The boat itself is also worthy of respect: at a length of about 17 m displacement reached 65 tons. The constructor does not philosophize slyly and almost completely reproduced in “fish” shape of my first creations with dignity withstood all the tests. And the name of the submarine was not original: “Ictineo No. 2”. And again, the inventor was successful: the second “Big fish” not only managed to finish, but it can also be safely tested. She easily sank to 30 m; Monturiol believed that the case can withstand depth for another fifty meters large, but still prefer not to risk it.
I wonder were the second dip “Ictineo”. First filled the main large tanks for ballast, and then the submarine almost went under water. After closing the hatches, the water was pumped in a little extra capacity, an analogue of the swim bladder from a living prototype – fish, and the boat finally sank to the required depth. The weak point remained trim while carried out by pumping water from the bow tank to the aft or Vice versa. It is clear that the manual pump is absolutely not suitable for this purpose; with a sharp “peck” align “, Ictineo” it would be extremely difficult or simply impossible. However, as we know, this “disease” was inherent in almost all underwater vessels of the time.
However, the Spanish boat has sailed, and quite successfully. With regard to the mechanical setup, the idea is that she looked quite modern. On the surface worked the steam engine power 6 HP with the release of smoke through the tube and after immersion was connected to another, also steam engine, but less powerful (2 HP) and used a steam in a closed loop. In addition, it was intended as a kind of “drive” for weapons, which remained a favorite designer of the mechanical drill. Although the use of machines instead of “manual labor”, most likely, would “drill holes in the enemy” much faster, the idea itself seemed pretty childish. However, the choice was very small: set of charges was long and dangerous. Monturiol rather as additional weapons “underwater gun”, but the results of her tests is not known.
The second “Ictineo” had not only the device to refresh the breathing air (standard for the mid-century, the absorption of carbon dioxide by the alkaline solution with the addition as necessary of oxygen from a cylinder), but also a means of lighting as the original, as dangerous. In a special lantern was carried out the burning of hydrogen in oxygen, where a bright blaze, but is fraught with disaster. However, stocks of these highly explosive gases in the aggregate, be stored in metal containers, placed outside the pressure hull. But still surprising that such “bomb” never went off. Generally eighteen months of testing, as in the case of the first boats, went fairly smoothly. Monturiol was not only qualified, but also a very successful engineer.
But not an organizer and entrepreneur. The fleet was in no hurry to take his baby no arms, or just “allowance”. In the end, “Ictineo” “ate” all the money of the inventor without a trace. The designer has declared itself bankrupt, and the submarine went to his creditors, who have not found anything the best, as in 1867 to open the case on the metal. So disappeared off the face of the earth, this interesting example of a very advanced technical thoughts in a declining Empire. But the descendants remember, of course, outstanding designer and his creation. Century odd later enthusiasts have produced on the surviving drawings from two copies of the second “Ictineo”! They are still “at home” in Barcelona: one on the waterfront, the other in the Museum industry.
Since then two decades have passed, and now in 1885 in Spain, another talented pioneer of underwater shipbuilding. 35-year-old Navy Lieutenant Isaac Peral developed a highly advanced version of the submarine “ship” named after him. Kingdom by the time he made another step to extinction, and inventor waited for difficult times. For a year he pestered the authorities, then, after receiving permission to build, one year settled conditions at the state shipyard in Cadiz. The boat laid on the first day, 1888, after six months launched, and then long completed already afloat. Quality work at the most advanced for that time underwater ship was so low that “drove” him even more. Only in the early summer of 1890, the “Peral”submarine, went to trial under the control of the Peral engineer.
The design of the submarine were many solutions used around the same time (and perhaps not mythic) on the French “Gymnote”, designed by Gustave Zede. With the sticks in the wheels, which so interfered with the Peral, we can assume that much less well-known Spanish designer, in many ways ahead of their famous rivals. For starters, his submarine was two times bigger than under 85 tons submerged. However, more than a third of the mass were very inefficient battery, consisting of more than six hundred 50-pound “cans”. She has been charged only in the database and required for the full charging time exceeded the day! Moreover, two electric motors with a capacity of 30 HP, a rotating “their” shafts, allowed to reach speeds of 7.5 per node on the surface and only 3.5 node at depth. But the main drawback of the “ship” was not even speed, and the cruising range does not exceed 40 miles on “turtle” speed to three knots. However, approximately the same characteristics was also “Gymnote”, built perhaps the most advanced in the application of electricity at that time France.
