TO GO UNDER WATER OR DIVE?

WALKING UNDER WATER YOU SHOULD DIVE IN?At that time, as a little clunky, but gained confidence with their performance of the submarine Holland quickly began to spread from America around the world, Europe remained a private leader in the underwater case. They certainly remained in France, where in the late nineteenth century for the explicitly revolutionary “electric” “Imnot” followed created on the same principles of “Gustave Zede” and its smaller version “Le Morse” gave rise, in turn, the first serial products: “Farfa-de”, “Corrigan”, “Gnome” and “Lutana”.

All these boats were underwater in the full sense of the word: as a form of the body, and, above all, in its single electric motor. Accordingly, they all had very small cruising range. And no visible prospects in the direction of increasing range in the near future was not observed, despite the progress of electric motors and batteries.
 
It was necessary to change the principle of the movement, as did the Americans. That is to go to the dual motor: separately for the course on the surface and separately – for scuba. But implementation of this approach was needed “fresh blood”, because “ardent” “electrician,” as Ramazzotti or Moga, was not easy to let go of your favorite ideas. Indeed, so brilliant and creative figures of the French shipbuilding the horizon in the first years of the XX century appeared a new face: designer Maxim Lobe working at the Navy shipyard in Cherbourg on projects of surface ships, including the armored cruiser “Patwa”. Young 33-year-old engineer has carefully examined all the domestic “legacy” in this area, not forgetting foreign, including such pioneering projects as large steam submarine Hougard. In the end, he decided it was preferable to have a long and seaworthy boat, which is most of the time to be at the surface, plunging only to attack or in case of danger – a completely trivial idea, known previously, and subsequently used for many decades. Although the class of “secret courts” continued to be called “underwater” (sous-marines), in fact, he was “diving” (submersibles), until the advent of nuclear submarines, which are submerged position once again became a major. Of course, Labefa hard to call first, who would offer such a solution, because the vast majority of the earlier boats could take only a moment. However, most often not because of a principled approach, and forced. Now that is camping on the surface and dive provided deliberately.
Special impetus to the work of Maxim Labeta gave known Fastsky crisis, in which a remote tip of Africa, a forehead in a forehead has faced the interests of England and France. Between the future allies was a necessity of war. And “diving submarine” gave the green light.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Narval” M. Lobata, France, 1900
 
It is clear that “diving the destroyer” required a separate machine for surface campaign and submarine attack, because with one motor, then the batteries he couldn’t even cross the English channel.
 
But for complete success only relying on dual-engine would not be enough. Lobe provided and other measures, to somehow accommodate the fragile underwater to surface severe service. First of all, it was necessary to ensure seaworthiness. To do this, the designer gave their offspring a very large reserve of buoyancy, more than 40%. Clearly, in this case, the immersion was required rather extensive ballast tanks, to place inside the case which would be very difficult. And “Narval” (so-called first “diving” boat) got a double hull. Internal closer in form to the cylinder were made of thick steel and can withstand a pressure corresponding to the depth of 50 m. the Outer “shell” attached to the boat hull, similar to those in surface ships. Its thickness is determined only by the ability to withstand the waves. At the same time dvuhkonusnyj boat has gained a high level of survival during accidental bumps and collisions; deformation and destruction has been first and foremost a “shell”. So managed it is acceptable to provide decent navigation. At one of the crossings in bad weather “Norval” without special problems has kept the course, while the accompanying destroyer approximately equal sizes buried in the wave all the time, and careered from side to side.
 
