THE MISSILE REPLACES THE TORPEDO

THE MISSILE REPLACES THE TORPEDOSix years of the Second world war has clearly shown how dangerous the enemy fleet became the aircraft. Even such innovations as radar control anti-aircraft fire and radar fuzes, are unable to fully protect allied ships from the Japanese kamikaze and the German glide bombs. Required tool, capable of hitting aerial target with the first volley at max range. Artillery to cope with this problem could not, therefore, immediately after the war, the U.S. Navy adopted the program of development of antiaircraft guided missiles. The work was carried out on a broad front. At the same time developed systems of three types: long (up to 120 km) steps — “Teylos”, medium (20— 35 km) — the “Terrier”, and is relatively small (approximately 17 km) — the “Tartar”.

 
Obviously, large “Teylos” suited only for installation on ships of not less cruiser. “Terrier” in the beginning, seemed quite suitable for destroyers. As experience in 1956 on one of the “hiringof” — “Hyatte” — instead of aft 127 mm turret placed coaxial launcher new-fangled anti-aircraft complex. The missiles were kept in horizontal position and moved from the aft superstructure.
 
Rebuilt “Hyatt” looked very powerful and imposing, but the results of extensive testing were disappointing a New weapon clash with older devices and mechanisms. For successful runs, not enough electricity, the tightness in the cellars let a thorough pre-launch preparation of missiles, additional devices does not fit within the control stations, and heavy plant threatened the stability of the destroyer… Planned program of re-equipment of another fifteen “hiringof” immediately canceled. The Americans realized the adage that the new wine should not be poured into old bottles. A two-stage Terrier migrated to larger warships, but of smaller size “Tartar” (in fact, representing the second stage of the “Terrier” without a booster) was considered quite suitable for destroyers. This rocket became the basis of weapons destroyer the first of the new generation, “Charles F. Adams”.
 
Its design was developed on the basis of a very good “gunner” “Forrest Sherman”. The aft gun was replaced by the launcher complex “Tartar”, which housed the ammunition in two rotating drums, one above the other directly in the housing. At the bottom of the rocket took place pre-launch training and then received in the upper, consumable drum. From there, the automatic transmission took them to the rails — this system allow to achieve two launches per minute. If we consider that the probability of destruction of a single missile of any aerial target, including flying at the speed of sound was estimated at 90 percent, a few “Adams” could protect a convoy or task force and squadron of enemy bombers, and a dozen large cruise missiles or glide bombs.
 
Interestingly, the last destroyers of the “Charles F. Adams” was equipped with a single launcher is paired. It turned out that increase her agility and reliability due to the smaller mass to fully compensate the theoretical possibility of a launch of two missiles at once or one after the other.
 
The first rocket of the century, the sea has received a high estimation of experts. The series could become very big, but was interrupted in the 23rd destroyer because of unreasonable expectations. At this time (mid-60s), rocket scientists promised that here-here will create a “superweapon” — a universal missile “Typhoon”, which was supposed to replace “Teylos” and “Terrier”. In fact, the novelty was not so successful, but “Tartar” was further developed, but… on other ships. “Adams” for the U.S. Navy is no longer built, although in operation they showed themselves very well and served for almost 30 years under the U.S. flag, and then another, and the NATO partners. In the first years of life they are like the “face” of the new missile fleet. It is not surprising that one of them, “Biddle” (soon pereimenovaniya in “Claude Ricketts”), was the lead ship of NATO. On it for several years sailed the multinational crew, which consisted of the officers and sailors of the North Atlantic Alliance.
 
Although this initiative was not continued, “Adams” caught the attention of U.S. allies. Australians willingly bought three already laid the ship, named “Perth”, “Hobart” and “Brisbane”. They kept all the weapons of “big brother”, except the torpedo-missiles ASROC. A massive box in the center of the body had replaced the domestic development. Single launcher for the same purpose “Icarus” could not release eight missiles, as ASROC, but could be much easier, and most importantly, faster to reload and had a few long range shooting. For years, these destroyers remained the backbone of a fleet of “green continent”. They went through several upgrades, during which they installed a more advanced electronic equipment and modern versions of missiles, and in 1993 they were joined by one of the decommissioned “Americans”, “Goldsboro”. New acquisition in order to enter did not, and used as a source of spare parts.
 
