THE HEIRS OF THE 10TH FLOTILLA MAS

THE HEIRS OF THE 10TH FLOTILLA MASAll wars end sooner or later, no exception and the most terrible in human history the Second world war. And when peace came, the experts were not in a hurry to understand tendencies of development of those or other weapons systems. It is obvious that during the conduct of hostilities, the release of new models of equipment and retraining of personnel on long-term patterns difficult to achieve.

Thinking specialists about the midget submarines and underwater saboteurs. Has become widely popular memoirs of Prince Borghese “Tenth flotilla MAS”. Many were interested in the technique used by the Italians. Small submarines and underwater towing required relatively small investments, but promised to become a dangerous weapon in the hands of experienced crews. The development has received both directions.
 
YUGOSLAVIAN MIDGET SUBMARINES
 
Former Italian boat SV went to the Soviet Union (four faulty submarines was captured in Romania) and Yugoslavia. And if the Soviet Union inefficient “Italians” went for scrapping in February 1945, in Yugoslavia SV-20 long was repaired at the shipyard Uljanik Brodogradiliste in Pula and commissioned, the Navy of Yugoslavia in 1948, the Boat was successfully used by the Navy until 1956, and then did not disband, becoming in 1959 the exhibit at Tehnicki Muzej in Zagreb.
The possibility of building and using the same submarines of own production were discussed in Yugoslavia for almost 30 years. In the end, the feasibility of using underwater sabotage of funds is reflected in the military doctrine. The order was placed for the construction of midget submarines.
 
Submarine R-911 Tisa on the keel blocks
 
Submarine R-911 Tisa on the keel blocks
 
A schematic external view and cross-section of the Yugoslav midget boats M-100
 
Schematic representation of the appearance and incision of the Yugoslav midget boats M-100
 
The performance characteristics of midget submarines for the Yugoslav projects
 
Performance characteristics of midget submarines for the Yugoslav project
 
 
The launching of the boat of R-Soca 914, which in the Croatian Navy will be called P-01 Velebit
 
Launching boats R-914 Soca, which in the Croatian Navy will be called P-01 Velebit
 
On the basis of operating experience and post-war SV tactical views in 1977 was formulated requirements for new small sabotage the boats. In the early 1970s, when boats V-71 and V-72 (Heroj and Sava) were still in the design stage, it was decided that Yugoslav submarines must have sufficient autonomy to act approximately 2/3 of the Adriatic sea (including the Yugoslav coast) – Molat island and Ancona, and to be able to dive to depths up to 150 m. Operation of conventional submarines from the Italian coast, where the depth of the coastal strip 10-20 miles does not exceed 20 m was not possible.
 
Construction midget submarines for Yugoslavia was carried out by shipyard “Brodosplit” in split (now in Croatia). In the period 1984 – 1990 were built 6 boats of the M-1 OOO. The boat was equipped with an electric motor, powered by a rechargeable battery, charging which it was possible to produce only in the database. In 1990, all 6 boats were equipped with a small GRP control room.
 
The project included the following options interchangeable weapons:
 
a) 12 small diversionary min;
 
b) 4 light torpedoes;
 
in) 4 bottom mines;
 
d) 6 large sabotage min (weight 250 kg);
 
d) 6 frogmen and 4 double conveyor type R-2Маlа.
 
In the Yugoslav Navy to design a small boat was set the upper limit of the tonnage value of 100 t, this determined the name of the class of M-100 (before that, in 1974, were built midget boats M-40).
 
Final requirements were as follows: maximum immersion depth 150 m, underwater speed of 4 knots (mode 80% battery charge), working depth – 90 m, the autonomy of 48 hours, maximum underwater speed of 6 – 7 knots, good controllability and maneuverability at a speed of 1 knot.
 
Extensive testing of the submarine R-911 showed that the designers managed to fulfill the requirements.
 