Moreover, inside the “Peral” lurked a lot of very promising innovations. First of all, the weapons: for the first time the boat got internal torpedo tubes (remember, gerlowski-nordenfjeldske submarines treated outside the casing pipes), which later became a standard option. By the way, the Spanish underwater vessel for the first time in history made a torpedo shot from under the water the real thing. Even training, but successful. 7 June 1890 350-mm “fish” German production (known in the late nineteenth century the company “Schwarzkopf”, the main competitor of the omnipresent Whitehead) with a distance of about 2 cables ‘ lengths came at the cruiser colon. A few days later managed to hit the same target already on the go! Moreover, the Spanish submariners also owns the championship in a successful night torpedo attack. “Peral” successfully crept up to the same cruiser just close, despite the fact that the “conditional enemy” was notified of the attack and actively covered the water with spotlights.
These successes not least contributed to the “instrumentation”. The designer has created not only the submarine, but the original projection periscope, to give the image on a horizontal screen, which allowed also to estimate the heading angle of the target and the distance to it. A kind of prototype of the combat information post, albeit very primitive. In General, the boat reigned electricity. They in effect were cited the Arab League, highlighted the interior (as much as six light bulbs seven crew members – a real luxury for those times). A pair of special motors for 5 HP rotated the two vertically located in the bow and stern screw, allows automatically adjusting the immersion depth according to the hydrostatic sensor boat submerged had almost zero buoyancy, like most of her contemporaries.
In General, the Spanish designer has managed to create a workable boat, not inferior to the most modern foreign samples, and in many respects superior to them. However, truly “no man is a prophet in his own country”. The naval Ministry has rejected the creation of Peral, although he managed to successfully pass all the tests. At the end of 1890 the boat was disarmed by removing the equipment, and left to rust in the port of Cadiz. The reasons are understandable: indeed, such an expensive “toy” that can be removed from the base only line of sight distance, is unlikely to have a significant military value. But along with the water splashed and child: a talented shipbuilder realized he would not be allowed to do what you love and… went into politics. He became a member of Parliament, he finally managed to quarrel with the powers that determined the Maritime policy of the country. It is clear that in such conditions the “machinery” really gone on the back burner. Besides, soon left the Peral and the legislative Assembly, completely lost in private life. And that ended only after four years – a talented designer died young.
Narciso Monturiol, 1819 – 1885
The submarine “El Engineo-2”, Spain, 1864.
Built in Barcelona. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater 65, etc Sizes: length 27,0 m, diameter 3.5 m housing Material: iron. Immersion depth up to 30 m. Engine: 2 steam engines with a capacity of 6 and 2 HP. a speed surface/submarine -5/2,5 bonds. Weapons: a gun for firing under the water, the rig mechanical drive drilling corps. Crew: 6 people were tested in 1864 – 1866 For service not accepted. Scrapped in 1867
So Spain lost the chance to occupy an important place in the underwater shipbuilding. And very soon completely lost the war at sea the United States. But even in her imperfect boat could play the role of the threat of “Scarecrow” for attacking or blocking ships, for example, in Santiago or Manila.
Nevertheless, Peral played their part, opening a wide road to its overseas competitor, Holland, maybe not more talented, but certainly more lucky and persistent. It boats of Peral caused so serious concerns among the Maritime Ministry of the U.S. that it decided to “back off” as much as two million dollars – the cost of a small cruiser – only the project of the corresponding “means” of his own design. It is clear that stranded Holland immediately involved in the process. And it seems to be quite well: his project was awarded the victory in the contest.
However, the Ministry did not intend to swear at the stubborn Irish gold. In the terms of reference were too many demands on the verge of advances in technology of the time, and sometimes even beyond it. Starting from speed (15 knots on the surface and eight – under water) and the need to maintain a stable position at zero buoyancy in a submerged position (again remember how impossible was this problem throughout the nineteenth century) to the desire to have two torpedo tubes and a machine “with a capacity of at least 1,000 HP” within a 200-ton displacement. Holland honestly, that meet all requirements at the same time he is not able for objective reasons: it is technically impossible. For what he paid: the finished project was deemed unsuitable for implementation in the metal. The Ministry announced a new competition a year later, and again he won the same “stubborn John”! This time he managed (still on paper) to fulfill almost all the requirements of capricious officials, and in some ways even surpass them.
