The views of Americans on submarines before the First world war was somewhat different from those in European fleets. Overseas shipbuilders in those “baby” years of development of submarine fleets subdivided future of the submarine on the defensive and the ocean, or “Navy”. The main tasks for the first expected linear attack enemy forces that supposedly can attack the ports of the Atlantic coast. Unlike Europe, to block the vast sea of space mines was not possible, so the boats could really become an important component of coastal defense.
It was believed (quite reasonably for the time) that they will be on the surface and dive only after the detection of the enemy. Positional position was used periscopes, has long remained fixed: the design was simplified and the user is still recommended to “stick his head” not more than four seconds, and then dive deeper. While planners rightly believed that the attack speed goals out of the water demanded considerable speed in the submerged state, even to the detriment of surface speed and seaworthiness. It was designed multiple series of “hollandsch” boats from the “electric boat”, the first of which, to “F” inclusive, we have described earlier (“M-K” No. 9,11 – 2013). Moreover, builders of submarines managed to successfully combine the construction of submarines for the Russian Navy and the selling of their counterparts abroad.
The company pursued its main goal – profit. And once again do the same trick, “his and others”, failed with the following “N” type. The owners have managed to obtain considerable income from both their own government and from foreign orders related to the outbreak of Europe’s war. During the war years “electric boat” managed to sell these reliable, but thoroughly old-fashioned boats and mighty of Britain, and distant Russia, and delayed the outbreak of war Italy, and even neutral Chile. The total number produced for this project (with various modifications) units exceeded 70 pieces – the largest series of allies in the First world war. Delivery them abroad continued until the end of the “great war” when “Holland” were already pretty behind in performance. But for his country intended to continue the development and to adopt more sophisticated models.
To achieve higher underwater speed required increased power of the motors and number of batteries, which in turn led to an increase in capacity of diesel engines and, ultimately, to the size of the boat. There led and the desire to have more powerful 533-mm torpedoes. However, the Congress and the government were pulling in the opposite direction: larger units meant higher costs, and by the time the United States entered the war fleet costs and so increased several times. Therefore, the development of “coastal” submarines were a few odd jumps – two steps forward, one step back.
Submarine K-5 (SS-36) type “K”, USA, 1914
It was built by the firm of the Fort river. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/ surface – 390/520 t Dimensions: length – 46,9 m, width – 5.1 m, draft – 4.0 m immersion Depth up to 50 m. Engine: diesel engine power 950 HP and two electric motors with a power of 680 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 14/10,5 ties. Armament – four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes). The crew of 28 people. In 1914 – 1915 built 8 units: “K-1” to “K-8”. In 1917 “K-1”, “2”, “K-4” and “6” are sent to the Azores to fight German submarines. All scrapped in 1931
“K-5” at the end of the First world war, with the permanent bridge
Submarine “L-11” (SS-51) type “L”, USA, 1915
It was built by the firm of the Fort river. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface – 455/550 t Dimensions: length – 51,0 m, width – 5.3 m, draught of 4.1 m. the immersion Depth up to 60 m. Engine: diesel engine capacity of 1200 HP and two electric motors with a power of 800 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 14/10,5 ties. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun. The crew of 28 people. In 1915 – 1918 built 11 units from “L-1 through L-11”. In 1917 all ready “L-1” – “L-4” and “L-9” – “L-11” translated in Ireland to combat the German submarines. The majority of excluded from the lists in 1922 – 1925: “L-10” – in 1930, “L-2”, “L-3”, “L-9 and L-11” – 1932
After the nine “American” – type “N” (three pieces originally intended for the US Navy, six more were built for Russia, but in connection with the events of 1917 remained at home), once again glorified the name of John Holland, followed by eight “K” type. Although changes in weaponry, the power of engines and speed was observed, a large part of the extra fifty tons displacement has decided to increase the fuel supply. And now these submarines “coastal defense”, which had twice the range compared to predecessors, could be used not only near their ports. Anyway, half of them reached Hawaii shortly after commissioning. Others have done the same quite a long journey to the Azores, where they were to be used to combat the German “sisters”. However, the actual run-ins is not reached. As “N”, the new type had a long-standing sores, namely: pretty poor quality of the American diesels. In fact, none of the 19 units of both series was not without certain trouble on the tests. Many could not reach the rated speed; some helped complete overhaul or even replacement mechanisms. However, they all served (even if in part, in the reserve) before the “great purge” of the American submarine fleet in 1931.
