THE CREATOR OF THE UNDERWATER Boats Holland, triumphantly marched around the world were not the sole representatives of overseas inventions in the field of underwater shipbuilding. Almost simultaneously, quite suddenly, there was another branch that is associated with the name of Simon lake. This son of the owner of a small steel mill in the seaside town of Plesantville “ruined” Jules Verne, or rather, his famous novel about the adventures of captain Nemo on the submarine “Nautilus”. Read at the tender age of “bestseller” has completely changed Simon’s life, by the way, a very long (he had seen both world wars and died as many as in 1945). A real “skate” the lake was the development of the project is very original underwater “objects” that with equal reason be called and rode the submarine, and the submersible vehicle.

A young man in 1892, he proposed to build a rather large version of the creation, over a length of 24 m and a diameter of about 3.4 m, with huge wheels. For implementation required about 75 thousand dollars. Simon turned to the father from whom such money was not. Then he went to the East coast in search of those wishing to participate in the implementation of its plans. Those not found, as it looked too exotic idea. As we already know, in this time appeared the first more or less workable submarines, deprived of such a “vestige of to carriage driving” as wheels, but even their implementation is met with great financial difficulties. It would seem that in this field the young inventor did not Shine anything. However, the lake thought otherwise. He just decided to embody his idea in material alone. And two years later his “Argonaut Junior” (translation – something like “the Young Argonaut”) entered the water.
From first glance this boat is the carriage seemed a definite step backwards in primeval history. Indeed, the idea of crawling along the bottom on wheels of the submarine dates back all the way to the 15th century, and more or less workable project proposed in the 30-ies of the 19th century known to us French inventor of Custer. And the implementation is forced to remember the past: a tiny body length of less than 5 m and a width and a height of about five feet resembled a miniature Galleon and was made of tarred planks, laid a tarp. Of the modern observed the container for aerating the water in it was stored a supply of air, which was pumped there most trivial hand pump. In General, the lake has shown a lot of typical “ingenuity of the poor”: he is made of waterproof tarpaulin diving suit for one of the crew members (the second was the “driver” of this “chariot” and provided air flow for the entrance and exit of his partner through located in the bottom of the gateway.) With the air source a diver was contacted by… a garden hose, for durability covered with wire to keep pinched. In General, solid “kindergarten” and dangerous amateurism.
The most interesting is “the beast” safely immersed (with hoists), and even at a snail’s pace crawled along the bottom on wheels, turned by the crankshaft via a chain transmission (shaft worked both crew members.) In any case, so read the memories: no images and traces of the “Junior” there. Not to mention the drawings: they are simply not there!
However, the unusual design has attracted the greedy sensationalism of the newspaper. Lake, in fact, received an advertising campaign, and free. And now there were the brave owners of the “fat wallet”, looking forward to invest in “a new means of finding sea treasures” (which for this purpose and has dedicated his creation the inventor). And at the end of 1895 in the USA there is another firm who wanted to engage in underwater shipbuilding.
It is easy to guess whose name it received: Yes, “Simon lake Submariner”.
It is easy to see that both the American designer, self-taught, and Holland, and the lake began with very primitive projects. But both managed to progress very quickly.
It has been over a year, and on one of the lakes in the vicinity of Baltimore began testing more serious metal “Argonaut”.
The submarine “Argonaut Junior” design of lake, USA, 1894
Built in Pleasantville. Type of construction-single -. Displacement is unknown. Dimensions: length 4.27 m, width 1.37 m, height of 1.52 m hull Material: wood. Immersion depth up to 6 m. Motor: muscle strength, the drive from the crankshaft to the wheels. Crew: 2 people tested in 1895, no longer used. Disassembled

The submarine “Argonaut-1” construction of the lake, USA, 1897
Built at the shipyard company “Columbian Iron Works” in Baltimore. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater 57/59, etc Sizes: length 11.0 m, diameter of 2.74 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 15 m. Engine: gasolinevin motor with 30 HP, a speed of about 2-3 knots. There was no weapons Crew: 5-6 people After the test for service not accepted. In 1899 – 1900 rebuilt.

