on this subject (often, indeed, very curious), looking for a powerful, and, most importantly, a rich patron. Sometimes, if the “sponsor” had intelligent advisers, the project was rejected at the earliest stage, in the best case remained a “picture” or description. But if the powers that be covered the excitement to get hold of unique means of warfare, all were beaten on the track: built models, developed drawings (on papyrus, parchment, paper), and then started building. But pretty soon the inventor, it became clear that his offspring are unlikely to be able to securely sink and float, not to mention how to move under water and use weapons.
The reason for the failure was the technological inability to create an underwater vessel at this stage of technological development. To this ship to function properly, you need many conditions. First of all, it should have the following features: located – at will, and, more importantly, the desire to emerge; to navigate under water, even with low speed by the motor, capable of operating under water; still it was necessary to ensure the conditions of habitability of the crew, which, at least, had to breathe; and, finally, needed a weapon that can reliably and suddenly hit the target, while not sending to the bottom the very submarine.
 
To solve these problems was needed, and special materials, and special methods of their processing and, eventually, a certain level of development of a science as physics. Although the law of Archimedes, known from ancient times, a more narrow issues of scuba diving is not so trivial and with the scientific and technological sides. And their solution was the slightest possible starting from the mid-nineteenth century.
 
 
“Secret vessel” E. Nikonova (Russia, 1725) – reconstruction.
Built at the shipyard of the Galley island in St. Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. Approximate dimensions: length of about 6.5 m, a width of about 2.15 m, height (without cabin)-2,15 m hull Material: wood 50 mm thick, upholstered in leather. Diving depth -up to 4 – 5 m. Engine: muscular strength, paddles. Weapons: incendiary tubes and the diver-“the saboteur”. Crew: 4 people.
 
Legend:
 
1 – permeable part of the body; 2 – work compartment; 3 – rotary compartment for the diver; 4 – strong add-on; 5 – door; 6 – door airlock; 7 – hatch for sea diver; 8 – ballast tank “tin Board with the hair holes” for even filling; 9 – vent pipe; 10 – pump draining ballast tanks; 11 – solid ballast; 12,13 and 14 – valves flooding and draining airlock; 15 paddles; 16 portholes in the wheelhouse; 17 – steering; 18 – rocket (“fire tube”)

 
Previous attempts were doomed in advance, and many of them were only vague indirect references. But some of the most famous and brilliant we describe below.
 
The British, of course, believe that the first inventor of the underwater vessel was “their man.” We are talking about the William Bourne, a contemporary of Queen Elizabeth and the Spanish great Armada. It is to repel the invasion of gun master in the Royal Navy offered an interesting project, containing the most important structural elements of the submarine. In the first place – like ballast tanks, which formed a “leaky” outer Board and leather inner. The volume freely poured in this space of water was regulated by a large clamping screws are able to “squeeze” water out “tanks”. The idea itself is quite brilliant, but just as unrealistic material. The tightness of the inner side because the screws would hardly be able to provide, even in our days.
 
Another outstanding finding was the hollow mast, in which the inside of the case could free flow of fresh air. So about the year 1570 there was a project predecessor “snorkel,” and the British could claim to superiority, unless, of course, forget about the ancient warriors, breathing under water through the stalk of the cane.
 
Bourne wished to present their project personally to Her Majesty. On further history is silent, but the gallant sailors of Drake and Frobisher went without his “submarine” – because to build it in practice, simply not possible.
 
Again the idea of the ballast tanks surfaced (at least, in the extant sources) only after 100 years. Italian Giovanni Borelli proposed a much more complex and less feasible. The gist of it was that the hold was loaded with “upright” weight of the skins, the top of which is firmly tied with a rope, and a bottom opened freely in the water. According to the author, the ascent amount of bound water could decrease, forcing the water out of the skins back into the sea or river. It is indeed possible to try to do, but the amount received in such “ballast tanks” of water in the case styles limited the variety of gas laws, which had not been open: tied at the top wineskins never be filled with water completely.
However, it does not hurt to try to implement his plan in practice. It took another 70 years, when in the middle of the 18th century, the Englishman Nathaniel Simmons, whether acquainted with the treatise Borelli, whether reaching with his mind, built on the Thames a submarine equipped with very similar skins in the shape of the bottle. He has provided the propulsion – paddles, passed through the Board with seals made of leather, coated with a special lubricant. The same skin was covered and the entire exterior of the boat from above. In principle, this construction could take, and even go several meters under water before the water would have taken its toll. However, the most careful historians before the word “constructed” add “probably”: it is unlikely that this project managed to bring to the testing stage.
 
