THE ERA OF THE TRANSATLANTIC CRANKSHAFT

THE ERA OF THE TRANSATLANTIC CRANKSHAFTIn the nineteenth century, the United States became a real “worker” in the field of underwater shipbuilding. To a large extent this contributed to the Civil war in which both sides actively tried to use all conceivable technical tricks. However, the “underwater Express” has typed a full speed not immediately. After the second (and, as it turned out, last) war against England came decades latent fermentation of thoughts, not often manifested in the final product. Only in 1851, a curious enthusiast, Lodner Phillips issued the first “product”, so to speak, of the new bottling. 26-year-old inventor came from a quite land of Indiana, had no formal education, knew little of the experience of his predecessors, and his main profession was… Shoe business. And available funds had virtually no.

All this does not prevent young technique in the young country to build its own submarine. The first attempt came out naturally lumpy: Phillips honored to make the case from wood without any covering. The submarine turned out tiny, only 3.7 m in length and just over a meter in diameter, and was a narrow, high barrel to which the front and rear adjacent two of the cone. Nameless boat was waiting for logical and quick end: it sank on lake Michigan at the first dive, fortunately carried out without people. (It is difficult to imagine a brave man who in their right mind, would venture to reside in such “cylindrical coffin”).

 
But Phillips failure is not discouraged, but only spurred. He repeated the attempt, the maximum taking into account all the shortcomings of the first experiment. The boat (now named – the “Cigar marine” -“Marine cigar”) became much larger (length 6.1 m, diameter 1.5 m) and found all of the elements of this submarine: ballast tank, a dual sunroof-the gateway to the middle part (to avoid accidental flooding), propeller driven, as you can guess, man, even the system of regeneration of air and the portholes in the bow. From tipping over and a spontaneous rotation around its axis under the action of the screw “cigar” had delivered four longitudinal keel. But the material remained the same tree. However, the boat really sank and surfaced and even move under water with a totally unimaginable for such a primitive engine speed, supposedly about 3 uz. Most likely, apart from the acquired technical skills of its author possessed a remarkable advertising talent. He was not only able to get a patent on the propeller (Archimedes!), but also tried to sell the “Cigar marine” native fleet. Having been refused (also quite distinctive, in stating that “vessels of our Navy floats on the water, not under water”), Phillips managed to “give” your product “individual” money. Alas, this story ended very bad: the submarine sank on lake Erie with his new owner. In 1915 she was found and raised, found inside terrible picture: the skeleton of the unfortunate buyer. Incidentally, for a long time it was believed that the boat had killed its inventor.
But this is not true. The author successfully continued its activities, creating its own version of the hard suit. Beginning in 1861, the Civil war, he decided that it was his finest hour. Being a true northerner, Phillips, naturally, proposed a project for a military submarine to the Federal government. “A battering RAM” (“RAM Emerick”), as he proudly called the future of the underwater vessel, the description and drawings presented a very interesting project. The corps will retain the same shape, but about twice the length of even narrowed. The inventor thought that such lines will allow to develop a decent underwater speed. And the engine (of course, all the same the healthy men) had a tough job: hunched in the “barrel” with a diameter of less than five feet, in shifts of six people, a huge rotating crankshaft that drives the propeller. (It is worth noting that among all the options, “muscle engine” this with a common rotating shaft was at least to some extent, practical. As we will describe below, its use was carried out the first successful submarine attack). However, Phillips realized that even a team of 13 people, of which the “rowing duties” exempts only the commander will be very tight, therefore, suggested to use for navigation on the surface the steam engine. Its the pipe before the dive was supposed to close tightly, paying off pre-heat in the furnace. The idea as the idea subsequently caught on at a certain time; it is not clear where this car could be placed in very close case. Because a significant portion of its volume occupied in the compressed air, which would allow the “human motor” of a longer work under water. Reserve this, however, was intended not only for people.
 