It would seem that the solution promised some benefits. But the technique is often present and the “shadow side”. Here she was in time of immersion. Indeed, filled the space between buildings (ballast tanks) by gravity; because of the buoyancy of water we needed and the whole process took a long 20 minutes. However, the crew in this moment have enough other work. The fact that Lobe have chosen as engine for surface course (i.e., main) steam engine triple expansion. Pairs for her gave a specially designed water tube boiler working on oil and created with consideration of all modern achievements. However, he still came hard: 3 tons, amounting to almost 3% displacement “Narwhale”. And, most importantly, immersion would pay off the furnace, clean the chimney and carefully sealed up all the entrances-exits. So, while the water filled the tank, the team performed all these numerous events. It should be noted that the original 20 minutes by training dropped to 15. And then these operations are mechanized and the boat was forced under the water acceptable for almost 4-5 minutes. But it, unfortunately. The French felt that with a steam engine it is possible to “work” in combat and continued development in this direction. That backfired on them time and again during the world war.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine Sirena M. Lobata, France, 1901
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Cherbourg. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement overwater/underwater 157/213 T. Dimensions: length 32.5 m, diameter 3.9 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: steam engine triple expansion, producing 250 HP + motor, 100 HP, speed, surface/underwater 9,75/5,8 ties. Armament: four external torpedo tubes for torpedoes caliber 450 mm. Crew: 13 persons In 1901 – 1902 built 4 units: “Espadon”, “Siluer”, “Sirens” and “Triton”. Participated in the 1st world war as support and training, weight excluded from the list in November 1919.
 
But the steam engine provided “Narvalo” range of nearly 350 miles in the course of about 9 knots. In a submerged position limit 40 -50 miles, the boat passed just a day(!). At the end of 1899 “submersible submarine” has begun testing. They were successful, and early next year, followed by an order for 4 more units of the same type. Curiously, as the main purpose for them is still stated “transanally” actions against Britain, although this time has forged the “Cordiale” between the two countries. The range and duration of trips was calculated for routes from Cherbourg to Portsmouth and from Dunkirk to the Chatham (and of course back).
 
Serial boats resembling that of a grandparent – “Narwal”. However, now the outer light housing is not covered completely durable internal. In principle, it seems to be a half-step back, but actually remained main advantages: seaworthy “Menomonie” lines and the ability to have a large enough reserve of buoyancy. However, the latter is still somewhat reduced in attempts to reduce the time of filling the tanks. In General, a typical road from compromise to compromise.
 
In “Serena” and her “companions”, the creators showed some concern about the crew. Especially, of course, about the chain of command. He was allocated a small enclosure sizes 4×1,5 m, which climbed two “couches” and had a little more Seating. The remaining two dozen sailors and non-commissioned officers were crowded in the hammocks above the batteries. But neither one nor the other was not possible even with the least convenience to urinate: the first toilet (about the same design that the trains) appeared only on the following series of French submarines.
 
Still engine for surface stroke were steam engine with boiler Du-Temple. In principle, quite functional, but the stealth boat was not added. Floating on these submarines, the officers repeatedly testified to the sultans of smoke (and at night – and even of the colored flame from the pipe), sometimes towering over the boats a few hundred meters. Extensive testing has shown that the “ship” contours allow for 10 – 15% increase in speed and range on the surface in comparison with the “electric ship”, but it is almost as save the corresponding values in the course under water. The first was considered more important and the development of “diving” boat continued.
 
Cut through the midsection (monohull design)
 
 
On “sirens” the French tried to introduce something like the device for quick ventilation, as be for 20 hours without a break under the water were almost impossible for a fairly large crew. Had tried different systems, including sleeves, produced in the manner of a periscope. In this embodiment, the boats could be vented, even in a submerged position, but only in very calm weather. They debug themselves periscopes that almost all the commanders have been criticized for lack of length, just as their American and British counterparts to “Hollands”.
 
Despite all the “childhood diseases”, “the sirens” found recognition from their command. In 1902, all four participated in the RAID against Cherbourg from the same “heart ally”, the role of the port played a private Brest. He was successful, all safely reached the destination and attacked the “imaginary enemy”. Then in naval officialdom appeared significant phrase in a typically French aphoristic spirit: “Diving boat is a combat unit, underwater – not more than accessory to the fleet.”
 