And born as the first European. “submariner” recognize not all. More widely believed that such was the Dutch “master, philosopher and chemist” Cornelius van Drebbel, although it is likely that he could see bornowski project because it was born just when Bourne was required to submit his “brilliant ship” Queen Elizabeth. Document and support the creation of Dutch is extremely poor – the only letter to Robert Boyle (one of the authors of most of those gas laws, the second, as you know MARRIOTT), written already 28 years after the death of Drebbel, which contains a description of the submarine of the Dutch, of course, without any drawings. Interest except that the immersion: flat nose “boats” was supposed to seduce her under the water, when she gave the course. As a “philosopher” the idea of him was prompted by observation of the baskets with the fish at the stern of trawlers who went under water on the go. That’s just to load such a large object, the speed required is very solid, but in fact for the intended movement all the same paddle. Another “highlight” of the project was a means for breathing. Here the role played by some other kind of Drabble – Khimik: he’s invented some kind of “fifth substance”, which allowed people to breathe underwater. Some even hinted that he was able to identify oxygen – for 150 years before Priestley and Steele. Much later, historians of chemistry have brought “the invention substance” …ordinary air freshener. Indeed, it is easy to imagine what would be the smell in the submarine, where the cramped space would have actively worked the oars ten healthy guys who do not know baths. So, the achievement of Dribble chemist deserves a mention – unless, of course, it took place not only on paper, which, as we know, can endure.
 
Another reconstruction of the appearance of the vessel E. Nikonov (the original
 
Another reconstruction of the appearance of the vessel E. Nikonov (the original “small model”)
 
However, one of the representatives “of the country fine elegance” suggested alternative “to the men with oars.” During the first Anglo-Dutch war in the mid 17th century French inventor De Dream issued the vessel with a mechanical drive in the form of huge springs that set in motion the wheels on the sides of the hull. Periodically this spring should have had, but, in principle, such labor seemed preferable to rowing oars. The Frenchman wisely considered that it is not necessary to completely bury their creation beneath the water: it is enough to have absorbed its most important parts, while remaining invulnerable. In General, his boat looked pretty elaborate, like the fusiform shape of the body, and the choice of weapons. They served a hefty beam running along the center of the hull from bow to stern, speaking out in the form of wrought iron battering RAM.
 
And again, an interesting idea came upon insufficient knowledge of the laws of physics. According to initial estimates was that for the factory springs will be enough half-hour work of two people every 8 hours. And on the stocks of the giant mechanism really “worked like clockwork”. But as soon as the boat fell into the water of the river Meuse in October, 1653, immediately it became clear that to move in her she can’t! And down the drain went all the optimistic statements made by De Sona, promised “to walk to London and back in one day, dropping the course on the bottom of a hundred British ships.” But at least, unlike submarines van Drebbel sosnowska really was authentically built and tested.
 
However, the British did not recognize the superiority of the French mechanics in scuba diving because there is no evidence that his boat actually sank. According to them, the real story of the submarine began much later, in June 1774. And, of course, the first real submarine was the Englishman. We are talking about John Day, who have altered a small boat with a waterproof camera located inside of it and the descriptions, plunged into the waters of the Bay in Suffolk for the whole day, well then rising to the surface. However, the most sensible researchers believe that the boat was simply left to the will of the tide, which covered it with water layer thickness of 10 m. In any case, if the above is true at least in this version, the success of Dai’s undeniable: he managed to seal my camera long enough that she could keep the water pressure about 1 ATM.
 
