Even at first glance it is obvious that the American version is largely inferior “potaennogo the ship” Nikonov. Although, as in the case of the brainchild of a Russian carpenter, drawings busalacchi “nut” is actually not preserved. The most common image reproduced here, the “creative reconstruction” of a US Navy Lieutenant Barbera created as much as one hundred years later, in 1875! That did not stop major gray to reproduce a drawing of Barbera in the metal in the form of the model “Turtle” stored in the British Museum scuba diving. Hefty fantastic reconstruction is still a matter of controversy on the topic, what exactly had caused the submarine to move. Some historians argue that it was a simple paddle, others insist on conventional wheels with blades. But any of these options are actually more intelligent than the canonical two Archimedean screws, which when rotating their muscular force of one person on the case are unlikely to be able to move the “cocoon”.
But regarding the weapons debate is much less. The basis of it was separating powder charge. That’s about his weight disputes fairly abundant. So, in the diary of brother Bushnell, Erza Yale who participated in the project with money and advice, says as much as about 2000 pounds (908 kg) of gunpowder. Indeed, a similar charge can be raised into the air with a big wooden ship! However, by all indications, is pure fantasy. (Well, if “cuts” will be limited to only one zero.) What all agree on is the system of bringing the charge to the action of a clockwork mechanism: it is a modern solution, but for the time of the war of independence of the United States – very exotic. Mounted charge had the gimlet, which is pre-screwed into the wooden hull of the enemy ship all the same “universal submariner”.
Interestingly, even when “underwater egg” was under construction and testing, information about a secret weapon made up enemies – the British. On the development of the Bushnell learned a lot, because he deemed it necessary to inform the infamous Benjamin Franklin, hoping to enlist his support. As a result, the news migrated to the British, and directly from the United States Congress. In the end, the end of 1775, the British Governor of new York William Tryon received a report that in Boston Harbor is about to be used submarine. However, the attack had to wait long and there it is much closer to the residence of Tryon. While “turtle” was built, the military situation for the Americans deteriorated rapidly. Brothers Busnelli moved the boat up the Hudson river, and personally to George Washington, who at that time was trying to protect new York from the British, gave permission to use this “ACE in the hole” against the huge British fleet lying in the harbour of new York. As the goal of the brothers, not a small thing, chose the flagship battleship Admiral Howe Eagle. And here the evening of 6 September 1776 in “Tarts” loaded Sergeant Ezra Lee, who replaced another Erzu, brother of the inventor, it is not time (or, on the contrary, at the time) suddenly sick of “fever”, and the boat went to the first ever submarine attack.
The project of the underwater vessel W. Bourne (England, 1578). Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Motor: muscular strength, paddles. Hasn’t been realized
Underwater vessel De son (France, 1653). Type of construction-single -. Engine: spring, wheel. Weapons: battering RAM. Built and tested
The project of the underwater vessel Simons (England, 1747).
Type of construction – single -. Motor: muscular strength, paddles. Armament: unknown. The idea of “ballast tanks” of this type was first proposed in France Borelli in 1680. The project is not implemented
Submarine “Nautilus” (France, the United States, 1800).
Built on the enterprise of the brothers Perrier in Paris. Type of construction – single -. Dimensions: length-6,48 m, width-about 2 m. body Material: wood, sheathed with copper. Immersion depth up to 8 m. Engine: in the surface position – the sail, the submarine – muscular strength, screw. Weapons (in the project, not really tested): powder charge installed on the enemy ship, and then towed a mine (“torpedo”). Crew: 4 people.
1 – folding mast with a sail; 2 – drill for fixing a powder charge on the enemy ship; 3 – anchor; 4 – dip wheels; 5 – the valve of flooding; 6 – hand-drive screw
Underwater vessel “Mary” (England, 1774).