Unlike “wood” and “fabric” option, steel unit had a solid displacement – 60 tons and could not only move around the bottom, but swim on the surface and underwater position. A couple of large (diameter over 2 m) cast iron wheels was rotated by an internal combustion engine, although not very powerful is 30 HP enough for movement on hard, smooth ground, but, of course, on the muddy bottom of the cart immediately sank. “Argonaut” had to move “straight ahead” and “steer”, which meant a third wheel of smaller diameter in the rear. The same motor rotated the propeller, if the captain decided to overcome the “bog”, looking up from the bottom. Another “mover” was… sail. They could raise on two high hollow masts, which served both for air injection and exhaust stroke under water. In full immersion and in cases of emergency breathing used compressed air, but the engine in this case could not be prolonged. And dip (it is the traditional method of filling the ballast tanks) took about 15 minutes.
However, as in the case of the first (“young”) “Argonaut”, all these systems, complex and primitive, it worked! And on the lake and on the river, and the Atlantic ocean (of course, just a short distance from the shore). Boat-wagon managed even to pass through the bottom of 10 kilometers in a single “campaign”, and can remain under water for half a day. Only Simon lake “wrapped” in different trials and demonstrations about 2,000 miles – more than respectable for the time. Without a lot of trouble passed and the outputs of the divers that was the main task, because the submarine was intended primarily for completely peaceful purposes: of course, the underwater search for valuable cargo, but also various works of inspection and repair of underwater part of vessels and other objects, and even … for the gathering of oysters. So the inventor took care of, provided for “underwater workers”: the place of action was covered by the strong for the time spotlight, for what is happening behind could be seen through the Windows located in the front of the hull next to the airlock chamber, and divers – even to talk on the phone!
Of course, to justify the cost of the work while he could not, but more than successfully managed to address the equally important task. Reports of a miracle-the car never left the pages of Newspapers. After the “Young of the Argonaut,” lake understood the importance of advertising and now tried to develop success. For this, he made a lot of demonstration voyages with journalists and simply curious people “in power”. Extreme at the end of the 19th century an opportunity to observe through the window of the underwater world and stirring it divers, illuminated by the spotlight – just like the Jules Verne – came to fruition. During the war with Spain the boat was interested in the Navy. Although the special weapons on it were absent, the divers could either lay mines or charges, or to neutralize enemy air barrier (for example, before Santiago de Cuba). True, the sailors looked at the demo version without much interest, and hostilities ended relatively quickly. However, lake managed to communicate with the Cuban insurgents, who, as at the time of the Irish fenians, tried to believe that “there is a miracle”. They were ready to buy “Argonaut”, but its designer and the owner went broke and has requested 3 million dollars – the price is great cruiser, and the transaction did not take place. Such money from the rebels, of course, was not. The author of “underwater vehicle” was left to rely on their own resources – very humble and Simon lake decided on a trivial step. Instead, as Holland, try to design and build a new boat, he used the ready “Argonaut” as “source material”. The case of a submarine cut in the middle and put in an additional section of the same diameter with a length of just over 6 m. It was a kind of “passenger compartment” with places for fans to observe the underwater world through the Windows – almost like on the Nautilus from Jules Verne. “Almost” – because comfort close and did not go to any comparison with a fantastic creation of the writer. However, underwater tourists always enough. In conjunction with funds received actually from the production of underwater work, for a couple of years managed not only to recoup spent, but even to make a profit.
Frankly, a rare result for the designers of underwater vessels of the nineteenth century. Moreover, the inventor received great advertising.
And money enough for numerous improvements. To improved the “Argonaut” (sometimes called “Argonaut-2”, underlining the fact that as a result of this extensive refurbishment has turned out absolutely another submarine) mounted electric motor and batteries in addition to gasolinevin the engine, whose power has increased twice. Appeared and auxiliary engine 4 HP, provides the action of many devices (most of them also had electric). For better stability, the depth used two pairs of horizontal rudders, bow and stern parts of the hull. There is a new add-in long (about 20 m) and narrow (3 m wide), with additional cutting in the middle. As a result, in positional status updated “Argonaut” even close to resembled an ordinary boat, which was hiding the main underwater part. Increased supply of compressed air and fuel provided good endurance under water (about 2 days) and the surface position where the boat, according to calculations, could go 2000 miles. In General, it is surprising, but a new “home with wheels” again was a success.