However, this experienced dive was only the first step towards creating a real underwater ship. This required considerable funds. “Sponsor”, whose role was performed by a professional player Christopher Blake, was a practical man and made a day to make the present terms of reference, which specified and depth (20 fathoms, more than 35 m), and time spent under water (12 hours). The inventor got the money, which bought a small 10-meter sloop “Maria” and started to rebuild at the shipyard in Plymouth. Waterproof “rugged case” was a wooden chamber with a length of approximately 4 m, a width of slightly less than 3 m and a height of about 2.3 m. For pressure containment walls were supported by massive timbers, and for entry of “crew” in the roof were made very durable, Luke, also made of wood. Immersion and emersion looked utterly primitive, but also reliable. Under water, the submarine went through loaded in the “light body” ballast from a fair amount of boulders weighing 20 tons For ascent was enough to push some of the stones with iron arm passing inside “logging” through a watertight seal. For communication with observers on the surface provided for the three buoys of different colors from the “safe” white to black emergency. Prudent day loaded inside the camera hammock, a watch, a small candle, some food and water and got into “submarine” himself.
 
Fully prepared “Mary” was towed 300 m from the shore in the Plymouth Bay where the depth was a solid 40-m mark. For the dip observed not only Blake, who is very interested in possible future profits, but was then in the port of the First Lord of the Admiralty Sandwich (the inventor of the sandwich).
 
Maria happily went under the water with a small trim by the stern. But soon more than a risky experiment ended tragically: the water on the dive spot like boil on bubbles – wooden camera couldn’t handle the pressure of a 40-meter water column, very solid even for steel submarines the beginning of the XX century. Dey was killed – neither his body nor the “Mary” could not be found, despite a three-day search. In the end, he made history as the first “submariner”, whose dip and death was officially documented. The construction day special of no interest because of its primitiveness. “Maria” would have been unlikely to emerge, because to lose a few tons of stones with metal “stick” – the problem is extremely difficult for one person. However, at this depth the inventor himself, he is the only member of the crew was doomed. Strength of wooden camera’s rectangular shape could not be enough for the 40-m depth, not to mention sealing the hole for the “ballast train”. Besides, Gaevskaya “submarine” did not carry any weapons, but she would not be able to use it as they had no means of moving either in the water or along the bottom. In any case, it all respects is inferior to another option, which appeared, incidentally, half a century before.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Tarts” (USA, 1776) – on the reconstruction of 1875
Built on the river Hudson. Type of construction – single -. Dimensions: length about 2 m, a width of about 1.2 m, height – about 2 m. case Material: wood. Immersion depth 3 – 4 m. Engine: muscular strength, screw. Arms: powder charge installed on the enemy ship. Crew: 1 person
 
Submarine “Tarts” – reconstruction of the metal according to the above embodiment. Is kept in the Museum of diving in England

 
Yes, indeed, has not remained aloof from the “underwater proektirovania” and our domestic craftsmen. We are talking about the first Russian “secret ship” Moscow carpenter Yefim Nikonov. The idea came to light just in time, in the late period of the reign of Peter I, a great lover of all sorts of innovations. However, the first petition Nikonov sent to the court in 1718, remained unanswered. But carpenter was insistent: the following year, he dictated another message in the name of the king-priest the scribe, as he was illiterate. Peter has ordered the inventor to St. Petersburg and personally spoke with him. The meeting resulted in order to build for the beginning a working model, “hiding from someone else’s eye”, and he Nikonov was appointed “master secret courts”, that is to say the chief engineer.
 
“Small copy” built over a year. The tests took place in the summer of 1720; the results accurate reports left, but it is clear that they were, to put it mildly, not too successful. However, the master was allowed and even ordered to build the “secret fire ship big body”, which laid on the galley yard next summer in an atmosphere of secrecy.
 