Project D. Dai, was built in Plymouth. Type of construction – the double-hulled, with “internal solid camera”. Engine: no. Sank during trials
Further the most interesting begins. According to American data, correct – according to the memoirs of Li (presented to the public 40 years after the “cause”, when checking something has not been possible), he still managed to bring an egg to the flagship. This in itself is absolutely incredible, because through a small window on the water “pervorodnyj” could not choose the target, not to mention how to get to it any significant distance. (And before the “Needle” had to overcome 4 miles!) In fact, the submarine just got towed by the whaleboat closer to the ship, but even that raises serious doubts, because the British very faithfully stood watch. If this is true, attacking is simply not needed any submarine, the charge could drag on a conventional boat.
The continuation of the legend States that If for two and a half hours waiting for the tide to calm down, then slowly crawled under the stern of the battleship (and it “could see people on the deck and hear their speech”), closed the door and plunged into the bottom goal. Finally the Sergeant worked as a gimlet, which could not enter into the tree, ostensibly because the hull of the flagship was sheathed with copper.
However, the fact that the “Needles” are really plated, but … in 1782, more than 10 years after these events. American historians have tried to move quickly, having remembered version of David Bushnell that the gimlet was in the loop the helm of a ship that is certainly made of metal. However, so extremely improbable coincidence is thus quite improbable. Moreover, If remembered, modspil and moved to another place under the body. Anyway, the charge pin is not properly managed.
In the end, the British on the Bank noticed the suspicious manipulations at the side of his ship and lowered a boat to check out what was going on. Lee decided to release the charge in the expectation that curious opponents willing to meet with a suspicious subject in detail, and then work the movement. But the British supposedly did not want to come to mine, which stravovali on the East river and “exploded with terrifying force, raising high into the air a column of water and wooden debris”. So, according to the recollections of Lee and D. Bushnell ended the first attack from under the water.
In this story problem piled on problem. The main argument for the fact that this story is nothing more than a myth, is that the English themselves about the “terrible explosion” didn’t know! The service on British ships at that time were at the height, especially on the flagship. On the “Needle” stood round-the-clock watch of Marines, were just three of the event log, and none of them have any mention of the explosions on the river that night and the next day, though meticulously recorded the minor incidents, such as separate gunshots on the shore, passing in front of the punt, the penalty molts at the fault of the sailor and so on. What can we say about such “trifles” as the inability “Turtle” go against the tide at least a few tens of meters, almost zero visibility from the “felling” that “Needles” in fact, occupied a very different position, and much more.
However, the legend is firmly rooted in the minds of Americans. So firmly that even in 1998 it was stated that “one submarine, with a single charge, led by one soldier, made a fleet of 200 pennants to leave the next morning for a few miles to a safe Parking”. The British simply did not notice the attack, even if it took place, and no ship will not move. And in many books of the nineteenth and last centuries featured a picture of a spectacular explosion under the “Eagle”.
Bushnell said that “the crew” it requires longer training, and operations “Turtle” it makes sense to postpone until better times. Alas, those days never came. The British then went on to beat the colonists, and precious “turtle” together with dedicated to her transport ship was sunk by a core of British guns. But Bushnell continued his attempts to use charges, but without the submarine. Early next year he actually managed to blow up a few floating mines, the associated cable. Although the English ships and there was not injured, the explosion was still. Perhaps the Association is clearly unsuccessful “campaign” “Turtle” with this event and gave some Foundation to the canonical version.
But that was not the end. The Affairs of the Bushnell learned B. Franklin, who left for France with a proposal to exchange his ideas of a submarine on financial and other assistance to the United States. So the project almost became an international, slightly down from the first jointly developed weapons. However, the Union collapsed, and busalacchi ‘turtle’ returned no more.