The submarine “Argonaut-2” design of the lake, USA, 1900
Rebuilt version of “the Argonaut”. Type of construction – single-hulled, hull lengthened by the insertion of the Central section. The underwater displacement of about 85 t Dimensions: length 17.0 m (add – 22,2 m), the diameter of 2.74 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 15 m. Engine: gasolinevin motor power 60 HP + electric motor producing 20 HP, speed, surface/underwater 5/3 node. There was no weapons Crew: 6 people + a few passengers. Was used as an excursion ship and then for underwater work. Demolished after 1905

Encouraged by positive results, lake decided to make a new attempt to storm “the main storerooms of gold” – the budget of the Navy. Since no one in the Maritime Ministry the order he was not going to give, the designer went the safe route all the pioneers of submarine building, starting the construction and the following offspring for their own money. He had to create and own a shipyard, where at the end of 1902 and went to water the Tread is considerably revised and modified combat version of “the Argonaut”. At the beginning of the following year he was commissioned and began testing.
“Protector” largely repeated the predecessor. Primarily, this refers to a kind of “lakowski” architecture of the hull with a narrow add-in “ship” shape, above which towered the cabin. In the latter concentrated all the controls, from the helm of the horizontal and vertical rudders to the engine Telegraph and numerous for the time of the instrument. Was crowned by cutting a small periscope (a total height of about five feet) ahead of quite serious versions of later years with all their features, including the possibility of rotation around the horizon and hide in the cabin (though still not completely).
Mechanical installation-shaft with two internal combustion engines for surface running and two electric motors for underwater. Capacity has been doubled, compared to “new”, “Argonaut”, but it still wasn’t enough. “Protector” could develop a little more than 8 knots on the water surface and 5.5 – immersed. In principle, not bad – but not for 1903. Submarines in the early twentieth century has progressed very quickly, and the option of a lake is not quite consistent with the existing level. Especially because resistant “Amateur to ride” saved a throwback to the wheels. They were still made of cast iron, while they decreased markedly and inside they were hollow. In the inoperative position (frankly, most) of the wheels were cleaned in a niche, in the manner of aircraft landing gear. Interestingly, now that the wheels have their own drive, the movement of the bottom is expected only as a result of rotation of the propellers.
I must say that along with this “wheel relic of the past” “the Protector” has had quite modern equipment of three torpedo tubes, two of which were located in the nose and one in the stern. It is worth noting the division of the housing into four compartments. Nasal, as in “Argonaut” remained a work, only now they were almost entirely given to torpedo tubes, caps out in the main, the second compartment, which housed the reclining beds for the crew and the compressed air cylinders for breathing and release the torpedoes. In addition, in the hold of this compartment was located a heavy battery. The third compartment was intended for all four engines, and pumps for emptying the ballast tanks. Finally, in the fourth, aft were the motors that drove the wheels, and extra air bottles. The entire stock of fuel has been placed in the superstructure (a kind of prototype of the outer hull) that had a beneficial impact on habitability. (In most submarines of that time with an internal tank of volatile gasoline or kerosene thoroughly poisoned the life of the team). In addition, the app has significantly improved seakeeping “Protector”. Good service rendered and the so-called “seaplanes” (a kind of “rage” in those years) – additional horizontal rudders in the middle of the hull, allowing it is better to keep the depth. In General, taking into account traditional products of South lake decent performance, the submarine was pretty decent.