The following “coastal” type, “L”, the designers finally introduced a strong enough internal bulkhead dividing the housing into truly watertight compartments, thus having caught up with foreign engineers in this component. Boats grew in size during the next fifty tons, although the torpedo armament and the crew remained in the same composition. But on the “L” for the first time on the American boats, there was a regular artillery weapons. And in a very original option: 76-mm gun housed in a retractable under deck installation. After “folding” design, practically the entire gun was left inside the shell; above the deck sticking out only half of the barrel, and vertically! Muzzle hole was closed with a stopper and the submarine could dive. Interestingly, at that time in the USA haven’t even formed the idea of using such “artillery”: it was believed that guns “can be useful” in a battle with enemy patrol boats or ships. About attacks on merchant ships had not yet thought, at least officially. The appearance of the gun can be formulated in accordance with the principle: “all as at people”. Formidable 88-mm gun, the Americans saw the unexpected visitor from Germany, “U-53” strongly influenced the development of overseas submarine fleet.
Interestingly, the “L” series ended a long-standing competition between “electric boat” and a lake. The government distributed the orders among competitors, marking the end of don’t really need him “creative competition”. Interestingly, three lakowski submarine was formally seems to be better quality and better driving characteristics than the highly touted “heir of Holland”. However, the service turned out that the veneer is marred by numerous “ailments” associated with the firm, and sent a “well deserved vacation”. But the “sores” had enough: once again there was a fair amount of problems with the diesels that had to touch on half of the units of the series. Disappoint and range, reduced in comparison with the less greedy “To” about a quarter.
Having got the hand on monohull “Hollands”, the American designers had to make one more step and go now to the double-hulled boats, finally caught up with thus far escaped ahead of the Europeans. This was done on an experimental “M-1”. Engineers had to make sure how difficult to implement new technical solutions for the first time. The submarine had the same combat characteristics as “L” but turned out to be 20% objectee. Part of the growth of tonnage went to greater buoyancy, which reached 27% – twice more than on the predecessors. But at the same time inside the pressure hull has become very crowded, and the depth of immersion was further restricted to 50 meters in attempts the body to facilitate. Location placed between the two hulls and ballast tanks was unsuccessful: when diving or surfacing the boat tried to capsize “on the flank”. These important operations had to carry out with the greatest care. In the end, “the first double-hulled damn” was close in meaning to the proverb. “M-1” considered as a whole failed, that did not prevent practical Americans to get rid of some of their samples abroad. (It should be noted that the examined boat British experts, including the chief designer of the fleet sir Stanley Goodall, talked about the “M-1” as although close, but very comfortable submarine, especially assessing the heaters and the fridge. Just American standards of habitability had already started to overtake those of the less pretentious Europeans.)
Submarine “M-1” (SS-47), United States, 1916
It was built by the firm of the Fort river. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/ surface – 490/680 t Dimensions: length – 59,81 m, width 5.8 m, draft – 3.4 m. the immersion Depth up to 45 m. Engine: diesel engine capacity of 840 HP and two electric motors with a power of 680 HP Speed surface/underwater: project – 14/10,5 ultrasonic tests – ultrasonic 11/10. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun. The crew of 28 people. Experimental dvuhkonusnyj boat, the first in the U.S. Navy. Excluded from the lists in 1922
Submarine “O-12” (SS-73), USA, 1918
It was built by the firm lake. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 490/565 t Dimensions: length – 52,40 m, width -5,12 m, draft – 4.2 m. the immersion Depth up to 60 m. Engine: two diesel engines of 880 HP and two electric motors with a power of 740 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 14/10,5 ties. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun. The crew – 29 people. In 1918 – 1919 built 16 units of “O-1” – “O-16”. “O-5” was killed in an accident in 1923, “O-11 – O-16” (construction company lake) are excluded from the list in 1930, “O-1” is derived from the Navy in 1938, “O-9” was killed in June 1941, and the rest were used as trainers during world war II and scrapped in 1946
“O-8” (SS-69) in world war II. Behind the add-in added the bridge for the guns, cut the hull at the stern
The above-mentioned government’s commitment to austerity has forced developers to “cut” characteristics of submarines. In the “promising project, 1916” (started two years earlier), “submarine defense” tried to reduce the displacement of up to 400 tons, almost at the same time increasing underwater speed. The price was very expensive: boat lost their guns (“it’s nowhere near American ports”), range was only 2,500 miles, and the time spent in the sea is not reached two weeks compared to monthly for the previous type. Besides, when firing torpedoes from the surface, it would be possible to use only two of the four apparatus: the upper pair was above the water level.