The fifth submarine of Holland, named “Plunger”, had a displacement of slightly less specificationname, not reaching even 170 T.
While observing and maximum depth is 45 metres, and speed. 15-usloviy the course was provided by three steam engines, two main, triple expansion with a capacity of 625 HP, a rotating each shaft, and one additional 300 forces, intended for maximum acceleration, and also as backup in case of failure of one of the main. Pairs for this very powerful (total 1650 HP), the installation gave as much as five miniature boilers with oil heating. Together the main mechanisms accounted for more than half the length of the boat, and at the widest middle part. The means for underwater speed (the motors and their power) space and weight was little. Although batteries and has undergone almost annual progress, “nature” to deceive was difficult. Even the design range under water coveted 8-node swing was less than 50 miles (and what it would be in reality?). But failed to provide the main charging of the battery can be implemented directly in the campaign by means of generators driven by the main steam engine. Thus, the boat finally got rid of the need to return after only a short underwater travel to the pier with the “charging socket”.
Moreover, the designer thoroughly sure about the arms. It included three component (recall that in the tiny, by subsequent standards, housing, moreover, to overflowing clogged mechanisms, batteries, and a supply of coal!). For the first time in the history of the torpedo tubes were located not only in the nose (just two), but in the stern (third) is good where as for more recent times the scheme. They complement a pair of pneumatic guns Zelinskogo (Holland did not forget his companion and colleague in previous futile efforts), threatening to have vents in the nose and stern. Finished painting two small-calibre cannon in a streamlined armoured(!) the turrets located in the front and rear of the armored well logging. In the end, the forethought and the General appearance of the submarine Holland was somewhat reminiscent of the boats of the 1930-ies and even the famous twenty-first series (which we describe in subsequent publications). Engineer self-managed to bring many innovations and concepts, including polutoraspalnoy scheme: on a solid body is partially covering its exterior, in which was located the dynamite monsters. The superstructure was assumed to fill the displacing water cellulose material, intended to play the role of an additional “float”. (Such fibers are sometimes filled cofferdam compartments of surface ships, believing that the “gasket” will not only prevent the flow of water through the holes, but also to give additional protection from the shells.)
Isaac Peral, 1851 – 1895.
The submarine “Isaac Peral”, Spain, 1888
Undoubtedly, many of the innovations that were literally full of “Plunger”, could hardly be embodied in the implementation in the metal. Most likely, some had to be abandoned because the project really was beyond modern technology. However, knowing this and failed. In the US government changed and the project was again shelved – for the next three years. Only in 1893, the Navy Department returned to the idea of creating my own underwater vessel. Once again cheat: new, already the third contest involved ten times more modest funding is 200 thousand dollars instead of two million.
Needless to say that this “race” was won by the indefatigable John Holland. His financial position by that time, to put it mildly, left much to be desired: outstanding designer was forced to play the role of a simple draftsman in a private company. So public support would be absolutely necessary to him. However, instead, had to “reshape” your successful project thus, to stay within 10% of what the inventor could expect initially. It is clear that the alteration “under poverty” did nothing to improve the boat, inherited from unfulfilled name. (Usually it is called the “Plunger-2”, to distinguish it from the first “rich” option.) With the submarine disappeared “dinamici” Zelinskogo, and along with the aft torpedo tubes and gun turrets. “Shriveled” and the propulsion system: the power of “two” electric motors down to 70 HP and the steam engine served now only the boiler, more cumbersome and less reliable. In General, “financial Lite” option was losing one after another of their attractive features and is rapidly approaching the other experimental samples, which we have already described.
However, tight government allocated 200 thousand is still clearly not enough to build! And Holland once again had to look for a sponsor. This time this role was played by the businessman and lawyer Elihu frost, the main advantage of which is the ability to find the right connections and moves in a complicated bureaucratic maze. This young but already seasoned businessman was struck by the harsh Irish made a calculation: he managed to calculate all the expenses, putting the total amount of 347 thousand dollars and 19 cents. The question of how he managed to achieve such fantastic precision, Holland said that 19 cents is the drawing line.