“Labetsky” “dives” could not completely suppress competitors. Most of the early series of French submarines built to a design already known to us, the Creator of “Gustave Zede,” Gaston Ramazzotti. They were very different from boats Lobata and reminded of their purely “electric” predecessors. However, this time Ramazzotti decided to somehow help the electric motor by installing advanced a rather peculiar internal combustion engine design Krebs. “Specificity” was that as fuel was used the benzene is very volatile and is a strong carcinogen. The supply of this chemical poison on Board reached 1000 liters! But in the beginning of the last century about such “trifles” just wondered, because the submarine service was extremely dangerous in itself. Benzene engine driven Dynamo producing current is brought to the electric motor, a rotating bronze propeller, or sarajevski batteries. In his work, had to run a special ventilation system, consisting of two sleeves, produced from cuttings and used for air intake and exhaust toxic vapors.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Naiad” in Romazotti, France, 1904
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Cherbourg. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater 70,5/73,6 T. Dimensions: length 34,0 m, diameter 2.2 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 20 m. Engine: the internal combustion engines running on benzene, the power of 57 HP + electric motor, power 85 HP, speed, surface, underwater 7,2/5,95 bonds. Armament: two external torpedo tubes for torpedoes caliber 450 mm Crew: Bees. In 1903 to 1905, built 20 units. All excluded from lists by may 1914

 
Ramazzotti did not follow Globetm and the choice of housing. His “Naiads” was in the form tapering to the extremities of the cylinder. Seaworthiness increased only a small nagelneu with bow e nose, and is much inferior to labetski. Were comparable and range, which could not provide a “poisonous” engine compared to the old “steamboat”. Weaker looked and armament composed of two torpedoes in open installations on the sides of the deckhouse, made of bronze, to exclude the influence of magnetic materials on the compass. The designer took out all the controls in the lower space in the housing. The location of the torpedo tubes was pretty funny. Camera starboard shot forward at an angle of 7° to the course that the boat is not “caught” own torpedo as launched, they are sometimes only 10 seconds after starting. And here is the fuse after the shot is released immediately, so that the threat could become very real. Camera the left side sent their torpedo back, where the danger of hitting themselves did not arise, and therefore no deviation from the axis did not. In 1910, experts on arms tried to eliminate “inequality”, but in a very peculiar way. Both devices are placed behind the cabin, now “looking” forward, but each at an angle of 7° to its side.
 
Equipment meet the then standards, the benefit of electricity for auxiliary machinery was missing.
Curious providing crew with food and water, first included as a full article. France is France: 60 liters of water on Board was taken to be 25 litres of wine. Food supply was enough for 8 people for 4 days, although on schedule the crew consisted of 13-I.
 
The service (mainly training) “Naiads” famous strange penchant for all sorts of accidents. Especially the “Bonet” that bothered… to RAM the battleship! The maneuvers of 1906, her commander Lieutenant Mora successfully “attacked” battleship “Yen” and decided to develop success. The boat submerged to attack the tail of the column, but a squadron made an unexpected turn. And the ascent Maura found just 30 metres from the high Board the flagship of the battleship “Suffren”. The collision was inevitable. The brave Lieutenant did not panic and ordered an emergency dive, considering that Sasha is hopeless – it’s “butt” with a shutter belt of giant. And he was right. The submarine managed to get away to a depth of 7 meters and played the role of a kind of “torpedo”, thrust the bottom of the “senior companion”. “Suffren” got decent damage, it had to start the patch, and then “wounded” ship sent to dock. Oddly enough, but more than 100 times easy boat suffered less: it only crashed when you hit some devices and gave a small leak ballast tanks. Proceeding along the battleship, she came up and went “treated”.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Egret”, France, 1904
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Toulon, the Type of construction is double-hulled. Displacement surface’ underwater 178/253 T. Dimensions: length of 35.85 m, case diameter of 4.04 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: diesel, 150 HP + electric motor, power 130 HP, speed, surface/underwater 9,25/6,2 bonds. Armament: two internal and two external torpedo tubes for torpedoes caliber 450 mm. Crew: 14 people In 1904 – 1905 built 2 units: “Egret” and “Sigon'”, it was planned to build 11 more units of the same type, but the order was not issued. Was used in the 1st world Koine for the defense of ports excluded from the list in November 1919
 
The following year, as the victim was the sister of the class. It was a new “Muffler”, not shared with “friendly” battleship “Jaureguiberry” selected as the targets for the attack on the joint maneuvers. And again, “Bonit” got off lightly, while the “Muffler” almost sank. Similarly, she tried to repeat in 1910 when the attacks began, we can say home of the same type submarine “the Shad,” And that’s not counting the trivial flooding the wall of the open hatch and a few “scars” in collisions with quay and moorings. Entertaining service and without military campaigns!
 