Submarine
 
The submarine “alligator”, USA, 1862
 
Built at the shipyard “Nifi & Levi” in Philadelphia. Type of construction – single -. A displacement of about 10 m Size: length 14.0 m, width of about 1.37 m, a height of 1.83 m. Material of case: iron. Immersion depth of about 10 m. Motor: muscle strength, propulsion – strokes, then the screw speed to 2 KTS. Weapons: drill-brace, 6 saws, two gun for underwater shooting. Crew: 18 people Died during a storm in April 1863
 
1 – rotation; 2 – lock chamber; 3 – the observation dome; 4 – door; 5 – cylinder for adjustment of buoyancy; 6 – buoys for the insurance of drilling down to the utmost depth; 7 – views with ropes buoys for insurance; 8 – device for the regeneration air; 9 – mines with a moving cargo; 10 – ballast tanks; 11 – pumps; 12 – arm strokes; 13 – the strokes

 
Because Philips took care of the weapons that the boat was literally bristling. The former shoemaker showed that a veritable riot of imagination, of course which does credit to his imagination; about the possibility of applying insights to make better to the reader, fortunately, you do not need special knowledge. In the nose of the submarine was located just two “weapons”: a tubular rail for the rocket launch, which drags on a “leash” mine, after hitting missiles on the hull of the enemy ship mine by inertia followed the “media” exploded and sank the enemy; the second, a huge drill, rotated by the same tireless crew members, it in the hull of the enemy ship was doing ordinary holes. The striking power of the submarine was supplemented with… gun, homing using traditional tanks “Apple” and shot by means of compressed air from the same cylinders. And finally, pop-up mines, produced from the mines in the aft when passing under the target. Any hint on how to ensure the integrity of all these shooters-soliloq-vypuskala under the influence in the project were not available. What can I say? Except to tip my hat to the discretion of the Naval Ministry, failed to Phillips without any prior experiences with “Us RAM”.
 
Of really interesting structural ideas, in addition to a huge crankshaft in this project can note an attempt to solve the problem of longitudinal stability in the submerged position, delivering such a lot of unpleasant moments for almost everyone the first “submariner”, some led to death. A self-taught inventor has proposed a kind of machine: the pendulum, which, when the deviation from the vertical was opened the right valve, perepuska water from the ballast tanks in the bow or stern respectively. When you restore balance valve same pendulum overlap. Pretty clever; subsequently, this system was implemented in metal in different projects, not yet convinced that its inertia is too large, and the water in the bypass duct only increases the instability of a trim. So, with this innovation, Philips was unlucky, how unlucky he is in life in General: 5 years after the end of the war he died of tuberculosis at the age of just 44 years.
 
A few more implementation ideas lucky “imported” to the inventor, the Frenchman Brutus de Villeroy, you. His first boat he built back in 1832 in the homeland; it was a very small structure, with a length of about 3 m and a width and a height of about one meter. However, this “toy” floating, submerged (albeit briefly, no more than a few tens of minutes) and floated. And even in the presence of representatives of the government, which is still not particularly interested in the submarine, either then or 20 years later during the Crimean war, when Villeroy, you proposed to build a submarine bigger sizes. France, who fought in Alliance with Britain, these tricks are not absolutely needed. Offended by the refusal, the author went over the ocean looking for a new home and want to bring to life his ideas.
 
And I found those pretty quickly. Just a year after arriving in the United States Villeroy, you have built-to-order Philadelphia banker S. Girard his boat. Of course, the rich man ought not to underwater warfare; submarine – rare for that time was intended for a more peaceful and a much more profitable craft. It was assumed that released her divers will be able to detect the stock of gold sank nearly a century ago, military vehicle and make the Girard richer.
 
The constructor was just implemented his idea of the French period. Boat length of about 10 m and diameter 1 m was set in motion by the conventional screw propeller with “muscular mechanism”. The availability of funds decided a lot: it was quickly built and tested, and the diver really raised from the bottom and taken into the boat rocks and shells as evidence of the success of the implementation of the idea. But, when it came to finding real treasure, the case stalled. In history there is no evidence about the success of this enterprise, and hence gold remained in its place. However, the constant immersion and emersion attracted the attention of vigilant citizens. After all, the former colony in 1861, entered into a bloody fight between them: the Civil war began. Suspicious “bomb” the Philadelphia police took into custody suspected that targeting an important shipyard in the feds.
 