M-100 were enrolled in the 88th brigade of submarines and was stationed in the 82nd marine center, located in Kumbor, on the shore of the largest Bay of the Adriatic sea – Boka Kotorska. Experts pointed out that the boat was very low noise. Yugoslav sources claim that none of the M-100 was never detected during the execution of tasks, even if the teachings of the ships of the Yugoslav Navy was warned about the “underwater danger”. During the acceptance tests of R-911 several times crossed the line of hydrophones at the entrance to the main base for the Yugoslav Navy in the Pool. And this fact is known. In 1999, during the bombing of Yugoslavia in the 30 nautical miles from the coast of Montenegro, R-913 found the submarine NATO. About an hour, “Yugoslavian,” I moved on a distance of 100 metres behind the “uninvited guest”, but has not been detected by NATO submariners.
Project boats M-100 was powered solely by electric motors from batteries. However, the boat R-914, inherited after the split of Yugoslavia – Croatia, was rebuilt. Her body extended about a metre to accommodate a diesel generator. R-914 was renamed Velebit (P-01) and until 2006, served in the Croatian Navy. The inability to charge batteries in the sea gave rise to the legend about “sails”, allegedly raised by divers to conserve the battery. In fact, we are talking about plastic panels that crews covered the cabin and deck while in the database. This is confirmed by the boat Velebit, which after the upgrade had its own diesel engine, but also a kind of “went sailing”. Boats of the class M-100 was a very lucky ship. With the exception of one submarine, which was burned down and dismantled, all of them became Museum exhibits in the countries created from parts of the former Yugoslavia.
 
Longest, until 2006, in the battle line remained boat Velebit (Croatian Navy).
 
A natural question arises: why we have paid so much attention submarines of the former Yugoslavia, when they are in battle and did not come, and seems to have no influence on the balance of power confrontation at sea had? It is not so. Yeah, Yugoslavia didn’t participate in naval battles, but on the Yugoslav drawings have developed their submarines in Iran and North Korea, and the armed forces of these countries are constantly the focus of world diplomacy, the military and the press. In addition, it was reported that the drawings and may be, fragments and even discarded boats as a whole, fell into the hands of Colombian drug… But more on this later.
 
Boats R-911 Tisa and P-916 on the shore of Vrbas in the process of painting
 
Boats R-911 Tisa and P-916 on the shore of Vrbas in the process of painting
 
The fate of the boats M-100 (all built in the Shipyard Brodogradiliste, Split)
 
The fate of the boats M-100 (all built in the Shipyard Brodogradiliste, Split)
 
Italian media legkomolyabb СЕ2F
 
Italian media legkomolyabb СЕ2F:
 
1 – vent the battery compartment; 2 – the shifter module; 3 – panel navigational devices; 4 – manometer; 5 – lag; 6 – main ballast tank; 7 – a repeater magnetic compass; 8 – casing of the fuse; 9 – auxiliary battery; 10 – stop; 11 – the block of management of movement; 12 – propeller motor; 13 – gas cylinders onboard life support system; 14 – feed the group of batteries; 15 – two a subversive charge in the 110 kg in a trotyl equivalent; 16 – breathing regulator mouthpiece on-Board life support systems; 17 – winch; 18 – control lever; 19 – the mechanism of movement of the nasal groups of batteries; 20 – sounder; 21 – cylinder compressed air; 22 – the nasal of the group of batteries; 23 – towbar; 24 – compass; 25 – gauge; 26 – delayed fuse

 
Work on the creation of the midget submarines were conducted in Germany. Design Bureau IKL (Ingenier Kontor Lübeck), specializing in the design of diesel-electric submarines in the 1970s designed a combat midget SUBMARINES Round 70 and Piranha (together with UK) in a standard displacement 70 t and 75 t, According to the signed license agreement of their construction was carried out in Germany at the shipyard Howaldswerke Deutsche Werft and in the UK at the shipyards of Vickers company. In 1975 there were reports about one West German project midget SUBMARINE – 75 MSV (Multipurpose Submersible Vessel 75). This boat is standard with a displacement of about 75 t developed by Rheinstahl Nordseewerke GmbH in Emden in cooperation with lübeck KONSTRUKTORSKOE BYURO Nord und Ingenier Entwicklungsbüro Rohje. However, the construction of submarines for these projects was not carried out.
 
In the late 1970s on the basis of these SUBMARINES was developed by modification-Round 100 (Germany), Piranha (UK) and 130 MSV (FRG) in a standard displacement of 100, 130 and 136 T. it was Reported that the Piranha is intended for sales to the Middle and Far East. A full-scale model of this boat was exhibited by the English firm Vickers in 1985 at the exhibition of naval equipment in Portsmouth.
 