The most obvious absurdities of this kind has been eliminated, and a series of “N” in the surface displacement 350 t even managed to acquire some advantages. Twice the capacity of the diesel it doesn’t need to squeeze out the motors maximum, and they turned out for the first time, more or less reliable. But a similar operation with motors has led to a fivefold drop in the range of speed under water. In fact, the “N” became serious step backwards – to a small defensive “diving” boats. Important structural features worth noting first submarine fleet of the U.S. the appearance of solid metal bridges; before the engineers were limited to composite structures, often temporary, where in the case were all from wood to canvas.
It is clear that with such a “shrinking” of the boats could not accept the representatives of the fleet. The result of alterations and approvals was type “O”, each unit of which cost about the same as the representative type “L”. Not particularly noticeable on the formal characteristics of these submarines, however, had a useful hidden strengths. They should include improved living conditions: finally in the US, each crew member got his own bed. No less important was the emergence of a completely reliable diesels; since this element of overseas boats pulled up to the best European standards. It is worth noting the large number of series, as many as 16 units. The United States finally (and this was the end of the First world war) began to massively increase the power of the submarine force.
The next series, “R”, became even more numerous, as many as 27 units. (Americans, by that time already actively involved in the war, deliberately missed out two letters “of the alphabet boat”, “P” and “Q”, not to be confused potential of the submarine in the first case with the British patrol boats and the second with the courts-traps, Q-ships. Because some instances of such confusion could be fatal for quick understanding of the combat situation.) Themselves boats, in principle, little different from their predecessors. The body was 4 m long, primarily due to the fact that the case went finally 533-mm torpedo, which, like the devices for their release had more length. Another change also has been associated with the armament: a powerful new 76-mm gun with almost twice the longer barrel is not placed in “tricky” descending the installation, and put it on a pedestal on the deck.
Such a great series could not “swallow” alone, even such powerful firm, as “electric boat”. Its share fell more than half is 14. The rest were divided between “Union Iron Works” and sworn (and unsuccessful) competitor of “hollandaze” – the firm of lake. Latter built boats are quite fast and, like, they are well tested, but, as in the case of “On”, they were sent to “retire” in the first place.
The postwar fate of us “defensive” submarines was slightly better than many European boats, hastily made in the heat and uncertainty “the great war”. They perpetrated a real decimation: in 1923 from the fleet brought not only the earlier types, but all “H”, “K” and “L”. However, the latter at least were in the reserve; some of the “L” even equip new diesel engines. Representatives of the type “N” served as a training, but too long, until 1926. Real inhabitant was only some of the O type, as lakovsky products considered satisfactory enough to save, and six women went on indefinite reserve in 1924 with final cutting to metal six years later. But the units of “electric boat”, except “O-5”, died in a car crash in 1923, and “O-1” removed from the list in 1938, he served until the Second world war. In late 1941, they were “called” again, for the training of crews of new submarines, played a very important role in the victory of the US Navy in action in the vastness of the Pacific ocean. A special fate awaited “O-12”, which after the withdrawal from the fleet was renamed the inescapable “Nautilus” and tried to convert for a hike to the North pole under water. For that time it was a real adventure; the submarine might have been lost somewhere under the ice, if not the permanent faults in the machinery and equipment at the beginning of Putin even allowed to somehow get closer to the goal. In the end, the loser also handed over to be scrapped, to far to drive right in Norway, where it was supposed to start the expedition.