Submarine
Submarine “Intellidzhent whale”, USA, 1866
 
Built at the shipyard in Newark. Type of construction – single -. Full displacement of about 13 tons Dimensions: length of 8.74 m, width of about 2.13 m, height of 2.74 m. body Material: iron. Immersion depth of about 10 m. Motor: muscle strength, propulsion – screw. Arms: the charges established by divers, based on the boat. Crew: 13 persons were Killed during the acceptance tests of the fleet in 1872 Raised, is in the Museum exposition

 
However, Villeroy, you and his child came out of the dangerous waters unscathed. The chief of the shipyard and the Commission within a few days experienced a submarine and interviewed its designer. The result was a very positive report, that got to the marine Minister, and from him to President Lincoln. The same, despite the huge employment, taking the time to talk to Villeroy, you. The fact that the Federal government had information about the transformation of a captured enemy frigate “Merrimack” in a mysterious ship of an entirely new type — the first battleship. Already at this stage it would be nice to have against him as a modern counter-argument, even as a submarine. The Frenchman (maybe even American) has received an order for development of the project submarines are intended not for the peace work, and to attack enemy ships.
 
Villeroy, you have managed it in record time – one month! — fortunately, he needed only to restore the original “French” option in the light of accumulated experience. The naval Ministry issued an order for the construction of the Philadelphia private shipyard in early November 1861 with the condition of readiness of the submarine in 40 days! Time to admire… and is an understandable expectation that it is impossible to withstand. What happened: workers “hurry slowly”, the master Builder M. Thomas was actively in conflict with “the frog”, set as the main controller for execution of the order, believing themselves to be more competent engineer and trying to impose more convenient (for themselves) the technical solutions. In the end, Villeroy, you even stopped appearing in the shipyard and the boat was completed after the former “Merrimack”, which became armored “Virginia”, successfully passed the Federal court blocked him and no longer be a “sitting duck”.
 
Suffering the boat, named for the resemblance of the form “Alligator”, launched only six months after the start of construction, and then completed another month and a half. The works ended only on June 13, and “alligator” became not only the first submarine, which became part of the US Navy, but also did the first underwater vehicle in the world, enlisted in the regular Navy.
 
 
“Intelligent whale” in the historic center of the U.S. Navy (Washington)
 
The submarine is indeed somewhat resembled the insidious predator that gave it its name. A long narrow iron case, oval in cross-section, ended in rounded cones at the bow and stern. Small cabin with round glass portholes to illuminate the interior of the front, naveivali comparison with the crocodile’s muzzle with characteristic growths around the eyes. Complement the similarity of the “legs” – the strokes type shillerovsky, except that their numbers clearly exceeded all the ideas of nature: eight pieces from each Board. It is worth noting that the movement means responsible Villeroy, you, but just arguing with him Thomas. Right turned out it was the inventor that used in early boats (and in the project “Alligator”) is more effective and durable crankshaft. In the end, had strokes to remove and install the crankshaft. In addition to this “loss of tempo”, the boat and the US Navy suffered another has already been irreparable damage. The exiled Thomas Villeroy, you wouldn’t share the secret of his apparatus for the regeneration air of the device, apparently similar to the “know-how” Wilhelm Bauer, because, according to fragmentary descriptions, the absorption of carbon dioxide was carried out by passing the “exhaust” of air through lime water, after which it is saturated with oxygen, obtained with the help of special chemical generator. When the military realized it, the “new American citizen of French origin” and have not been able to find: he disappeared into the unknown.
 
But all the weapons “Alligator”, as envisaged in the original project, and added Thomas stayed with him. Set of weapons is impressive in both breadth and very low applicability. The most casually looks bow-camera-gateway for the diver, fortunately, Villeroy, you had a lot of experience with such device in their civilian submarine in search of gold. And then it starts to get interesting. In the commander’s cupola was located manual actuator, a rotating drill placed in the nose. Of course, drilling them expected the enemy ships – the through holes. This exotic was supplemented by another carpenter, “instrument”, six side saws arranged at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the housing. “Alligator”, as a real reptile, potentially could “backrests” on the side or the bottom of the enemy, sawn him, or at least damaging to the leak. The bottom of the enemy ship seemed to be doomed: if wouldn’t work and this rig is for cutting wood, might provide two small cannon, mounted vertically on the sides of the cabin. A volley from below was supposed to sink the target; if it is not managed immediately, it was possible to reload the gun four times.
However, to apply these means of struggle would be possible unless absolutely careless and not wanting to budge for long hours to the enemy. Not surprisingly, the first and only task – the explosion of an important railway bridge, which was in the hands of the confederates, which you had to use the only more or less reliable means, the diver who was supposed to set the charges on the bulls. “Alligator” was just the vehicle. But even this modest task he could not perform. After several attempts to pass the river, it became clear that it is not enough underwater speed, notorious strokes is constantly breaking down, observation in the muddy water was very difficult, and indeed, maneuvering just lacked depth.
 