From Nikon the submarine, as well as from many of its foreign contemporaries, there was not a drawing, nor even any full description. The pictures presented here, nothing short of reconstruction, mostly honouring fantasy enthusiasts, collecting bits and pieces built into the project ideas of the few surviving documents. In principle, the ship Nikonov can be considered quite “advanced”. It was quite an interesting system of immersion and emersion, which was located in the lower part of the hull ballast tank in the upper part connecting with the crew compartment vent pipes. Secret controlled dip lay in the “pewter plates with the hair holes” and through them the water came very slowly. The air is gradually forced out in an airtight main room until, until the pressure there is balanced water pressure. After that, the boat has received a neutral buoyancy at a shallow depth, which is to be controlled through the Windows in the wheelhouse. For surfacing, the water from the ballast tank suction hand pump. The motion of the water was provided with oars, as in most similar projects of the time.
Problems arose with the weapons. The original inventor intended to use conventional gunpowder cannons, but quickly made sure to shoot them out of the water completely impossible. Then artillery was replaced… diver. The suit was developed for him all the same creative Nikonov. The diver had to surface right under enemy’s vessel and to take measures to “drill and the ignition” of the foe. So the submarine turned into a media sea of saboteurs, but again, only in theory. In the end Nikon the ship became “fire”: it was supposed to provide him ten copper pipes filled “gunpowder and saltpeter”. The boat had to sneak up on the enemy and spit out a jet of fire at him. I must say that the breadth of ideas of a simple carpenter is simply amazing.
 
However, all this had yet to be implemented. Built in three years, the ship was tested in the presence of Peter himself. The very first dive proved fatal: a stone boat went to the bottom, and hit with such force that it broke the bottom. The depth was small, and pulled it on shore to repair the damage. King, known for a sharp temper, reacted to failure calmly and more than fair, ordered him to continue working and putting to the inventor of the “no embarrassment in wine is not put”.
 
It is difficult to say whether there is still such a good attitude Peter after the second failure, especially after the Nikonov an honest recognition that to act as he promised the Tsar, the ship can not. But by the spring of 1725, the Emperor died. Oddly enough, but even in the absence of high-patron, the inventor has provided an opportunity to continue the work. Only after another debacle in 1727 frustrated “secret vessel” hid in the barn, where it quietly rotted. The inventor himself demoted from masters, was sent to Astrakhan shipyard a simple carpenter.
 
History has not preserved a clear description of the creation of Efim Nikonov. The reconstruction is based on the mention of participation in the work of Bocharov and requested materials, which included 15 iron bars with a width of 2.5 inches. Hence the form in the form of a huge barrel, while, according to others, the nose of the creations wizard, resembled a typical bow. Hard to say, and how to the reality recreated equipment, among other things, which included most of the elements of “real” submarines later times. In any case, failure is undoubtedly ahead of its time and something of the genius of carpenter was predetermined by imperfection of the used materials and technologies.
 
But in General, the validity of acts of the Russian submarine pioneer little inferior, if inferior at all, the reality of “feats” internationally recognized by the overwhelming majority of “votes” of the inventor David Bushnell. His name is usually associated the first submarine attack, and even successful! In fact, the story is not so simple and deserves a closer look.
 
Bushnell, an ardent patriot had just declared their independence of the United States, began his career as a specialist in underwater explosions. The result of his observations is now obvious conclusion that the action of gunpowder under water is much stronger than on its surface or in the air. And eventually it occurred to him that it would be a great step to create a “diving machine” that can deliver and secure explosive charge under the goal. The explosion of this “infernal machine” was certainly put to the bottom of even a large ship, which lacked the former “mistress” of the colonies, Britain, whose Navy blockaded the coast and major ports newly formed country.
 
The submarine, conceived by Bushnell, was shaped like a coconut, or, by his own definition, two tortoise shell joined together. Hence the name – “Titl”, – “turtle” (turtle). Long believed that the “turtle” body made of copper, but it’s not documented. In fact, boat Bushnell resembled a barrel of ordinary tarred staves intercepted by iron hoops. The dimensions are also consistent with the “barrel”. At a height of about 2 m, length of “from nose to tail” (i.e., from the front screw to the back of the steering wheel) a little more than 2 m and width (or, if desired, the diameter) of about one meter inside the facility were able to squeeze the space contained a lot needed for scuba diving devices: two handles, rotating the two screws, one of which was to move the “turtle” in the horizontal direction, and the second up and down. In addition, in the lower part there was a ballast tank is a tank for a quick dip, but to him – a couple of small pumps for pumping water for the ascent, resembling a rather large Bicycle pumps. The top wheel is of the usual form, speaking through the ball “Apple” where this strange device was “poop” and breathing tube, plus the necessary change: barometer, compass, and seat for the “submariner”. The head is the only member of the crew barely fit in a kind of “cockpit”. Thus, the “Titl” is not even fully a submarine; rather, it will fit the term “submersible apparatus”.
 