However, the Marine Department of the United States is not in a hurry to purchase a product Amateur designer. Simon lake was in a situation similar to the one in which nemnoim previously got Holland. And he went the same way: he offered his boat to foreign countries. Benefit of, any “client” there. Russia entered the war with a new far Eastern predator – Japan and carefully collected all sorts of underwater “tricks”. In April 1904 in complete secrecy in a mansion R. flint (quite a dark businessman involved in the arms trade) held a meeting of the inventor and owner of the “Protector” with a Russian naval attaché. It is appropriate to recall the immortal Ostap Bender: Torg was indeed inappropriate. Lake immediately received a check for 125 thousand dollars, but with him and quite a headache: he pledged themselves to deliver their offspring in Russia! And this despite the fact that the United States declared (and comply with) neutrality in the far Eastern war. I must say, an enterprising American came out of this embarrassing situation very deftly. He rented a transport and floating crane standing in a sea of “Protector”, published ostensibly for the next test (before selling the boat was rebuilt a few). The weather was perfect for a covert operation: it was raining heavily, but the excitement remained moderate. The ship, the crane and the submarine was found and the boat was safely loaded on Board of transport. Only on the deck of “Fortune” (the so-called transport), the crew of “Protector” learned from his “master” that all have to cross the ocean and travel to distant Russia. About the emotions of the sailors history is silent; we need cash “dose” solved the problem. Lake was generous: in the case good luck to him “break off”, in addition to the amount received, and the ordering of five submarines.
In the end, “American chariot” could still deliver in Saint Petersburg, and its Creator have achieved the coveted contract. And the “Protector” got more earthy, but still quite a noble name, “king-fish” – “Sturgeon”, marking the beginning of “fish” tradition in the name of Russian boats. He was subjected to additional testing, which, oddly enough, the “wheel traction” was found to be very useful, though not for the actual movement, and as a kind of shock absorber that protects the case from damage when hitting the ground in shallow water. However, this “convenience” in the subsequent unit decided to give up. The rest of the serial “fish” is nearly the same progenitor.
The submarine “Protector” (“Sturgeon”) designs lake, USA, 1902
Built at the shipyard company “Simon lake Submariner” in Bridgeport. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 136/174 T. Dimensions: length 19.8 meters, diameter of 3.35 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: 2 gasolinevin engine capacity 240 HP + 2 electric motor with 120 HP, speed, surface/underwater tests – 8,5/5,6 bond. Armament: three 450 mm torpedo tubes (two in nose, one in the stern, 6 torpedoes). Crew: 12 people After tests on armament the U.S. Navy is not accepted. Sold to Russia in 1904, delivered to Kronstadt on transport. In September of the same year joined the Russian Navy under the name “Sturgeon”. In 1905 delivered to Vladivostok

Diagram of a submarine
Diagram of the submarine “Protector” (“Sturgeon”):
1 – torpedo tubes; 2 – input hatches; 3 – fuel tank; 4 – galley; 5 – observation cap; 6 – the cabin crew; 7 – lock chamber; 8 – diving office and Luke; 9 – ballast tanks; 10 – anchor fairleads; 11 – battery; 12 – detachable ballast; 13 – gasoline engine; 14 – electric motors

The submarine “Mullet” design of lake, USA – Russia, 1905
Built at the shipyard of the company “Newport news Shipbuilding” was going in the workshops of the Navy in Libau. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 153/188 T. Dimensions: length 22,0 m, diameter of 3.55 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: 2 gasolinevin engine capacity 240 HP + 2 electric motor producing 130 HP, speed, surface/underwater tests – 8,3/5,0 ties. Armament: three 450 mm torpedo tubes (two in nose, one in the stern, 5 torpedoes). Crew: 12 people. In 1905 – 1906 built 5 units: “Mullet”, “Halibut”, “Bull”, “Roach” and “SIG”. In addition to the “SIG”, all transferred to Vladivostok and re-assembled there. All derived from the Navy in 1913 and 1914, deposited, finally scrapped in 1922

However, all attempts to use “secret techniques” in the war were unsuccessful. The “Protector” set in order after traveling and additionally tried and tested, still part of the Russian Navy in September 1904. As for the rest, the situation was worse. In principle, the lake has taken to implement the order as soon as possible. Built submarines at quite professional, moreover, one of the best in U.S. shipyards “Newport news Shipbuilding” very quickly: the first unit of shipbuilders put in November of the same year. And then began the “darkness”. The boats were dismantled for parts that were sent on the transports at Libau, where within a completely closed the naval base launched a special workshops to assemble them. And it is this process became critical. Russian artisans complained about the quality of parts production “designer” in a leading industrial power in the world at a very decent plant. They even said that hull have to gather and build anew! Lake claimed that everything is in order. Find out the truth now easy, in contrast to the result: head “Mullet” passed only in the spring of 1905, and the other four in the summer.