So, in fact, ended, barely begun, of active military service of the first submarine of the United States Navy. The submarine was sent for repairs and upgrades, which just replaced the stroke on the crankshaft and removed the excess weapons, limiting the installation shestova mines. (Why, will become clear just below: because the use of this simple weapon and led to the first successful submarine attack). On the test after completion of “the alligator” could have been a few tens of minutes to maintain a speed of 2 knots quite decent for a “human traction”. Affected pretty good body shape.
 
Underwater (submersible) boat
 
Underwater (submersible) boat “pioneer”, the Confederation States of America, 1862
 
Built in the workshops in new Orleans. Type of construction – single -. Full displacement of about 4 t Dimensions: length 6.1 m, width-1,32 m, height 1.83 m. Material: iron. Immersion depth – to the positional position. Motor: muscle strength, propulsion – screw. Weapons: towed Fulton mine (“torpedo”). Crew: 3 pers. Not entered service, flooded due to the proximity of the Northmen in April 1862 Raised, is in the Museum exposition. The photo “pioneer” in the 1880s, the Blades of the propeller (left) broken

 
Finally in March 1863 the submarine again went on a campaign to join the besieged forces of northerners. It is clear that to go any long time at sea “alligator” could not own, so it dragged on a tow boat. Was played serious storm, a heavy load dangling behind the stern, and threatened to destroy the ship and its captain ordered to cut the rope. The submarine immediately sank, and seek to raise her away from the shore and no one had not occurred. However, the fleet of the North, this loss just didn’t notice his superiority over the enemy was too big and no submarines.
 
The loss of the “Alligator” was the last failure of “underwater games” in the North. In the same year 1863 there was formed, neither more nor less, “an American company for the production of submarines”. Its founders did was not romantic: they are motivated by a desire to earn income from a new type of naval weapons. They deliberately and aggressively “punch” through Congress a law on privateering (by that time already operating in the Confederacy), under which a submarine could obtain a patent for the seizure of enemy ships, and its owner a handsome profit from the captured cargo. It was under this task the engineer Skoal Meriam was designed for the company submarine under the curious name of “Intellidzhent whale” (“Intelligent whale”). “Kit” may have assumed “reasonable”, but actually turned out to be almost primitive in everything from shape: short, wide and high, although with streamlined contours. As a “motor” was used again the crankshaft, rotate which was 9 of 13 crew members. Two of the remaining four teams were divers, which has not even had the lock chamber. They were produced through hatches in the bottom, and the water did not penetrate into the boat on the principle of a diving bell. Carried out this operation after setting the boat on two anchors in the form of massive weights on chains. The diver had to reinforce mine on the bottom of an enemy ship and were back in the boat, then the captain of the submarine blew up the charge circuit.
 
Diagram of a submarine
Diagram of a submarine “the American diver”
 
In principle, nothing new or particularly interesting “kit” in itself did not carry. Moreover, the law on privateering in the Federation has not passed; the construction slowed down and then stopped altogether. Only in 1866, after the end of hostilities, the boat was brought to a willingness and even inspected in the presence of the Commission of military engineers. As usual in testing, the program managed to run, albeit with overlap. The boat sank at 5 m, and out the diver secured the mine at the bottom of the target. However, the authorities firmly said “No!”. The war ended, the “product” didn’t look too promising money for it “companysite” asked lot. In General, complete collapse.
 