Other units tried to keep up with a dashing leader on the part of the trouble. And, surprisingly, without a single victim in the crew. Although the list of incidents “inspires respect”, “Anguilla” exploded notorious pair of benzene, spreading out on the part of the motor, castor sank against the wall, “Naiad” rammed the Arctic research vessel, and “Mouettes” for example, “major Tomboy” “kissed” “Shad”. Against this background, collisions with boats and small boats in General are not worth attention.
 
Possessing a small range, speed and dubious weapons, NAIADES did not wait for world war. In 1914, the entire company was sent to eternal rest. In addition to “Shad”, which was used as the target for bombardment with seaplane, later
 
4 . The boat sank after being hit two 50-kg bombs almost instantly. And after nearly 60 years, she was found by divers and identified by the surviving bronze nameplate. The submarine was lifted in 1976 and put on one of the streets of Marseille.
 
And Lobe at this time made an important step in deciding to apply for the next their underwater ships instead of “steamboat” diesel engines. It promised an increase in the range of 3 – 4 times, not to mention the greater ease of transition from the surface position in scuba. The naval Ministry reacted favorably to the plans, deciding to build 8 units for the Mediterranean in Toulon and 5 in the North, in Cherbourg. Although relations with Britain began to settle down, to have just in case “knife in my pocket” seemed necessary. Besides an implacable enemy – Germany – very quickly built up naval forces. From boating program suffered even armored cruiser “Victor Hugo” – its construction has decided to slow down in order to give the green light to the submarine.
 
But originally laid only two units, received a touching title: “Egret” and “Sigon ‘” (“White Heron” and “Stork”), According to casing design they are very reminiscent of its predecessors-“sirens”. Inside the housing crash, durable watertight bulkheads into five compartments, that is, had a quite modern layout. But the flow of water in the tank is hardly fast: fully they are filled not less than 5 minutes.
 
There was still a problem with diesel motors. They released the Augsburg “Machinenfabrik” where and had to go to the bow Lubefu. In words, the Germans objected to the sale of the kits for the first couple of boats and the manufacture of engines for the rest of the license. However, the way this best for the French contract rose problems, because of differences in patent laws in both countries. The construction of the submarines was under threat. But, as you know, not smell: “producer” licenses was made by the firm well-known expert on engines, Otto, and as a performer – French “Company of the petrol engines”. The latter, having no experience making diesels, terribly delayed work and flew to the fine for late delivery in the amount of 450 million francs at the price of the motors themselves only 240 thousand. In fact, the company should not only supply motors for free, but also to pay for it almost the second their cost! It took a special decision of the Ministry to reduce the penalty amount is 8 times that the company (now received some experience and became the most valuable to the fleet in the future) is not burned.
 
Have pomudreli the French and with batteries. 120 items were divided into 2 groups, and in each of them there were 27 vertical 33 horizontal “cans”. Provided a very clever connection scheme of these “quarters” in a single chain, depending on the mode of operation of electric motors. The boat received not only the support mechanisms operating from the same source, but lighting in both fixed and portable. In case of failure of the electrical installation to use the still alarm “lamps” on their own batteries, Even extension and retraction of a large periscope (only had two) applied to the motor. For the first time on submarines appeared electric stove, mini-galley, more than 100 years ago, it looked supremely modern.
 
