THE EASTERN “MARTIAL ARTS”

EASTERN A crushing defeat of Japan in 1945 radically changed the geopolitical situation in the far East, however, does not make this part of the globe calm. A series of bloody wars in China, Indochina and Korea led to the split of Nations and the emergence of new tensions. All this occurred against the background of confrontation between the two superpowers — the USSR and the USA trying to engage the warring regimes in its orbit. So in the camp of the allies of Washington and its former enemy Japan, and longtime enemies of the past — South Korea and Taiwan.

 

Recreated after world war II, the Navy of Japan officially became known as the “Maritime self-defense force” (ICSW). Of course, the former might of the formidable Imperial Navy now has not disappeared. In the mid-1950s, years into the ICSW consists of two fleets of escort ships and one of the trawlers, and almost all of the ships were American, based on a program of military assistance. Curiously, the most widespread of the relatively large new ships of the Japanese fleet were the frigates of the “Tacoma”, formerly transferred to the Soviet Union under lend-lease, returned to the US and re – “fused” as unnecessary, but now new allies.
 
Then around the mid-1950s, Japan began building its own warships — destroyers and frigates. Their main enemy at that time was considered to be Soviet submarines, so they had a pronounced anti-submarine boats. And because of the geographical location of the Country of the rising sun and more attention was given to the destroyers to be more seaworthy and suitable for swimming in the ocean. Frigates were smaller, and they played a supporting role. However, here the Japanese obviously took a cue from their American counterparts.
 
The first post-war frigates of the “Akebono” (3 units), which came into operation in 1956, it looked very old-fashioned and reminded us escort destroyers world war II period. The ensuing four ships of the “Isuzu” was somewhat larger, carrying four torpedo tubes and one anti-submarine rocket mortars (American “Weapon eybl” or the Swedish “Bofors”). But, in fact, frigates of both types can be considered experimental ships — they are the Japanese practiced different types of power plants, has experienced a new electronics and new-fangled hydro-acoustic stations with a towed antenna. From the shipbuilding point of view they are of no special interest.
 
Truly outstanding were the following frigates of the series — type “Chikugo”. Despite its modest size and inconspicuous appearance, they are in many ways ahead of its time. So, contrary to the fashion of the time, Japanese engineers have abandoned the wide application of aluminum and magnesium alloys — their weight was only 5% of the weight of hull structures. And in order to provide a fairly vysokovoltnoye vehicle the necessary stability, the width of the body significantly increased (in other countries this approach was followed much later, after the Falklands conflict). “Chikugo” was the most compact in the world with a ship equipped with sonar in the nose bulb fairing and armed raketostroenie system ASROC (the latter was produced by an American license by the company “Mitsubishi”). Possible PLO increased and the presence of a second hydro-acoustic stations SQS-35J with a towed antenna and the low noise level achieved through the installation of the motors on special shock absorbers.
 
Only in 1970 — 1977, was commissioned on 11 frigates of the “Chikugo”. Experts assessed them as very successful, though highly specialized ships. However, at the time of their appearance ICSW was still the only potential enemy — the Soviet and Chinese submarines, so the question of universality, then, is not compromised. Well, the lack of on Board the helicopter were compensated by the construction of large destroyers, helicopter carriers, providing far search of submarines around the ship connection.
 
However, the immediate development of a successful project initially received. The fact that the Japanese, as already mentioned, the main class of surface ships thought the destroyers and frigates was considered as a cheaper combat unit of the fleet for operations in the littoral areas. Therefore, the following Fregat “Ishikari” bears little resemblance to its predecessors: it was very compact (standard displacement of 1,200 tons) multi-purpose ship, equipped with a combined diesel-gas turbine power plant. Because of the small size of the anti-submarine complex ASROC to place on the Board failed, so I had to remember about the good old RBU “Bofors”. The rest of the guns of the frigate — is the standard set for any Western countries: anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”, a pair of three-pipe 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW and 76-mm automatic gun mount “OTO-Melara”… to match the weaponry has changed and the architecture of the ship — now there is nothing left of national, and the silhouette of the frigate became virtually indistinguishable from their counterparts of European construction.
 