The story of the “Intelligent whale,” those would have ended, if not one of the founders of the company, Oliver Halstead. He bought the other “fathers-founders” of their shares, became the sole owner of the “miracle”… and began a real battle with the U.S. government. Over the next five years he tried to “sell” the submarine to the Navy, over and over again, gradually reducing the price. The process was not for the future to anyone: Halstead go into debt, and “kit” without the care and maintenance slowly rusting. When the end of 1872, 9 years after the start of construction, the fleet finally surrendered to the stubborn entrepreneur, first test thoroughly rusted body gave a solid flow so that the crew barely managed to escape to the surface. The boat sank. And soon the sad fate and its host: one of the creditors got tired of waiting now impossible to return the debt, and he shot Halsted. This “story” over time has acquired a kind of legend. According to one of them, the designer of the submarine was itself Holsted, on the other, “Intellidzhent whale” sank repeatedly, taking each time the entire crew. In fact, it was not; whence came part of the legends, we can assume, knowing, as was the case with the opponents of the northerners.
 
And for the Confederation of the southern States the superiority of the enemy caused an acute need for “wonder weapons” that could turn the tide of war on the water, to lift the blockade, give access to foreign sources of weapons and goods. One such tool was the first battleship, but only for a very short time. Economically more powerful North began to build the same thing, but faster, better and in greater numbers. However, there was another possibility – a submarine, a typical “weapon of the weak”. And southerners did not fail to use it or at least try.
 
The first “southern” the submarine had a very specific purpose, such as “whale” of their opponents, namely, that privateering. Capture merchant ships of the Northmen promised pickings from their cargo, and a successful attack the siege forces award during the sinking. In contrast to the United States Congress, the Confederate government was looking at such things much more favorably. The new case took a new Orleans stockbroker, Horace Hunley. Of course, like “the Company on the construction of submarines” northerners himself to design and build the submarine, he could not. The task was accomplished engineer and designer, James McClintock, only a few months to build in practically deprived of the right equipment mechanical workshops small (with a displacement of only 4 t) underwater boat, named “pioneer”. The design, of course, had no frills: two of the three members of the crew rotated the same crankshaft connected to the four-bladed propeller, dive and surfacing was carried out by only filling the ballast tanks with water pumping manual pump. Air flow was provided by a flexible hose with a float on the end. In General, McClintock used all the known techniques of underwater shipbuilding, including weapons presented a towed mine type Churchill’s Fulton’s “torpedoes”. Apply it it was supposed in a peculiar way. A boat was from time to time to podplyvaet, and the only more or less a free member of the crew, commander, “focus on location” (at the same time giving their “motors” to get some fresh air) and dive again to in the end to adjust mine to the ship of the enemy.
 
Underwater (submersible), the submarine
Underwater (submersible), the submarine “Hunley,” the Confederate States of America, 1863
 
Built in the workshops in mobile. Type of construction – single -. Full displacement of about 2.5 tons Dimensions: length 12.2 m, width 1.16 m, height 1.22 m, with logging – 1.75 m. body Material: iron. Immersion depth – to the positional position. Motor: muscle strength, propulsion – screw, the speed of 2.5 KTS. Armament: shestova mine (the charge). Crew: 9-10 persons twice were drowned in the process of testing and training. Died during the successful attack Corvette “Housatonic” in February 1864 Raised, is in the Museum exposition

 
However, simple ideas and low cost embodiment of led to success: “pioneer” normally swam and plunged and, most interesting, was even able to hit a “torpedo” training goal (although this is only on the surface of the lake, Ponchartrain). Now Hunley was eager to recoup their costs and make a profit. He achieved for his “pioneer” patent privateer and was in a hurry to take him to sea. But despite the rush, not enough time: the northerners took New Orleans and the team and the owner had to drown his creation in one of the channels. 15 years after the end of the war “private marque” raised and hoisted in the city Museum as a curious monument of ingenuity in the absence of forces and means.
 