All this does not contribute to the speed of construction. Should not have stopped building cruisers: to build submarines came only in 1908, 6 years later after laying – time, worthy battleships. Yes, and in practice many innovations was not so effective. For example, “electrified” the periscope did not provide any decent visibility disappoint French glass.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “X” in Romazotti, Cherbourg 1906 – 1909
 
The weapons were combined and not too original: the two conventional torpedo “tubes” (like on the other boats directed at an angle of 5° to the median plane) supplemented by a pair of open devices Drzewiecki. But the habitat designers attended quite seriously, as the range and duration of swimming significantly increased. We have already mentioned the galley, but no less noteworthy are the sinks in each crew compartment, a few inpatient beds in addition to traditional hammocks and, for the first time on the boat is a dining table in the form of flap.
 
I must say, with all the quite notable success of the quiet life Maxim Lobata failed. Almost the main culprit was the notorious Camille Pelletan, the Minister of marine, has earned fame as one of the most destructive figures in this field in France. Took over the post in 1902, he immediately criticized labetskii “diving torpedo boats,” as not meeting the spirit of diving. Well, views are different, but not always errors entail unpleasant consequences. Just at this time, in addition to boats Lobata built 3 experimental submarine received the designation “X”, “y” and “Z” which are “shipbuilding heavyweights” like Moga, Ramazzotti, and even the famous veteran of military shipbuilding world-class Emile Bertin. Apparently, there was plenty to choose from. But Pelletan unexpectedly elected as the chief expert in this field unknown Raul PICTA. This resident so the “sea” of the city of Geneva, proposed to draft a “unique perspective” of the submarine. He took all the drawings and descriptions of all French submarines! The press raised a scandal. Geneva adventurer was suspended from classified materials, but was still suspicious that he managed to convey to them that “friends of France” as the Germans. In the autumn of 1902 abolished the construction of 11 submarines of the type “Egret” not without the influence Pelletan, allegedly due to the fact that “alpha” competitors may be preferred.
 
Lubefu had instead of the design activities focus on the justification of their ideas.
In fact, the teams have demonstrated the failure, or at least “incomplete service conformity”, In at least decided to be original Ramazzotti: his “X” in layout and the chosen technical solutions is very reminiscent of his predecessors. The most significant difference from the “Naiad” was the presence of two-shaft power plant. The motors for surface course used the same engine Panhard-Levasseur, who worked on the same benzene, only now there are two, like electric motors for movement under water. Displacement grew solidly, more than 2 times, up to 180 tons submerged, but the speed is only a few tenths of a knot. Not impressive and armament – the only “normal” (i.e. internal) torpedo tubes and a couple of “grids” Drzewiecki on the body. Spare torpedoes are generally not provided. Pathetic compared to labetskii “destroyers” looked habitability, both inside and outside. When driving on the surface the crew could be located only on the “perches” between the likes of add-ons. Seaworthiness remained poor due to the shape of the hull and small reserve of buoyancy, only about 8%. To postpone the team’s 300 mile journey (one has declared the range “benzene”) seemed hardly possible. Unreliable motors are allowed to commit even much less long passages from Cherbourg to Brest or Dunkirk with great difficulty and adventure. On the transition to Dunkerque refused one after the other both engines. As noted in the press, “X” was good only as a purely submarine with electric motor. And in this case there were known problems with the range, which remained at the same 40 to 90 miles, depending on driving mode. All this predetermined the fate of creation Ramazzotti, which can not be called a success, although a complete failure the project was not. The submarine still had to rename from a faceless letter X in the “Dauphin” (in 1911), but was sent on indefinite reserve. The war is quite outdated creation naturally not used, and shortly after handed over for scrapping.
 
But nowadays, at least, has not suffered such a crushing setback as Emile Bertin. Venerable shipbuilder sights on an underwater vehicle with a single engine, which was made by diesel. Under the water his work was to provide compressed air. The designer expected that the boat will have a range of more than 1,000 miles 7-knots speed on the surface. However, to test assumptions and failed: diesel French production was characterized by extreme unreliability. “U” was a letter unhappy: the boat and failed to push through the testing phase, which lasted from 1905 to 1909. Desperate to establish a universal motor, engineers have proposed to equip a submarine to electric traction. These plans could not be implemented; required painfully serious alteration inside and so tight body. In the end, she had to remove all the equipment and two years later to scrap. Interestingly, martanovskii “product” was the most expensive among the three experimental boats. Price it slightly below one million francs, whereas Ramazzotti was limited to approximately half that amount.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Z” Mora, France, 1905
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Rochefort. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater 202/222 T. Dimensions: length 41,3 m, diameter 3.0 m casing Material: steel. 1 depth of immersion up to 20 m. Engine: diesel, 190 HP, speed, surface/underwater 9,0/7,1 bonds. Armament: two internal torpedo tubes for torpedoes caliber 450 mm Crew: 16 persons In a combat fleet was not included, after the test, in 1909, placed in a reserve and next year scrapped.
 