Moreover, the adventures of the Russo-American “fish” did not end there. They were still required to deliver on the theater of operations, where after the fall of Port Arthur and the death of the 1st Pacific squadron was the only way by rail through whole unbounded Russia. The boat was again dismantled, loaded into cars and taken to Vladivostok, a journey which on an extremely busy highway in itself took a month. Already in Vladivostok submarine finally resulted in the condition in which they might not sink. And relevant experience in the far East engineers and mechanics are not there. The result is parsed twice and three times collected “things” finally lost those qualities of reliability, which distinguishes the boats of the lake. There was only the deficiencies of the former “chariot”: the low speed and range, a very long time of immersion (exhaust pipe gasoline engines required carefully sealing). Bad Assembly gave an additional negative characteristics: submarines more was repaired than it was accustomed to swim. Needless to say, no part in the fighting, none of the five “Americans” (the last SIG, not even managed to smuggle in the far East) did not accept. However, “fish” served as a training. However, this service was short-lived. Just before the 1st world war, they finally put out the fleet and put into storage. It is clear that the following years, including the revolution, the intervention and the beginning of chaos, did not improve their fate, and in 1922 the company sent under cutting the metal.
But the “romance” between Lake and Sea Ministry of Russia is not over. “Sturgeon” were still being completed when the marine Technical Committee suggested that, in General, a sensible idea is to start building large (for the time) boat”cruisers”, with good surface speed and greater range. The main supplier was literally at hand and was able to grab and this order is already very solid. Four 400-ton submarines were estimated at 2 million dollars-quite a decent amount. However, part of it was assimilated in Russia: corps was supposed to build on domestic Okhtinskaya shipyard in St. Petersburg. I wonder what was ordered and took to the lake, managed to redirect most of the funds in the firm. For this he had to ensure construction of the submarine equipment and to make its installation.
The lessons of this cooperation were not too impressive. American experts are “cut down” all the failures of Russian artisans who at this time (1906) was involved in the revolutionary movement, with frequent strikes. Our engineers and sailors, in turn, often accused of overseas professionals in the unwillingness to implement numerous, albeit small innovations made to the project during construction. Quickly followed by “divorce” in the second half of 1906, the majority of people in the firm lake went home. The result of the projected period readiness head “predator” (boats received threatening names: Caiman, alligator, Crocodile, and Dragon) – mid-summer of 1906-has been shamelessly ripped off. Lake reported that at this speed and as such works cannot guarantee the entry of submarines into operation even in 1909! Indeed, their launching took place only in 1908, and preliminary tests – in the summer of 1909 . The conflicts continued; domestic engineers complained about the quality of the drawings and the insufficient number of specialists from overseas, whereas others lamented the carelessness and negligence of the workers. And not always groundless: the “Dragon” exploded a pair of sloppy salivales in a tank of gasoline, causing considerable destruction. The controversy is over the fact that lake and his assistants were finally removed from the completion and testing. It is clear that the process is not accelerated, and the final samples of the submarine came only in the summer of 1910 years – four years later than planned!