However, the thrust of the “concessionaires” were not satisfied and moved to the port of mobile, where he started the construction of new submarines. “Emerick Diver” (something like “American diver”) were larger (length more than 9 m) and had two turrets with hatches instead of one. The reason is simple: increased to five man crew, four of which intensely twisted crankshaft, “drinking” oxygen from the air in just a quarter of an hour. Therefore had to emerge, “open the window and ventilate the room”. McClintock has offered a very advanced idea: to be used for rotation of the screw electric motor, powered by batteries, that is exactly the engine that has become a classic for underwater travel before atomic. However, batteries and motors of the time were too heavy and inefficient, and the experiments failed. And “vents” killed “Diver” of the deceased, like his Northern rival, in the first attempt to go in the military campaign. Even the circumstances were similar: towing, sea conditions, rapid escape of the submarine to the bottom. Fortunately, the entire crew managed to escape, but the Hunley once again suffered material damage. He, like Halsted, was close to complete financial collapse. But when such “stuff” stopped enterprising Americans? The hunley with their ideas picked up “on the hook” Texas businessman Edgar singer, whose numerous “history of submarines” is often confused with the world famous manufacturer of sewing machines Isaac singer, “the northerner” from new York. A Zinger-a southerner indeed quickly established a special company “singer submariner Corporation” and cough up the necessary funds.
 
Speed of construction was decided: the Confederation began to breathe its last. McClintock immediately got down to business. For a long time were legends of that to expedite the works as the Foundation of the corps, he took an old locomotive boiler, which is riveted tip with a more befitting a vehicle with sharp lines. Actually, the “pioneer-3”, called his third boat designer, was fully special construction, and its body had a large elongation (>10:1) and a streamlined shape. The rest McClintock, devoid of even the minimum of lead time, especially do not philosophize, and repeated the solutions tested on the “Emerick diver”.
 
As a result, the boat went pretty primitive. For example, ballast tanks did not have lids, and the water level in them was determined by eye. Almost all the interior space was occupied by the engine, a beefed up 7 – 8 people, huge rotating the crankshaft. In the work took part the assistant to the commander, if he was not distracted in the moment on other responsibilities. Free from this obligation remained only the commander, which had a lot of other things: monitoring the situation through the Windows, you control the horizontal and vertical rudders, drainage manual pump bow tank for ballast, not to mention the use of weapons. As such, chose checked shestova mine made 6 m from the nose and is a copper cylinder with 32 kg of gunpowder and multiple contact fuses. (Originally tried to use a towed mine with which the boat dive to a target dragged behind a rope with mine, then re-emerged and was hit by a mine an enemy ship. But the first tests conducted in July of 1863 showed the unreliability of the system).
Meanwhile, the northerners were advancing on mobile. “Underwater company” had to move to Charleston, South Carolina, where transported by rail, the boat is again launched. Tested there with a crew of volunteers under the command of Lieutenant John Payne continued. But not for long: on 29 August during a test campaign the worst happen. The fact that the vent pipe was too narrow and did not provide air exchange, so that the boat almost always went in the positional status of open hatches in both turrets. These turrets themselves were too close; the man barely squeezed into them, descending into this “floating coffin” or leaving it. The commander, caught in the hose, accidentally pressed foot lever control of the horizontal rudders, the boat pitched nose down and sank. Because of the closeness of the proverbial hatches survived both officers in the turrets and two sailors nearby. The other five went down with the submarine.
 
In two weeks, “pioneer-3” raised and repaired. Testing continued and again ended in tragedy. The boat wanted to direct personally, Horace Hunley, had the experience of the submariner, which has already acquired Payne. On 15 October, the submarine sank but did not rise to the surface. To raise it was only three weeks, and then it turned out that she died not because of the usual leaks. All team members remained alive until the complete exhaustion of oxygen supply, trying in vain to open the hatch, pressed by water pressure. Obviously, the boat got a big trim on the nose, probably because the bow and stern of the tank did not fill at the same time. She go stuck in the bottom of the Harbor. Removable keel, the latter a reserve for emergency ascent, to separate failed: rusted which has set aside his bolts.
 
After the disaster, the boat was named in honor of the deceased -“H. L. Hunley”, but again only informally. From documents the crumbling of the Confederation, it follows that the submarine remained nameless, until his famous attack. Further use of it entirely owes to the brave infantry (!) Lieutenant George Dixon, who became her third commander. He literally begged famous General of the southern Part of Beauregard to authorize the attack against the Corvette northerners “Housatonic”, mozolevski eyes of the besieged Charleston. This ship has already managed to cause real and considerable damage, capturing priyatel blockade with a cargo of weapons, ammunition and medical supplies to huge for that time worth more than a million dollars.
 