Another country quickly evaluate the quality of guided missile destroyers the United States, became the Federal Republic of Germany. In the 60-ies of the Germans fiercely sought to access modern technologies. They proposed to build six ships at its own shipyards, having received from overseas ally only drawings and equipment. However, protests from the socialist camp, against the remilitarization of Germany and the interests of overseas firms has led to the fact that the order decided to place in the USA, and the Americans again used the Foundation of its own fleet of unclaimed body.
 
The series was limited to three units, the names of which have demonstrated a good ability of the “new Germans” to combine almost incompatible. ACE Mölders, who was killed on the Bismarck, Admiral Lyutens and repeatedly trashed the allies, field Marshal Rommel does not mired in the years of Hitler’s regime, but, however, was for the allied enemies, whose actions led to the deaths of thousands of British and American soldiers. It is in honor of those “heroes of the last war” and was called built in USA ships. They differed little from the prototype: the most interesting innovation was the gap at the top of the pipe, let the smoke and gases to the sides.
 
THE MISSILE REPLACES THE TORPEDO
 
310. Destroyer”, Impavido”, Italy, 1963
 
Built by “Cantieri Navale”. The standard displacement of 3200 tons, T. 3990 full maximum Length of 131.3 m, a width of 13,7 m draught 4.4 m. Capacity twin-shaft turbine plant 70 000 HP, speed 33 knots. Armament: mounting for anti-aircraft missiles “Tartar”, two 127-mm universal and four 76-mm automatic guns, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW. Electronic equipment: radar SPS-12, SPS-39, SPS-51, RTN-10X, SPQ-2, GUS SQS-23. In 1963— 1964 built two units: “Impavido and Intrepido”. Excluded from the lists in 1991 -1992.
 
311. Destroyer “Charles F. Adams”, USA, 1960
 
It was built by the firm “bath Iron Works”. A displacement of 3300 tons standard, full-4525 T. maximum Length 133,21 m, width 14,29 m, draft 4,6 m. Capacity twin-shaft turbine plant 70 000 HP, speed 33 knots. Weapons paired mounting for anti-aircraft missiles “Tartar”, two automatic guns, protivolodochnyi complex ASROC, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes LO. Electronic equipment: radar SPS-29, SPS-39, SPG-51. In the years 1960-1964 built 23 units. After this “Berkeley”, “Strauss”, “Simms” and “waddel” transferred to Greece, “Goldsboro” — Australia.
 
312. Destroyer”, Amatsukaze”, Aponal, 1965
 
It was built by the firm “Mitsubishi”. The standard displacement of 3050 tons, 4000 tons full Length the greatest 132,8 m, width 13.4 m, draft 4.2 m. Capacity twin-shaft turbine plant of 60,000 HP, speed 33 knots. Armament: mounting for anti-aircraft missiles “Tartar-Standard” four 76-mm universal automatic weapons, complex ASROC, two mortars “Hedgehog”, three-pipe, two 324-mm torpedo tubes ASW. Electronic equipment: radar SPS-29, SPS-52, the SPG-51, GUS SQS-23. Excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1995.
 
313. Destroyer “La Galissoniere”, France, 1962
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Lorient. The standard displacement of 2750 tons, full 3740 T. maximum Length 132,8 m, width 12.7 m, and 5.4 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam turbine 10 HP, speed 34 knots. Armament: mounting for anti-submarine recettore “Malafon”, two 100-mm universal automatic guns, single four-barrel 305-mm anti-submarine mortar, two three-pipe 550-mm torpedo tubes ASW, one helicopter. Electronic equipment: radar DRBV-22A, DRBV-50, DRBC-32A, GUS DUBV-23. Excluded from the list in 1990.

 
The successful experience of the United States served as an example for other Western countries relied not only on the purchase of military equipment from the superpowers, but also on their industry. The introduction of missile weapons served as a good opportunity for former enemies to simultaneously demonstrate their loyalty and their capabilities.
 