Almost exactly in the middle at a cost located the last “letter”, “Z”, which Mogh “daddy” – “Farhada” and other submarines. His boat was based on the same principles of dual separate engine for surface and underwater running, as “submersible destroyers” Labefa, but that the buoyancy and forms was a “pure” submarine. The type of motor (diesel) it is fully consistent with the “Egret” and “Sigon'”, so that the comparative testing simply suggests itself. And results it became a crushing verdict for the supporters of “real” underwater vessels. Monohull “Z” had a buoyancy of less than 10% compared to around 30% in “Egret”, and the monohull design is finally killed, and scarce seaworthy. If under water both boats had comparable performance, in the surface position when the economic progress lubarovska boat lost on the waves only 5% of speed, a “Z” – three times more. Besides, the boat Moga in the service really have progressed not more than 8 knots on the surface and half underwater. Again the team had to breathe air in March on the surface of the water, balancing on a perch. In the end, the “real” submarine Moga is largely used as a pure electric because of disgusting seaworthy and difficulties with the process of dipping, too fast because of the tiny reserve of buoyancy, but also very dangerous for the same reason.
 
So the victory remained unconditionally after “submersible” boats, and the supporters of the “full” submarines remained to work on the bugs. Fortunately, short-lived “reign” Pellethane the post of marine Minister, was over.
 
Meanwhile, the hated Minister of the sailors took with them “on bottom” of another victim. It’s a small underwater boats, designed by naval engineer M. Ptimum. He decided to bet on a boat with a displacement of about 50 tonnes, as the first “serious” submarines of the late nineteenth century. But instead of thick “lemons” a La Guba he chose a highly refined cigar-shaped “Imnot”, hoping to get a high underwater speed. It is clear that with such small amounts to talk about long range was not necessary, but for coastal activities these funds would fit perfectly if I could function normally their engines. Because of Ptim went tempting, but wrong way Bertana, deciding to employ a single diesel motor for movement both above and under water. Curious way the designer tried to make your boat invisible: after all, one of the main disadvantages of any works on the principle of jet expansion was the trace of the produced waste gas. In the “babies” of the exhaust gases were collected in a special tank after preliminary compression by the compressor, driven by the same motor. However, the capacity of such storage could not be big: after a three-hour voyage at a very reasonable 6-node speed it should be off, thus releasing the monstrous “bubble”. Armament consisted of two rotary machines of the system Drzewiecki able to turn inside and shoot only at low speed. Inside a mini-submarine division into compartments was not, there was distress among the quite numerous equipment. About the amenities of the question, which, however, was not necessary for the coastal boats.
 
The description is not very impressive, however, performance was not so hopeless. “Baby” could go up to 400 miles on the surface (judging by the amount of fuel, in fact, of course, so far the transition is not carried out) and, most importantly, up to 80 miles underwater at a speed of 4 to 6 knots. It is easy to calculate such a transition required up to 20 hours; and, accordingly, about any stealth because of their own “waste” out of the question. Overall, not too promising project. And in connection with the departure Pellethane instead of the planned 10 units built, only two are named “Guep-1” and “Guep-2” (translated as “wasp”). But the yellow jackets turned out to be incompetent: almost ready boats in operation never became effective, and after 1908, they were dismantled for the metal.
 
So, almost triumphant return to the stage ideas Lobata played a rather positive role. Henceforth and for several decades before the advent of nuclear submarines submarines were “diving”.

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