 
 
Polupoltina (sinking) boat,
 
Polupoltina (sinking) boat, “David”, the Confederation States of America, 1863
 
Built at the shipyard company “southern torpedo boat company” in Charleston. Type of construction – single -. Displacement: more than 20 ton Dimensions: length 15,24 m, width of 2.74 meters, height of about 2.7 m. body Material: iron. Immersion depth—to the positional position. Engine: steam engine, propeller — screw and a speed of 5 KTS. Armament: shestova mine with a charge of 60 kg Crew: 5 people. was started the construction of a series of 3 units, completed only one. Conducted several attacks on the ships of the Northmen. Flooded with southerners

 
Dixon was in no hurry to go into battle with absolutely new and “raw” command dial which mainly had using human greed (for the sinking ship of the siege of Charleston businessmen promised to pay 100 thousand dollars, a few million at today’s exchange rate). The Lieutenant continued to conduct training outputs until February 1864, and now the boat just in case kept “in chains”, tying rope, coupled with a powerful steam winch, to quickly pull out in case of an accident. Finally, the evening of 17 February, the “Hunley” was published in the military campaign and with its muscular engine and heroically overcame the 4 km that separated him from anchored “Housatonic”.
 
Details of the attack are only known by the description of the Northmen. Sentinel noticed something, “similar to the floating Board” and raised the alarm. However, in accordance with the plan of Dixon, “live motor” developed at this time, maximum speed. The visibility was good enough to finally make out “quickly approaching a big boat upside down under a couple of feet under water.” Followed the orders to move and open fire were not successful. The first just did not have time to do, and for the second the guns were not good: target was already close to the Board. The commander, with grief, shot in the turret from shotgun charged with buckshot. Useless. Shestova mine hit the Board, followed by an explosion inside the hull of the Corvette poured water and he sank in a few minutes. But the loss in men was surprisingly small: just five people. The rest escaped in the rigging: mast rigging protruding from the water, since the depth in the place of attack was only about 8 m.
 
“The hunley” of attack did not return. More than a century in the descriptions was dominated by the beautiful and heroic legend that after the explosion the boat was sucked into a hole, and it sank, along with “How-satanicos”. But soon the victim of a submarine dismantled for firewood, and have found no traces of “killer”. Then, the country has absorbed the new achievements and new interests, and the hero of the first successful submarine attack simply forgotten, fortunately, all attempts to detect the submarine ended in failure. Meanwhile, the documents were found growing evidence that the “Hunley” was able to escape after the attack. In the 80-ies of XX century began a systematic search with the part as the “ideologist” famous maker techno bestsellers Clive Kessler. In the course of work were used the most advanced equipment, including sensitive magnetometer and sonar. The search was a success only in 1995: the boat is finally found! But the associated legend is not exhausted: until now, data about where it found “Henley”, strongly disagree – called values from 100 m to 1000 m from “Housatonic”. The submarine was raised recently, in 2000, and placed in a Museum. But the cause of death remained a mystery. What was not foreseen: or damage from explosion of own mines, and gunfire from shotguns and rifles on Board the Corvette, even RAM another ship coming to the aid of the victim. Anyway, the first successful submarine attack took place, although the material results leave serious doubts. Suffice it to recall that the boat consistently almost died three crew, that is, casualties amounted to four times more than in the explosion of “Housatonic”. But the moral effect exceeded the material many times. Now none of the most powerful surface ship could not consider himself safe: and suddenly from under the water approaches the invisible enemy.
 
And for good reason. Southerners are not limited to the construction of the “Hunley” and the attack by the brave Lieutenant Dixon. In Charleston about the same time settled another group of enthusiasts consisting of designer – army captain, Francis Lee, and two engineers – T. stony, and D. Iboo. The first designed, and the other two supervised the construction of the original combat ship, which is appropriately called “polupodpolno boat”. We are talking about “David”, a much more widely known compared to submarine McClintock. (Often the attack “Housatonic” attributed to “David”),
 
The highlight of the new ship, the hull shape much like the “Hunley” was the engine. Lee finally decided to abandon the use of rapidly diminishing muscle strength. The main part of the internal volume of “David” took the steam engine and its boiler (in view of the urgency, the installation just took a small unfinished ship). As a result, “almost submarine” has lost the ability to completely take over the water remained cut off flat ground at the top of the enclosure surrounded by a low bulwark, and protruding over her chimney. But the speed has increased dramatically, up to 5 KTS.; the main thing is to keep her you long enough until you run out of coal.
 