The Japanese immediately followed their senior partner. In less than two years (faster than the Americans), they managed to put into operation “, Amatsukaze” — the first in the history of the country of the Rising sun the rocket ship. Although there are still elements of the national shipbuilding tradition, the American influence was felt much stronger than on the earlier artillery squadron destroyers. Fully flush-deck hull had not such a high stem, as the “Charles F. Adams”, and in bad weather the waves are pretty covered deck. The result had to abandon the basing of the helicopter, although it has enough space. Weapons and equipment fully received from the United States and match the last “Adams”, with the exception of a lighter, but more numerous artillery. Although the first Japanese experience was a success, “Amatsukaze” for a long time remained in the singular. Only ten years later, anti-aircraft missiles reappeared on destroyers the destroyers the next generation.
 
Another former enemy, Italy, also showed independence. But if the Japanese had to develop a completely new project, the Italians already had quite a suitable base — destroyer “Impetuoso” in turn, was a modern replica and not completed large torpedo ships wartime series “commanders of the gold medal”. “Impavido” aft two-gun 127 mm tower gave place to a single launcher for “Tartarus”, a powerful lattice mast for radar significantly changed the silhouette of the ship. Missile anti-aircraft weapons were successfully supplemented by new 76-mm guns of domestic production, but the ASW means confined to 324 mm devices for small anti-submarine torpedoes. In addition, the Italian shipbuilders could not compete with the Japanese in the pace of construction. Their missile destroyers were built a very long time: head “Impavido”, laid out before his American prototype, conducted at the shipyard prior to the commissioning of six and a half years. The initial project also included replacement of the remaining standard “grigosha” 127 mm Sparky the tower with a pair of 135-mm guns, that would put “Italians” in the first place for artillery weapons. however, the designers wisely decided not to burden the overburdened destroyer.
 
Eternal rival of Italy — France — went a bit different from the rest of the Western countries by. All the post-war years, she sought full autonomy in maintenance of their armed forces, including the Navy, therefore, the use of American weapons was not even considered. The first French rocket ship became “La Galissoniere”, the last of a series of destroyers of the “Surcouf”. Its construction was suspended and significantly changed the drawings providing for the installation instead of three 127-mm two-gun towers of the same number odnorodnyh 100-mm guns, providing much more effective anti-aircraft fire. However, the anti-aircraft power and limited. The French did not try to place the destroyer anti-aircraft missiles (their system “Mazurka” came out too heavy for the ships of this class). But came in very handy just designed the original rocket-torpedo “Malafon”. In many respects it resembled the Australian “Icarus”, having the same advantages and disadvantages. Anti-submarine weapons in General became the main “highlight” of the project: in addition to recettore, the armament also includes a powerful 305-mm mortar, towed sonar and finally, the helicopter “Aluett”, which first appeared on the stage of the project and significantly increase capabilities in anti-submarine warfare. Although “La Galissoniere” and remained the only one of its kind, it is not testified that he was a bad ship. All tested at the weapons and electronics were well received and became part of subsequent projects (with the exception of mortars, which is considered obsolete and ineffective, mostly because of the short effective range).
 
But despite all the desire, the French never managed to avoid American influence. The lack of proper light anti-aircraft missiles, suitable for destroyers, forced to appeal to the “Tartar”. In the years 1962-1965 four destroyers of the “Surcouf” (“Dupli-Thouars”, “Karsen”, “Buwe” and “Du Śaila”) were modernized, which lost all three 127-mm towers. Instead of a stern couple had a single launcher for the “Tartars”, and place the bow of the tower took six 375-mm mortars of the Swedish company “Bofors”. Of course, on the beach passed and torpedo tube for regular torpedoes, as it prevented the deployment of missile cellar. At the same time with the American missiles had to adopt the radar and the target illumination and guidance. Only a few years, they gradually replaced the Patriotic. The reliability and efficiency of the “tartare” is so like the European “independence supporters from Paris” that in 1983, after the missile-carrying “Surkova” worn out, taken from “Bove and Kersana” complexes established on the latest air defense destroyers. You can draw an analogy with the history of the battleship “Vanguard” armed with a 381-mm guns 20 years ago, but the British considered this move as a purely military improvisation, but the French repeated it in peacetime.
 
In General, the introduction of anti-aircraft missiles on the ships of the countries of the West was successful. A good choice to accommodate her in combat units is relatively small (for the second half of the XX century) displacement, and the constant modernization of the missiles supported the effectiveness of air defense ship connections at the proper level in a quarter century.
 
V. KOFMAN

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