The submarine “Cayman” design of lake, USA – Russia, 1909
Built at the shipyard company “V. Creighton” in Saint-Petersburg. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 410/480 T. Dimensions: length of 40.85 m, diameter of 3.90 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: 4 gasoline engine power of 1200 HP + 2 electric motor producing 200 HP, speed, surface/underwater – 10,5/8,0 bonds. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes (two in nose, two in the stern), two external torpedo system Drzewiecki. Crew: 34 people In 1909 built 4 units: “Caiman”, “alligator”, “Dragon” and “Crocodile”. In 1914, equipped with one 37 mm (“Dragon”) or 47 mm (the rest) gun, in addition, the “Cayman” and “Crocodile” – one gun. Have been honored in the 1st world war. In 1916 “Caiman” and “Dragon” are excluded from the lists of the fleet and put in the port for storage. “Alligator” and “Crocodile” were used as floating stations for charging the batteries. All in 1918 captured by the Germans, sent to Germany for putting on metal

During testing, both preliminary and acceptance, it became clear that due to numerous “uluchshilos” boats turned out badly overloaded. Followed emergency measures. The first victims were “branded” wheels (Yes, in the project “caimans” was their reincarnation), followed by a massive lead ballast, a kind of relic of the last resort for a quick ascent, the outer keel and other heavy elements. The load has been reduced by as much as 25 + tons, but it was not enough and the stern was equipped with three floats-hollow containers and in the add-in “driven” more than a ton of wood, thus another 2.5 tons of additional buoyancy. Evident provision for that exhausted, and had to move to a significant improvement. During the first campaign with the boat partially lifted the cylinders and flywheels of engines. Significant alteration suffered by all add-ins that increased in volume. It turned out that the wooden superstructure in the volatile climate of the Baltic sea that swells, that crack, then it started to leak fuel. I had to translate it into a steel tank. Tried and strengthen the arms, adding to the four regular torpedo tubes in the hull two more outer system Drzewiecki in a special niche before chipping.
From the above it is easy to assume and consequences: very fast in the project (up to 16 knots on the surface) “aquatic predators”, in the end, become quite slow. They kept the most “natural”, that is lakowski shortcomings. One of them had a considerable time of immersion, about 5 minutes, others – dangerous to use gasoline engines. When the boat brought to mind, as broke world war. Quite unfortunate for “Cayman”: in those years the speed of change of technological development for all classes of ships reached its peak. Even much more conservative battleships, cruisers and destroyers morally obsolete and discarded the “second tier” in a few years. What can we say about the submarines! And even thoroughly complemented by innovation of the creation of the lake when the war was already outdated. In fact, after construction they had to go to the far East, but the Naval Ministry was horrified at the cost of the relocation, which included the creation of a special transport for far longer toy boats, and their plans refused. And, in the end, “American blood” had to fight in the Baltic. The first two years, they faithfully put out to sea, trying to attack the enemy with torpedoes, and even artillery. (At the beginning of the war, all units received a light 47-mm gun, except the “Dragon” that had a chance to do a 37-graph paper, and someone got a still and a machine gun.) And armed with “Dragon” has become a kind of expert on cruisers, starting with the launch of the torpedoes in the obsolete “Thetis” may 14, 1915. After exactly 2 months, his goal became more new Bremen, and exactly a month later, also on the 14th, “colberg”. And the day before alligator made his attempt to attack the cruiser “Pillau”, ironically, built before the war for Russia. Even the day before, August 12, Kayman fired a torpedo at the German submarine and-9. And “Dragon”, and “alligator” are also eyeing the German destroyers. However, no attack was successful, although an old submarine tried to shoot even shots in 2 – 3 torpedoes. Summing up the “line”, we can assume that the greatest success lakowski boats during the war was the capture of the “Crocodile” is quite a large German steamer “Desterro” with a cargo of iron ore from Sweden in August 1916.
However, this honorable episode was the last in active work four, even it does not meet modern requirements. As a result, by the end of 1916 the company “demoted”: “alligator” and “Crocodile” continued service as a floating stations for charging the batteries, and another pair just put on a funny in revel (now Tallinn). By coincidence, cruising “lake” ceased to exist even before their “smaller brothers”. In 1918, revel captured the German troops that were there the boat was sent to Germany where it was dismantled for the metal, which was not enough for the famous “U-bots”.
What’s the lake, which we left at the critical moment of “resignation” from Russian submarines? It is not wilted, as parallel to continued work and at home, in the United States. An important milestone of its activities was the construction of a fairly large L-XV with a displacement of two hundred tons. Launched in 1906, the submarine differed from the “wheel” options on hull form, although he retained much of the other features lakowski submarines, including the developed superstructure and twin-shaft power plant with a pair of gasoline engines and electric motors. Armament still consisted of three torpedo tubes, two in the nose and one aft, and each had a spare torpedo.