As the weapons on the “David” was used all the same shestova mine, just posted on the “shaft” with a length of about 6 m. However, the charge has grown in weight to 60 kg. But the goal was to hit much more solid. Instead of a 2000-ton wooden “Housatonic” “kid” southerners opposed the ship of a new type, the battleship “new Ironsides” with a displacement of almost 4300 tons, the capacity to compete with any coastal fortification in the district of Charleston, and thus predetermines the fall of the city.
 
The first attack of “David” chronologically preceded the success of Dixon. 20 Aug 1863, D. Carlin brought his ship into the sea. Primitive steam plant all the time was junk, so the commander so much for the hike, so when you approach a goal, the fact helped the tide, and the care after the attack – tide. In the darkness of southern nights still managed to observe the target. Followed order to give full speed, and, as luck would have it, “steamboat” is broken. “Semi-submarine” was in a helpless state dangerously close to a military ship, which after some time found a strange object and opened gun fire. Fortunately for the confederates, the accident was eliminated, and “David” had gone empty-handed.
 
To the next exit, it took almost two months. On 5 October, under the command of Lieutenant W. Glassel, a strange creature almost repeated attempts Carlin. To guarantee the new commander came in advance, getting closer to the “new Ironsides” and dropped anchor to wait for nightfall. The time to attack (in the beginning of the tenth evening) was selected in such a way that the team went to bed, and on the deck were only a few watch. However, the last did his duty. Once again “David” was seen and opened indiscriminate gun fire. A small crew of southerners (5 people) suddenly responded in kind; some of them even managed to mortally wound the watch of the captain of the battleship. Fortunately for the confederates, the powerful guns of the northerners to apply failed: the boat was in a dead zone at the corners of reduce. But the nerves of the commander of the “David” did not survive. He detonated the charge too early, before the pole buried into the side of the goal.
 
The water column rose to the height of the masts “new Ironsides”. And Armadillo, and the attacker shuddered. But the first is not affected completely (experts felt that the blast wave from the mines exploded close to the surface of the water, he was saved just armor belt). But “David” had a bad one. The water put out the furnace; the northerners urgently dispatched “in pursuit” two monitors and two boats. But the chase-and failed. Glassel considered the situation hopeless and ordered to leave the ship immediately your order and perform. But one of the sailors could not swim and chose to stay on the unreliable “the raft” among the continued indiscriminate firing of guns. “David” was helplessly drifting in an hour, when suddenly, a bulwark had rolled over the shivering mechanic, as well, was not the best swimmer and not ripened for the commander and two other members of the team. Two “violators of order” lit a fire in the furnace and eventually brought the boat back to Charleston!
 
In principle, this action can be considered almost successful: polupodpolno the boat went on the attack, reached the goal and used their weapons. The northerners seem to have responded to a new danger: the guard for the siege ships was strengthened and ordered to redouble our vigilance, especially in the night, opening fire on any suspicious object on the surface of the water. But these measures did not prevent patched “David” repeat “shock time” in March 1864. This time the target was the gunboat northerners “Memphis”. And again, mine blew up too far, but the enemy got hull damage. There is information about the third attack in April, this time against the frigate the feds have not given result. However, prominences-polyommatini showed significant activity, besides, he was more familiar to the sailors of the boats and less dependent on conditions at sea or river compared to a “pure” submarine. In the end the company managed to obtain an order for a series “of David.” Actually the construction was completed only two or three (if you count the first), but in the fighting to participate they did not. Charleston fell, and soon surrendered and the Confederacy. The civil war ended.
 
Americans from both warring parties only managed to build a very primitive submarines. But still managed to use them and even reached the first real military success. And this practice they subsequently proved very useful…
 
V. KOFMAN

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