Most representatives of the type “R” also lived to the Second world war, in addition to the seven units built by the Lake which passed for scrapping in 1930. Three pieces were transferred to England in late 1941 – early 1942, and one of them died, although not from enemy action – it was rammed in the North Atlantic’s own minesweeper. Died and one of “true Americans”. “R-12” went to the bottom with all the crew and fellow sailors trained during torpedo exercises in the summer of 1943, becoming one of only two overseas submarines dead in the Atlantic. But the bulk of the units of the series went to metal after the war, in 1946.
So, in principle, quite worthy of a fate line American “coastal” submarines. Their designers managed long to “squeeze the lemon”, which they did “dry”. Prospects of further development of this subclass is clearly not observed. Unlike other branch -of the ocean boats.
As in Britain’s former colony before the First world very well understood, which seeks the development of submarines. And the idea was similar: specially created in the Ministry of the Navy Department Submarine Force in 1912 put the requirement to create a submarine with a displacement of about thousands of tons, capable of developing on the sea surface speed… as you can guess, corresponding that of battleships. Because overseas dreadnoughts had a few less progress than their English counterparts, sufficient found 21 knots. As we know, the requirement is at least difficult. But the Americans on that has not calmed down, “ordered” the same speed and under water! Of course, no particular ideas about how it is possible to perform, were not available. Does that take the “wise” advice of this kind: if the capacity of existing engines is not enough (which was absolutely indisputable), then you should install them in pairs “in tandem”, one after the other. It is interesting that such an important characteristic as the time of immersion, special attention has not been paid. It was believed that if such a large for that time, the submarine will be able to escape from the surface 15(!) minutes, it will be quite acceptable. Invaluable military experience in this field was yet in the future, though it is narrow-minded.
The submarine “R-1” (SS-78) type “R” US, 1919
It was built by the firm of the Fort river. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/ surface – 570/680 t Dimensions: length – 56,80 m, a width of 5.51 m, draft – 4.4 m, immersion Depth up to 60 m. Engine: diesel engine capacity of 1200 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 930 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 13,5/10,5 bonds. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (8 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun. The crew – 29 people. In 1919 – 1920 built 27 units, “R-1” – “R-27”. “R-21” – “R-27” excluded from the lists and scrapped in 1930 and the Rest participated in the Second world war, in addition to “R-8”, which sank in 1936, “R-12” was killed in 1943, three boats ceded to Britain, and the rest scrapped in 1946
R-19 in the 1920-ies. Visible to telescopic radio antenna in the raised position
Submarine “S-1” (SS-105) “S” type, United States, 1919 (Design option)
It was built by the firm of the Fort river. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/ surface – 855/1060 t Dimensions: length – 66,9 m, a width of 6.31 m, a Deposit – 4,8 m immersion Depth up to 60 m. Engine: diesel engine capacity of 1200 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 1,500 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 14/11 bonds. Armament: four 533-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (12 torpedoes), one 102-mm gun (on the draft – 76-mm). The crew – 38 people. In 1919 – 1923 built 29 units, “S-1” – “S-29”, a slightly modified project – 6 units: “S-42” – “S-47”. Repeatedly modernized. “S-6” – “S-10” scrapped in 1937, “S-2” – in 1931, the Rest are mostly participated in world war II; the survivors scrapped after graduation
The weapons provided from the 533-mm devices; in this respect, the Americans were clearly ahead of the former metropolis. Is a powerful (yet only in the imagination) weapons immediately got a lot of tactical tasks – still on paper in the performance of teachers and students of the naval war College US Navy. Here the imagination has reached its limit, we have considered a possible attack 30-knots of boat characteristics, which have managed to reach more than half a century, and only at the expense of a fundamentally new type of engine – atomic, which in the early years before the “great war” hardly could dream even of the most brilliant minds. It is therefore not surprising that the hypothetical speed of the submarine appeared neither more nor less, as the avant-garde line fleet! They had to “trim” speed wing of the enemy, consisting of battle cruisers, which the Navy of the United States was not. In addition to such misconceptions, the overseas theorists believed that similar work on a high-speed boat and conducted in Britain, France, and Germany, and even Russia. And so you should hurry.