Submarine “L-XV” (“Difender”) construction of the lake, USA, 1906
Built at the shipyard company “Simon lake Submariner” in Bridgeport. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 220/260 T. Dimensions: length 29,9 m, diameter of 3.43 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: 2 gasoline engine with a capacity of 640 HP + 2 electric motor producing 200 HP, speed, surface/underwater testing is 7.7/5.6 is ultrasonic. Armament: three 450 mm torpedo tubes (two in nose, one in the stern, 6 torpedoes). Crew: 11-12 people After the test for service not accepted. Was laid up until 1928 when converted into a rescue to rescue the crews of sunken SUBMARINES. Again not accepted by the Navy in 1932 sank in the accident, raised, towed to a shallow. Scrapped in 1946

This time the Naval Ministry showed a far more lively interest to the production of the inventor of the boat which is already quite real and very active was built for the Navy of another country, Russia. However, the Lake had to overcome a serious obstacle: it L-XV, put to comparative tests with the product of the main competitor – “electric boat”, has really made professional design Bureau, but still posing projects under the name of John Holland. And Amateur designer lost, as they say, and immediately on all fronts. His boat developed a much smaller rate. So, under water I managed to squeeze in just 5.5 per node to 10, the rival-“octopus” (“octopus”, it-1). Besides L-XV much worse maneuvered and finally immersed for much longer. The result is obvious: the boat was rejected.
Lake quickly “plastered” the most obvious defects and at the same time changed the name to the faceless resounding “Difender” (“Defender”), after which again offered a submarine to the judgment of the Naval Ministry. Sounding name didn’t help: “protect” the Lake failed, he again received a refusal. The situation was critical: together with the Russian harm him and his firm was threatened with bankruptcy is trivial. And designer, the owner, went on a scandal, publicly stating that “electric boat” simply bribed the representatives of the fleet and thus became the sole supplier for submarine forces of the United States (the fate of D. Holland, we can assume that the dashing leaders of the company really could have used unfair methods “of competition”.) And, surprisingly, the Lake was able to succeed: he was supported by some influential congressmen and senators, and in the context of the “supplier diversity” it is at the beginning of 1908 received the coveted order of nearly half a million dollars building his first submarine for the Navy of the United States.
The beginning: over the next 13 years of the designer and the entrepreneur was able to build another 36 submarine ships for the Russian Navy. However, each subsequent series (we will talk about them later) passed through the “sieve” test all the more complicated. And in 1922, the “Golden age” lake’s end: Navy gate before it finally slammed shut.
Had to go back to a far less ambitious. Pomaia few years hoping to restore activity
Lake remembered his “Difender”, which for two decades, rusted in the rain at the wall of the naval base in Newport news, abandoned after a failed comparative trials. Rights rejected by the authorities, the submarine has not been disputed, and the inventor decided to remake it in the machine to rescue the crews newer “underwater sisters”. “Difender” installed new equipment, including a large supply of compressed air and hoses to feed emergency on a boat, and a gateway for the release of the diver, who had to carry out the work.
The balances of the work was concluded, moreover, in the summer of 1929 was held quite successful tests at a depth of fifty meters – quite decent for the time. Divers coped with the task: “code crew” got air to breathe and was “saved.” However, as many times before, Navy representatives were not satisfied, noting that the “rescue apparatus” can only be used in very clear water in the absence of any excitement.
This nitpicking was enough to ensure that the lake was again left on the beans. And this accident of 1929-the year of the final. Broke the Great crisis, which became economic (and someone- and real) grave for many a much more rich people.
Lake continued to fight to the last. He remembered his youthful dreams and tried to offer a modified “Difender” to search for treasure on sunken ships. Useless. Finally broke down metal: in 1932, the long-suffering boat with a completely rusted body almost sank at the berth in the port. Hole somehow patched up only to have to tow the sufferer at a large Bank on the island of long island, was a conglomeration of a “ship corpses”. And yet, “Difender” outlived his Creator: lake, died shortly before the end of the Second world war, and his failed “protector” and “rescuer” pulled off a sandbank and sank in 1946, 40 years after launch.
Thus ended the history of the last Amateur designer lone in the field of underwater shipbuilding (it is, of course, of leading Maritime powers). The creation of submarines by that time fully passed into the hands of large groups, able to quickly and accurately “bake” all the new projects. But more about that in future releases.

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