Even at first glance it is obvious that the American version is largely inferior “potaennogo the ship” Nikonov. Although, as in the case of the brainchild of a Russian carpenter, drawings busalacchi “nut” is actually not preserved. The most common image reproduced here, the “creative reconstruction” of a US Navy Lieutenant Barbera created as much as one hundred years later, in 1875! That did not stop major gray to reproduce a drawing of Barbera in the metal in the form of the model “Turtle” stored in the British Museum scuba diving. Hefty fantastic reconstruction is still a matter of controversy on the topic, what exactly had caused the submarine to move. Some historians argue that it was a simple paddle, others insist on conventional wheels with blades. But any of these options are actually more intelligent than the canonical two Archimedean screws, which when rotating their muscular force of one person on the case are unlikely to be able to move the “cocoon”.
 
But regarding the weapons debate is much less. The basis of it was separating powder charge. That’s about his weight disputes fairly abundant. So, in the diary of brother Bushnell, Erza Yale who participated in the project with money and advice, says as much as about 2000 pounds (908 kg) of gunpowder. Indeed, a similar charge can be raised into the air with a big wooden ship! However, by all indications, is pure fantasy. (Well, if “cuts” will be limited to only one zero.) What all agree on is the system of bringing the charge to the action of a clockwork mechanism: it is a modern solution, but for the time of the war of independence of the United States – very exotic. Mounted charge had the gimlet, which is pre-screwed into the wooden hull of the enemy ship all the same “universal submariner”.
 
Interestingly, even when “underwater egg” was under construction and testing, information about a secret weapon made up enemies – the British. On the development of the Bushnell learned a lot, because he deemed it necessary to inform the infamous Benjamin Franklin, hoping to enlist his support. As a result, the news migrated to the British, and directly from the United States Congress. In the end, the end of 1775, the British Governor of new York William Tryon received a report that in Boston Harbor is about to be used submarine. However, the attack had to wait long and there it is much closer to the residence of Tryon. While “turtle” was built, the military situation for the Americans deteriorated rapidly. Brothers Busnelli moved the boat up the Hudson river, and personally to George Washington, who at that time was trying to protect new York from the British, gave permission to use this “ACE in the hole” against the huge British fleet lying in the harbour of new York. As the goal of the brothers, not a small thing, chose the flagship battleship Admiral Howe Eagle. And here the evening of 6 September 1776 in “Tarts” loaded Sergeant Ezra Lee, who replaced another Erzu, brother of the inventor, it is not time (or, on the contrary, at the time) suddenly sick of “fever”, and the boat went to the first ever submarine attack.
 
The project of the underwater vessel W. Bourne (England, 1578). Type of construction - polutorospalnye. Motor: muscular strength, paddles. Was not sold
 
The project of the underwater vessel W. Bourne (England, 1578). Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Motor: muscular strength, paddles. Hasn’t been realized
 
Underwater vessel De son (France, 1653). Type of construction-single -. Engine: spring, wheel. Weapons: battering RAM. Built and tested
 
Underwater vessel De son (France, 1653). Type of construction-single -. Engine: spring, wheel. Weapons: battering RAM. Built and tested
 
The project of the underwater vessel Simons (England, 1747). Type of construction - single -. Motor: muscular strength, paddles. Armament: unknown. The idea of
 
The project of the underwater vessel Simons (England, 1747).
Type of construction – single -. Motor: muscular strength, paddles. Armament: unknown. The idea of “ballast tanks” of this type was first proposed in France Borelli in 1680. The project is not implemented
 

The submarine
 
Submarine “Nautilus” (France, the United States, 1800).
Built on the enterprise of the brothers Perrier in Paris. Type of construction – single -. Dimensions: length-6,48 m, width-about 2 m. body Material: wood, sheathed with copper. Immersion depth up to 8 m. Engine: in the surface position – the sail, the submarine – muscular strength, screw. Weapons (in the project, not really tested): powder charge installed on the enemy ship, and then towed a mine (“torpedo”). Crew: 4 people.
Designations:
1 – folding mast with a sail; 2 – drill for fixing a powder charge on the enemy ship; 3 – anchor; 4 – dip wheels; 5 – the valve of flooding; 6 – hand-drive screw