Now it was so crazy to check for the time estimations in practice. It is clear who was to perform the task: “electric boat” and has already become a recognized leader of SPIRA competitors simply did not exist. The designers under their supervision scribbled sketches in two variants, underwater displacement of 1150 and 1280 so the Arms looked very powerful: eight and ten torpedo tubes, respectively. 4 diesel only for 4 thousand “horses”, was to disperse the “naval” boat up to 20 knots and at this speed it could go (on paper) as much as 1200 miles. It makes sense to compare all this optimistic “wealth” with the British “workhorses” of the type “E”, which “Americans” would be very far – if, of course, the project succeeded in the metal in all its glory. What causes severe doubt throughout the war the designers of the United States failed to achieve any of the planned speed or distance, the latter might differ from the spec in half. It is clear in which direction.
So, in the meantime the project had to slow down: doubts finally began to overwhelm everyone from engineers to admirals. First big speed boat is included only in the program of 1915, when little developed diesel engines. Still, a pair of 1,000-horsepower engines in tandem were very brave, and most importantly, there is little reliable solution. But the Navy continued to hope for the best. Because it was assumed that the battleships in the near future will increase the move on a couple of sites, a similar operation was proposed to be done with submarines. Couldn’t do without a steam engine plants, as in England. What caused the increase in the size of: surface displacement increased to 1370 t, and the length exceeded 100 m, and all this is on the drawing boards. Fortunately. As practical Americans, unlike enthralled by “tales” of John Fisher and his team, the lords of the Admiralty, had the sense not to spend a lot of money and effort to bring such a project to “squeeze” a few extra knots. However, the needs they have that was not there: unlike England, all the misfortunes of war made little reference to the United States.
But all these design changes and fluctuations have taken a lot of time. The war was long over, when the prototype of the submarine, which received the designation “T-1”, “T-2” and “T-3”, has finally entered into operation. And then it turned out that they did not reach the scheduled speed: maximum achievement was 16-17 knots for a couple hours and 18 nodes at a maximum power. The reliability of the machines remains below any criticism: more than half the time the boat spent in the stillness, repairing their diesel engines. The dive was a huge, 4 to 6 minutes, although resourceful commanders promised to reduce it for a minute, filling some with water ballast tanks in advance. In the final painting, testing has revealed the lack of strength of the body, so the 60-meter sampling depth had to be reduced by half because of security reasons. The final blow was struck the fleet, insisted on the replacement of the 76 mm guns on 102-mm, which had initially cut an impressive “battery” torpedo tubes. Besides turning tubes were completely impractical in the service: the torpedoes fired from them, often rejected by streams of water, ortakovski the boat. The commander of the “T-1” I asked them to just remove, but the management decided to leave “for experiments” which, however, is not particularly long: already in 1922 all three were sent to the reserve that were slightly disguised full “resignation”. Ocean the first submarine of the US Navy blabbed at the wall for several more years, and then went to be scrapped.
All this has dealt a serious blow to the program of implementation of the “fleet submarine”. However, Americans have been lucky: the just-concluded world war long postponed following a serious challenge in battle. Therefore, it was possible to conduct slowly and without spending such large funds, such as Britain, which after the fighting ended, was forced to put into operation numerous large and expensive submarines, were under construction, in particular, the notorious “K”. American engineers several years to spend, figuratively speaking, only the drawing paper and their time, thoughtful in developing a variety of options for its submarines long-range. They went through all the options, and steam turbines and with the “integrated” diesel option “T-1”, varying in size from half to 2.5 thousand tons. Very time arrived, and more powerful (and longer) torpedoes, and the results of studies on the hydrodynamics of hulls, including a tool such as a nasal “bulb”, significantly improve the flow in a submerged position. All of these solutions could be very useful for large high-speed boats intended (still) for joint action with the fleet. It should be noted that the interests of the Navy in a number of meetings were, in particular, Lieutenant commander Chester Nimitz, the future commander of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific during the war with Japan. He insisted to choose as prototype of the German “submarine cruiser”. And that went against the mainstream in the Ministry which stubbornly wanted to get it submarines for joint operations with the Navy. The years flew by, already ended the war, and the creation of super-submarines were successful only on the proverbial paper.