 
111. The frigate “Yubari”, Japan, 1983
 
Built at the shipyard Sumitomo in m. The standard displacement of 1470 tons, full 1690 T. maximum Length 91 m, width 10.8 m, draft 3.6 m, Capacity-shaft diesel-gas turbine installation 29 400 HP, speed 25 knots. Armament: PU 8 RCC “Harpoon”, one 76-mm gun mount, one 375-mm rocket mortar “Bofors”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes. Just in 1983-1984 built 2 units.
 
112. The frigate “Isuzu”, Japan, 1961
 
Built at the shipyard Mitsui in Tamano. The standard displacement of 1490 tons, full 1788 T. maximum Length 97 m, width-10,4 m, draft 3,5 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel installation 16 000 HP, speed 26 knots. Armament: two twin 76-mm artillery systems, single four-barrel 375-mm RBU “Bofors”, four 533-mm and three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW,one release gear. Only in 1961 — 1964 built 4 units.
 
113. The frigate “Chikugo”, Japan, 1970
 
Built at the shipyard Mitsui in Tamano. The standard displacement of 1470 tons, a full 1700 t maximum Length 93 m, width 10.8 m,draught 3,5 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel installation 16 000 HP, speed 28 knots. Armament: one beauty of PU recettore ASROC, one coupled 76-mm gun mount, one coupled 40-mm automatic, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes. Just 1970-1977 built 11 units.
 
114. The frigate “abukuma river”, Japan, 1989
 
Built at the shipyard Mitsui in Tamano. A displacement of 2050 tons standard, full 2550 T. maximum Length 109 m, width of 13.4 m, draft 3,8 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel-gas turbine 32 650 HP, speed 27 knots. Armament: PU 8 RCC “Harpoon”, one beauty of PU recettore ASROC, one 76-mm gun mount, one six-barreled 20-mm anti-aircraft artillery complex “Vulcan Phalanx”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes. Only 1989 — 1993 built 6 units.

 
On the model of the “Ishikari” was planned to build a large series (20 units!), but tests have shown that the project has a number of drawbacks. The main of them are unsatisfactory seaworthiness resulting from excessive compactness of the housing. Therefore, the next two ships of the “Yubari” noticeably “grown up” in size, they increased the fuel capacity and reserved space for the installation of a six-barreled 20-mm anti-aircraft artillery complex “Vulcan Phalanx”. However, seaworthiness for ocean theatre still remained unimportant. Satisfactory and low speed. In General, the criterion of “cost — effectiveness” and “Ishikari” and “Yubari” was not very successful, and from the mass of their buildings sisterships had to be abandoned.
 
In the end, the next series of frigates of the “abukuma river” concept was a development of “Chikugo” — thus, interrupted a branch of their development was restored. True, the new ships were significantly larger, have modern diesel-gas turbine power plant, and the architecture has elements of technology “stealth”. Anti-submarine weapons, including ASROC, remained the same, but the artillery was completely replaced. In addition, there were anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”. Interestingly, according to tonnage and armament “abukuma river” is almost identical to the destroyers of the “Amagumo”, so to draw the line between these classes of surface ships each year becomes increasingly difficult.
 
If the military doctrine of post-war Japan, despite its Pro-American orientation, is still somewhat “vague” in nature (because really this country today, nobody is threatening), the so-called “Republic of China”, located on the island of Taiwan, the situation is quite different. This unrecognized by the international community of the country there is a particular enemy of China, which considers the island illegally seized part of its territory. That is why Taiwan keeps in constant combat readiness powerful armed forces, including numerous fleet, which it is prescribed to prevent the landing of mainland China.
 
Until the early 1990-ies the basis of the surface fleet of Taiwan was old but thoroughly modernized American destroyers. When their life finally expired, to replace them came the frigates transferred from the U.S. ships of the “Knox” and the latest French style “Lafayette.” At the same time began the construction of frigates and on the private shipyards — the good, the shipbuilding base in Taiwan was quite modern. However, to develop their own projects, the followers of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek did not, and bought drawings of the American “X. Oliver Perry” (see “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 9 for 2004). Of course, that the frigate had already pretty out of date, but the complex circumstances of economic and political nature, made to stop the choice on it. Seven frigates of the “Cheng kun”, which entered into operation in 1993 and 1998 differed from their American counterparts only by the presence of additional pairs of 40-mm “Bogorov” and own anti-ship missiles “Suntan-2” replacing the standard “harpoon”. The Taiwanese planned to build seven ships increased on improved project (installations vertical launch anti-aircraft missiles and multi-functional weapons control system “aegis”), but for financial reasons this program had to be abandoned. Until recently, while the Navy of China in technical terms, far behind the West, Taiwanese surface forces and so superior to its potential opponents. Although with the advent of China’s new destroyers and frigates of the “mA’anshan” the situation may radically change.
 