Since 1983 the Navy of South Korea’s new midget SUBMARINES, the first of which received the designation KSS-1 Tolgorae. In total, the Navy of South Korea are four midget SUBMARINES of type KSS-1 and three boats of the Italian company COSMOS.
 
NEW “MAIALE”
 
Another legacy of the Italian underwater saboteurs underwater steel towing “maiale”. Already during the war the design of these conveyors frogmen successfully repeated the British (Chariot). It is quite natural that after the war such equipment wanted to get a country.
 
Former technician, who served in the 10th flotilla MAS, engineer, Luccarini (Pucciarini) in Italy has created a firm Costruzione Mottoscafi Sottomarine (to reduce Cos. Mo. S, although in the literature often write COSMOS) from the beginning of 1950-ies developed three midget SUBMARINES of project types SX404, SX506 and SX756 standard with a displacement of 40, 70 and 80 MT, respectively. Serial construction of their export orders were carried out at the shipyard of the firm in Livorno. It is known that was built more than 60 units of these midget SUBMARINES and they were sold to Taiwan, Colombia, Libya, Pakistan, South Korea and India (presumably). But the greatest demand conveyors of the type “maiale”. When developing media CE2F were taken into account the experience of creation and fighting application of media types, SLC and SSB during the second World war.
The body of the carrier CE2F made of steel and has stern and bow ends of the cylindrical shape. It is divided into four compartments: front, center, and two aft (bow and stern – sealed, Central – permeable). In a pressurized nose compartment is placed the group of batteries mounted on the carriage capable of moving in the longitudinal direction than fore and aft balance is achieved by the conveyor in a submerged position. On the nose compartment raskreplennye container with instrumentation under the fairing out of fiberglass. In the Central compartment are placed two divers in the equipment, its upper part is covered three-piece cover made of Plexiglas.
 
Front and back sections of the sliding hood, which ensures the access of the diver in the compartment. In the Central compartment located differently pump, balance and ballast tanks, cylinder of high pressure air, controls, depth sounder, log and magnetic compass.
 
Durable aft towing divided by a bulkhead into two compartments. In the front it has a battery and two air cylinder on-Board life support system. From the cylinders the air is supplied to saguntum divers, which allows them not to waste their air supply breathing apparatus. At the rear of the stern section contains the propeller engine with gearbox. Propeller – 3-bladed. Vertical and horizontal rudders raskreplennye on brackets welded to the aft compartment; the relining of the rudders is carried out via rope pull from the front of the cab diver. Sometimes in the fairing for the aft compartment is a fiberglass container with spare breathing apparatus and mine-suckers.
 
Midget submarines and the means of delivery of combat swimmers company Cos.Mo.S. (Livorno)
 
Midget submarines, and means of delivery of combat swimmers company Cos.Mo.S. (Livorno)
 
To regulate the buoyancy provided by the surge tank in stainless steel, placed at the bottom of the Central compartment between the two cabins of divers; filling and draining its made differentim pump. The ballast tank is located above the surge, made of fiberglass and equipped with ventilation valves. The filling is done by gravity, drainage of compressed air. When you purged the ballast tank, the conveyor capable of movement on the surface, the divers can breathe atmosfernyi air. The depth of immersion of the carrier depending on its modifications -СЕ2F / X30, СЕ2F / X60, and СЕ2F/X100 is respectively 30, 60 and 100 m.
 
Basic tactical and technical elements of the carrier СЕ2F following. Main dimensions (length x width x height, m) – 0.8 x 7.0 x 1.5 , weight – about 2.4 tons speed: full u – 4,5 ties, economic underwater and 3.3 KTS, cruising range on electricity supplies of 50 miles.
 
Weapons carrier consists of time bombs, attached to the outside under the Central compartment: one mine MK.31 with a charge of 270 kg of explosive, or two min MK.41 with a charge of 110 kg each. In addition, you can be accepted in few min-suckers with a charge of 7 kg for the damage to underwater pipelines, cables, etc. the Number of issued conveyors for combat swimmers are usually in print is not reported, because release of a series СЕ2F in the color section is omitted or specified approx. Data on production of individual batches of towing and submarines, leaked to the press, summarized in the following table.

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