However, by the time life itself was pointing to the scholastic theory of the two types of boats – “defensive” and “big Navy”. The first in the vast majority turned out to be too small in order to major bases on the North Atlantic coast of the USA itself to cross the Atlantic or achieve the Panama canal without refueling. In addition, the transitions in the ocean was a real pain because of poor seaworthiness “hollandsch descendants.” In the Navy understood that you want something in between, not as large as the ambitious “Navy” projects, but certainly more “defensive” somewhere in the region of 800 – 1000 tons displacement. Strong reinforcement of these trends was already mentioned day length in Newport in 1916 the German submarine “U-53”, the German “standard” for ocean actions, successfully overcame the transatlantic route and then another and ready for action.
In the end, followed by the decision to design and build such a boat. To speed up the process and create an atmosphere of competition, the Navy has decided to give freedom in the implementation of the technical specifications, by choosing as contractors of the two most famous “traders” of the underwater shipbuilding, “electric boat” and “lake”, and the state dockyard in Portsmouth. We had to repeat shipbuilding experiment undertaken with the destroyers, when in a few years, Americans “rivet” two hundred “gladkotrubnym”, the same as all the other countries in the war. Design on a single terms of reference were left to the mercy of the builders, so, in the end, instead of a single series turned out in fact three, with the same arms and similar dimensions, but with markedly different characteristics and their own features.
Proud room “S-1” went to “electric boat”, and its products have proved, as usual, though somewhat conservative, but at the height of quality. But the “lake” has not coped with the task: his project “S-2” was just unsatisfactory. Underwater ship stubbornly refused to become “underwater”, because it is very slowly sinking. To control the horizontal rudders needed a powerful servomotor and to fill ballast tanks – the mighty pumps. As a result, the boat was built in one piece and went for scrap in 1931. However, gradually “dying” company is not deprived of the last chance, entrusting a few years later to build another five units in the “official project”. This option was quite decent, and here the “lake” did not disappoint: his boat served almost as much as “state” and production of “electric boat”.
Each of the remaining two designers tried to make their submarines own “flavor”. And these “highlights” places had a bitter taste. “Electric boat”, which is quite natural, just increased the project “R”, saving it odnostolpnoy design all the same “the Hollands”. In addition, the “Eski” this firm was still a little nautical and very “wet”, because it is still quite a “pickle” of the case. Nevertheless, the high quality and great speed of construction allowed the firm to “grab” a large part of the order. While govery could not keep up with the world leader in the field of underwater shipbuilding.
Moreover, the “state”, “S-3” found its own troubles: the division of ballast tanks into upper and lower was a bad idea, because in order for water to get into the last boat had already pretty well-positioned. Subsequently, all state-owned units rebuilt in such a way to at least partially eliminate this disadvantage. Three Builder-designer guaranteed noticeably different driving characteristics. The most leisurely on the surface came naturally, “hollandske”, a total of 14 nodes. “State” appeared on the site before Christmas, and the record series as a whole was just laikovskaya “S-2”, developed 16 knots.
Submarine “T-2” (SS-60), United States, 1919
It was built by the firm of the Fort river. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 1110/1490 t Dimensions: length-82,0 m, width-7,0 m, draught 4.3 m. the immersion Depth up to 45 m. Engine: four diesel engines with a capacity of 4000 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 1350 HP Speed surface/submarine project – 20/10,5 ultrasonic tests – ultrasonic 11/10. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes in the nose (16 torpedoes), one 76-mm gun. The crew – 38 people. Experimental “naval” boat. In 1919 built three units: “T-1” “T-3”, which had even the designation “AA-1” – “AA-3”. (Head bore the same name – “Schlei”.) Excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1922, scrapped in 1930
“T-2” in the beginning of the service
Submarine O-10 and O-4 (background) at the pier in Boston
The U.S. submarine S-46 on the Atlantic coast of the United States. 17 June 1943
It is clear that such a disparity has become a “headache” for any joint action. But without exception all submarines of this type had a very unwanted same unity property: very large radius under water. So great, that with an awkward perspective, the goal location had problems with the release of the attack. However, for all its faults the boats of type “S” could cross the Atlantic, and when filling in part of the ballast tanks of fuel and still operate in remote waters. And the U.S. Congress sweeping gestures claimed their buildings: in addition to the first 12 in 1917, the Navy has requested an additional 60 units in 1919 year, the congressmen agreed to the additional costs. (Each boat was worth about $ 700 thousand.)