More widely known and esteemed follower of the Bushnell engineer and inventor Robert Fulton. About his ideas he learned from Benjamin Franklin in Paris and created his own version of “the explosive frame” or “underwater bomb,” which tried to offer the French – first in the person Directory, and then the very first Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. Fulton proved himself as quite the business man, to include in the proposal a condition to pay him 4,000 francs for each weapon sunk through his invention of a British ship at presence at over 40 guns and about half the gun for smaller ships. But patriotism was not forgotten: on conditions, the boat were so familiar with the name “Nautilus”, or her descendants, could not be used against the United States.
And yet it moved. In 1799, on the Seine at Paris was laid by Churchill’s Fulton’s “Nautilus”. The submarine had a number of interesting qualities. Her hull was completely sheathed with copper, which undoubtedly gave him additional strength and integrity. As a mover used a two-bladed propeller, however, driven as “Turtle”, the muscular force of the crew. But for movement on the surface was supposed to use a folding mast with a sail mast. So Fulton was first developed two types of propulsion: for surface and underwater navigation scheme, which became for many years the main for the vast majority of submarines. (Another thing is that the “engine” is clearly not suited for its task.)
However, Fulton quickly added onto his boat. In the trial the outputs it has achieved underwater speeds of up to 2 ultrasonic. – not so bad for the “human mechanism”. Also documented that at least one time the “Nautilus” was able to stay under water for hours with a crew of four, headed by Fulton, the inventor managed to keep your ship in the correct position and at a predetermined depth the horizontal rudders. (“The commander” then frankly admitted that it was worth the incredible effort!) Weapons the boat never got, but it was assumed that it will incur a charge of powder in a copper sheath, provided with a serrated harpoon. This device was supposed to push him out-like helmet cutting and stick “spike” in the hull of the enemy. The idea, is almost completely taken from the Bushnell. Then Fulton changed the weapons towed to “frame” because it knew that “harmonyremote” even a slowly moving target, the crew of the Nautilus will not be able to. Your “frame” an American engineer was later called a “torpedo”, introducing this term to refer to one of the most formidable weapons at sea. He even managed to sink to the test in this way the barge, however, anchored.
After 1801 France and England for a while Zamir, and Admiral Dacra finally rejected the proposals of Fulton, noticing (not too presciently) that “Your invention may be worth Algerians pirates or others, but be sure France is not going to leave the oceans”. Then frustrated American tried to offer his creation to the Dutch, without success. And his eyes were turned to the enemy. In 1804 Fulton arrived in London. The British intelligence service about the experiments on the other side of the English channel was well known.
Moreover, Britain at that time needed a cheap tool against the French fleet, which, coupled with allies are not too inferior to the English. Besides, over the island there was a threat of invasion. “Mr. Francis,” as for the conspiracy became known, now Fulton, were invited to the top, to the Prime Minister Pete: first, to the reception and then Breakfast at the country residence. The American finally got a solid contract, which includes a huge for that time the sum of 40 thousand pounds each it sunk the French ship of the line.
The inventor decided to “fee” the most simple way, and focused on their “torpedoes”. They played well on tests, but in the first real attack was a complete failure. However, the “Mr Francis” managed to get 10 thousand pounds to Admiral Nelson in 1805 refused his services.
With the impending threat of war between the United States and England restless Fulton once again became a “patriot.” He moved overseas and offered his design to President Jefferson, who reacted to the term “cheap” submarine warfare is very positive. Again followed by the successful experiences and unsuccessful real-world attack with the use of “torpedoes”. But the idea of a submarine was not forgotten: in the end unsuccessful for the United States war of 1812, the inventor has proposed a draft “gender carts Noah boat” “Mute”. Quite a large 25-metre vessel was powered by a paddle wheel rotating again by the muscular force of the person using the hefty shaft with handles. It is not immersed completely into the water, but the water part was a minor goal. Armament consisted of seven “underwater cannon” designed to hit the vulnerable spots of the Royal ships and vessels on lake Ontario. The project is interesting, but not too practical. Implemented never was, and Fulton remained essentially the same loser as Bushnell. However, his ideas gave birth to new followers of snorkeling, and the process, as the saying went…