115. The frigates
 
115. The frigates “Ulsan”, South Korea, 1981
 
Built at the shipyard “Hyundai” in Ulsan full Displacement 2180 T. maximum Length 102 m, width 11,5 m, draft 3,5 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel-gas turbine 59 500 HP, speed 34 knots. Armament: PU 8 RCC “Harpoon”, two 76-mm automatic artillery systems, four coaxial 30-mm machine gun, two three-pipe 324-mm torpedo tubes, two release gear. Only in 1981 — 1993 built 9 units (on the last five instead of 30-mm machine guns mounted three twin 40-mm gun mount, “Nonsense”).

 
116. Frigate (TFR) type
 
116. Frigate (TFR) type “Najin”, Korea, 1973
 
Built at the shipyard in Nachyn. Full displacement of about 1,500 tons maximum Length 102 m, width 10 m, draft 2.7 m. Power diesel installations 18 000 HP, speed 24 knots. Armament: 2 SIC P-15, two 100-mm artillery systems B-34, two paired 57-mm and 30-mm and paired six 25-mm guns, two release gear. Only in 1973 — 1975 built 2 units. The appearance of the vehicle and its performance characteristics are as of the 1990s, after modernization and re-equipment.

 
Another far-Eastern “hot spot” where the two countries for decades to confront each other, — the Korean Peninsula. Of course, the geographical position of the DPRK and the Republic of Korea determines that in case of military conflict, the Navy is unlikely to play a decisive role. Nevertheless, both countries pay to the development of its Navy enough attention — apparently, it does not forget about the Incheon landing operation in 1950 saved South Korean ruler Syngman Rhee from imminent military collapse. It is noteworthy that the first relatively large warships built in South Korea were the frigates. Nine pieces of type “Ulsan”, which came into operation in 1981 — 1993, was equipped with standard Western “filling” of Italian artillery, Dutch radar, American gas turbines, missiles, torpedoes and electronic warfare… In General, by the standards of NATO frigates looked very ordinary, but the fact that their construction led South Korea to a new level: while in Asia, except for Soviet Union, no less than modern ships could only create Japan. Moreover, the start was famously taken: along with “alsoname” the Korean shipyard in 1993, has built 28 quite large (displacement over 1,000 tons) of corvettes, and then took and destroyers. In 1991 — 1992 two frigates of type “Ulsan” — “Jeju” and “Chun Nam” — with the purpose of displaying the flag made the long trip to Europe and, in particular, first visited the Black sea.
 
In the DPRK to the construction of large surface ships began early of a potential enemy. The first two frigate (TFR) was established here in the first half of the 1970s. their appearance clearly reflected preached by Pyongyang’s ideology of “self-reliance”. The ships, known in the West as a type of “Najin”, lagged behind their foreign “classmates” at least a quarter of a century. The composition of weapons they were close to the TFR of the Soviet project 50, but had more simple diesel power plant, and the silhouette resembled a reduced destroyer during the Second world war. In 1980-ies of their modernized: instead of the three-pipe torpedo tubes in the middle of the hull mounted two containers with anti-ship missiles P-15 Soviet production, and to the existing anti-aircraft artillery added two 30 mm AK-230. However, the combat value of frigates this did not increase though, because all of their electronics remained at the level of 1950-ies.
 
In 1981, the stocks of the plant in Nachyn went on a new patrol boat catamaran with a full displacement of about 1600 tons, abroad received a notation “SOHO”. According to a number of naval publications, he is armed with four RCC P-15 and has a helipad. However, his artillery, rocket mortars, radars, exclusively Soviet-style, looked completely outdated. Despite the unusual architecture (and now the world is the only frigate — classic catamaran), “SOHO” in the moment of its introduction could not effectively solve the requirements of modern warships of the task.
 
S. BALAKIN

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