Meanwhile, the designers searched for all possible and even impossible ways to improve their offspring. Especially we had a long discussion about artillery: I tried, it seemed that all available weapons and even developed guns, including powerful 102-mm and 127-mm guns. There were these battery of two or even three trunks. The place was just enough for one; stopped at intermediate reasonable chetyrehmetrovy. Then had an exaggerated increase in ammunition with 80 shells already up to 200 (it is not clear why American boats have yet to be considered as potential destroyers cargo ships) and return from 533-mm caliber torpedo tubes to 450-mm. (Here the reason is clear: a smaller caliber would have six pipes instead of four, which seemed important, as overcharging of the devices took a lot of time).
In General, changes to projects during the construction of this “LP” series (it was built about eight years, from late 1917 to the end of 1925) was missing. Including the modification of the body, which is the last of the party managed to squeeze another torpedo tube in the stern, on the model of the German boats. With the latest in improved project moved the same equipment to fill and purge the ballast tanks. Modernization continued during the entire period of their service, and lived “Eski” is very pretty, having pretty actively participate in the Second world war. In the course of hostilities work on the improvement continued. Some boats received, in particular, usernote fore end, notably improved their seaworthiness. The first such boat was the “S-20”, which actually was a real testing ground improvements. In addition to the nasal nedelki, it appeared external the Boule, which was taken extra fuel. In the 1930-ies on this “floating laboratory” has been subjected to various high-speed diesel engines of the German company MAN, which are installed only on the right shaft. So it was easy to compare all parameters with the standard “old man” of their own design, rotating the left shaft.
The most daring version of modernization was, perhaps, the project of 1926, providing for the insertion of a double housing for additional 8-foot sections, designed mostly for fuel tanks. Displacement would increase to 1,250 tons, and the range would exceed 10 thousand miles. Diesels were supposed to replace MAN production, add a few torpedo tubes in the stern and simultaneously introduce a lot of small improvements. The issue price was roughly half of its original value “Asok”, but less than 20% of the funds necessary for the construction of a new large submarine approximately the same displacement. As “the first swallow” was chosen protonova in the accident “S-48”. However, the work went slowly, even in organized America, and after two years of spending money it was decided to restrict only experience.
Point on the plans to improve the largest series of American boats put the London naval agreement of 1930. If earlier it was limited only to the maximum size of submarines, it is now each country had to plan the development of this class of ships within a limited quota in tonnage. So that excessive prolongation of life “old ladies” could slow the development of the new series.
Revived to life, they broke out in 1939 the Second world war. Is certainly outdated, “Eski” suddenly become “valuable commodity”. In August 1941 caught in the plight of Britain has asked for 18 units. To the British managed only a third of the desired, with one unit already they have transferred to the Polish Navy in exile. And in their fleet they came in handy after the Japanese attack. Six pieces, which was part of the Asian fleet of the USA, managed to leave the Philippines and to connect with other six “sisters” in the struggle against Japanese shipping in the New Guinea. Despite the problems with the range, other representatives of the series were even in these “pains of hell holes”, as the North Atlantic and the Aleutian Islands. Incurring significant losses: six units did not return from military campaigns, three more ended up in the tests and experiments in 1945. Most surviving copies were upgrades already in the second half of the war, in 1943 and 1944, received serious radar equipment, 20-mm antiaircraft guns, and air conditioning system. But with the end of hostilities, the fate of “veterans” was quite predictable, despite all the modernization. By the time the submarine fleet of the United States became the world’s most powerful and included so much more advanced combat units that maintaining the “old ladies” had no meaning. They all went for scrap in 1946.
Recommend to read
- GLIDER BS-3
"If we turn the pages of aviation history, you will find that most modern aircraft as heavier than and lighter than air born motorless aircraft were gliders, airships — balloons. Motors...
Every day we use a huge amount of things and have almost ceased to notice them. But it turns out in the production of minor things at first glance hides a lot of interesting and...