 
Underwater vessel
 
Underwater vessel “Mary” (England, 1774).
Project D. Dai, was built in Plymouth. Type of construction – the double-hulled, with “internal solid camera”. Engine: no. Sank during trials

 
Further the most interesting begins. According to American data, correct – according to the memoirs of Li (presented to the public 40 years after the “cause”, when checking something has not been possible), he still managed to bring an egg to the flagship. This in itself is absolutely incredible, because through a small window on the water “pervorodnyj” could not choose the target, not to mention how to get to it any significant distance. (And before the “Needle” had to overcome 4 miles!) In fact, the submarine just got towed by the whaleboat closer to the ship, but even that raises serious doubts, because the British very faithfully stood watch. If this is true, attacking is simply not needed any submarine, the charge could drag on a conventional boat.
 
The continuation of the legend States that If for two and a half hours waiting for the tide to calm down, then slowly crawled under the stern of the battleship (and it “could see people on the deck and hear their speech”), closed the door and plunged into the bottom goal. Finally the Sergeant worked as a gimlet, which could not enter into the tree, ostensibly because the hull of the flagship was sheathed with copper.
 
However, the fact that the “Needles” are really plated, but … in 1782, more than 10 years after these events. American historians have tried to move quickly, having remembered version of David Bushnell that the gimlet was in the loop the helm of a ship that is certainly made of metal. However, so extremely improbable coincidence is thus quite improbable. Moreover, If remembered, modspil and moved to another place under the body. Anyway, the charge pin is not properly managed.
 
In the end, the British on the Bank noticed the suspicious manipulations at the side of his ship and lowered a boat to check out what was going on. Lee decided to release the charge in the expectation that curious opponents willing to meet with a suspicious subject in detail, and then work the movement. But the British supposedly did not want to come to mine, which stravovali on the East river and “exploded with terrifying force, raising high into the air a column of water and wooden debris”. So, according to the recollections of Lee and D. Bushnell ended the first attack from under the water.
 
In this story problem piled on problem. The main argument for the fact that this story is nothing more than a myth, is that the English themselves about the “terrible explosion” didn’t know! The service on British ships at that time were at the height, especially on the flagship. On the “Needle” stood round-the-clock watch of Marines, were just three of the event log, and none of them have any mention of the explosions on the river that night and the next day, though meticulously recorded the minor incidents, such as separate gunshots on the shore, passing in front of the punt, the penalty molts at the fault of the sailor and so on. What can we say about such “trifles” as the inability “Turtle” go against the tide at least a few tens of meters, almost zero visibility from the “felling” that “Needles” in fact, occupied a very different position, and much more.
 
However, the legend is firmly rooted in the minds of Americans. So firmly that even in 1998 it was stated that “one submarine, with a single charge, led by one soldier, made a fleet of 200 pennants to leave the next morning for a few miles to a safe Parking”. The British simply did not notice the attack, even if it took place, and no ship will not move. And in many books of the nineteenth and last centuries featured a picture of a spectacular explosion under the “Eagle”.
 
Bushnell said that “the crew” it requires longer training, and operations “Turtle” it makes sense to postpone until better times. Alas, those days never came. The British then went on to beat the colonists, and precious “turtle” together with dedicated to her transport ship was sunk by a core of British guns. But Bushnell continued his attempts to use charges, but without the submarine. Early next year he actually managed to blow up a few floating mines, the associated cable. Although the English ships and there was not injured, the explosion was still. Perhaps the Association is clearly unsuccessful “campaign” “Turtle” with this event and gave some Foundation to the canonical version.
 
But that was not the end. The Affairs of the Bushnell learned B. Franklin, who left for France with a proposal to exchange his ideas of a submarine on financial and other assistance to the United States. So the project almost became an international, slightly down from the first jointly developed weapons. However, the Union collapsed, and busalacchi ‘turtle’ returned no more.
 
More widely known and esteemed follower of the Bushnell engineer and inventor Robert Fulton. About his ideas he learned from Benjamin Franklin in Paris and created his own version of “the explosive frame” or “underwater bomb,” which tried to offer the French – first in the person Directory, and then the very first Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. Fulton proved himself as quite the business man, to include in the proposal a condition to pay him 4,000 francs for each weapon sunk through his invention of a British ship at presence at over 40 guns and about half the gun for smaller ships. But patriotism was not forgotten: on conditions, the boat were so familiar with the name “Nautilus”, or her descendants, could not be used against the United States.
 
And yet it moved. In 1799, on the Seine at Paris was laid by Churchill’s Fulton’s “Nautilus”. The submarine had a number of interesting qualities. Her hull was completely sheathed with copper, which undoubtedly gave him additional strength and integrity. As a mover used a two-bladed propeller, however, driven as “Turtle”, the muscular force of the crew. But for movement on the surface was supposed to use a folding mast with a sail mast. So Fulton was first developed two types of propulsion: for surface and underwater navigation scheme, which became for many years the main for the vast majority of submarines. (Another thing is that the “engine” is clearly not suited for its task.)
 
However, Fulton quickly added onto his boat. In the trial the outputs it has achieved underwater speeds of up to 2 ultrasonic. – not so bad for the “human mechanism”. Also documented that at least one time the “Nautilus” was able to stay under water for hours with a crew of four, headed by Fulton, the inventor managed to keep your ship in the correct position and at a predetermined depth the horizontal rudders. (“The commander” then frankly admitted that it was worth the incredible effort!) Weapons the boat never got, but it was assumed that it will incur a charge of powder in a copper sheath, provided with a serrated harpoon. This device was supposed to push him out-like helmet cutting and stick “spike” in the hull of the enemy. The idea, is almost completely taken from the Bushnell. Then Fulton changed the weapons towed to “frame” because it knew that “harmonyremote” even a slowly moving target, the crew of the Nautilus will not be able to. Your “frame” an American engineer was later called a “torpedo”, introducing this term to refer to one of the most formidable weapons at sea. He even managed to sink to the test in this way the barge, however, anchored.
 
After 1801 France and England for a while Zamir, and Admiral Dacra finally rejected the proposals of Fulton, noticing (not too presciently) that “Your invention may be worth Algerians pirates or others, but be sure France is not going to leave the oceans”. Then frustrated American tried to offer his creation to the Dutch, without success. And his eyes were turned to the enemy. In 1804 Fulton arrived in London. The British intelligence service about the experiments on the other side of the English channel was well known.
 
Moreover, Britain at that time needed a cheap tool against the French fleet, which, coupled with allies are not too inferior to the English. Besides, over the island there was a threat of invasion. “Mr. Francis,” as for the conspiracy became known, now Fulton, were invited to the top, to the Prime Minister Pete: first, to the reception and then Breakfast at the country residence. The American finally got a solid contract, which includes a huge for that time the sum of 40 thousand pounds each it sunk the French ship of the line.
 
The inventor decided to “fee” the most simple way, and focused on their “torpedoes”. They played well on tests, but in the first real attack was a complete failure. However, the “Mr Francis” managed to get 10 thousand pounds to Admiral Nelson in 1805 refused his services.
 
With the impending threat of war between the United States and England restless Fulton once again became a “patriot.” He moved overseas and offered his design to President Jefferson, who reacted to the term “cheap” submarine warfare is very positive. Again followed by the successful experiences and unsuccessful real-world attack with the use of “torpedoes”. But the idea of a submarine was not forgotten: in the end unsuccessful for the United States war of 1812, the inventor has proposed a draft “gender carts Noah boat” “Mute”. Quite a large 25-metre vessel was powered by a paddle wheel rotating again by the muscular force of the person using the hefty shaft with handles. It is not immersed completely into the water, but the water part was a minor goal. Armament consisted of seven “underwater cannon” designed to hit the vulnerable spots of the Royal ships and vessels on lake Ontario. The project is interesting, but not too practical. Implemented never was, and Fulton remained essentially the same loser as Bushnell. However, his ideas gave birth to new followers of snorkeling, and the process, as the saying went…
 
V. KOFMAN

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