One way or another, but to state 200-thousand dollars needed to find nearly 150 thousand. To this end, the partners founded a new company. To honor frost, it should be noted that without question agreed to call it the name of a companion of the inventor of a definite and “engine” of the case. So was born the “Holland Torpedoboat company”, another brainchild with a difficult life. But it became possible to obtain credits, and during the summer of 1896 finally managed to begin the long-awaited construction. For the year managed to collect the body and mechanical installation and start sea trials, and again to see how practice diverges from theory. Power-the steam engine was missing, but the heat balance designer, self-taught to provide but could not. In a close case, even not at full power the temperature rose to 60°C. the Test risked boil alive “in its own juice”. It is clear that about any combat use of such “pressure cooker” could not be considered. But, even worse, completely unrealistic and was one of the very important requirements of the technical specifications: immersion for one minute, including the transition to the engine for underwater travel.
John Philip Holland 1841 – 1914
Submarine D. Holland’s “Plunger-1”, USA, project, 1888
Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface 140/168 T. Dimensions: length of 25.9 m, a diameter of 3,66 m. body Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: 3 steam engine power of 1600 HP + 2 electric motors rated at 100 HP, speed, surface/underwater – 15/8 bonds. Armament: three 350-mm torpedo tubes (2 in nose, 1 in the stern) (5 torpedoes), two pneumatic dynamite guns Zelinskogo, two 47-mm rapid-fire guns. Crew: 14 people is Not built
Submarine design Holland, United States, project 1896
Not built. Type of construction – single -. Displacement underwater/surface, etc Dimensions: length 13.7 m diameter 3.05 m hull Material: steel. Immersion depth up to 45 m. Engine: steam engine 160 HP (replaced by a kerosene motor) electric motor with 70 HP., speed surface/submarine project 14/8 bonds. Armament: 350 mm torpedo tubes in the nose, propelling device for torpedoes Erickson, pneumatic dynamite gun Zelinskogo. Crew: 7-8 people Remained in the status of the project
Diagram of the submarine “Plunger-2”:
1 – thruster; 2 – vertical rudders; 3 – vertical screw; 4 – generator; 5 – the main steam engine; 6 – extendable chimney; 7 – control; 8 – torpedo tubes; 9 – spare torpedoes; 10 – air bottles; 11 – ballast tanks; 12 – fuel tank; 13 – a steam boiler; 14 – air compressor; 15 battery; 16 – side of the steam engine; 17 – side propellers
So once again Holland were left with nothing: the sixth his boat was unclaimed, and we can not say that the inventor himself did not carry over then no guilt. As we have already seen, usually sooner or later, the pioneers of underwater shipbuilding surrendered, or turning to other pursuits, or really bad ending – poverty, drop to the bottom, crazy. But not iron Irish. While his companions urgently looked for a way out of the financial impasse, Holland for a few months has developed a new project. He remembered that he was his experiments with internal combustion engines, which compared to the “steamers” required less space and fuel and also not heated “environment” to such horrible temperatures. Most importantly, a chance to provide draconian requirement by the time of immersion or at least to approach him.
However, the designer was unable to find a suitable internal combustion engine (“gasolinevin motor” as it is in the time called). So his next submarine (already seventh) initially received a steam machine with oil heating, is very compact both by design and due to the drastic reduction of power (160 HP). Curiously, while it was expected almost the same speed on the surface (14 knots), partly due to the somewhat “slick” hull shapes. However, to check the calculations of the designer again has failed: first, he still found a possible supplier of the internal combustion engine and then replaced the forced option of the main machine, and second of all… this boat was never built!
The naval Ministry with curiosity, but also some understandable concerns familiar with the unique set of weapons following the boats of Holland. It really looked amazingly colorful. In addition to the torpedo machine “mines Whitehead” in the nose above it was located another one for throwing torpedoes American inventor Erickson, considered as more simple and reliable alternatives to “fancy” a self-propelled projectile of the ocean. Although the launch range was extremely limited, but the inclined position of the pipe is allowed to send a lethal charge directly to the bottom of the target – the most vulnerable in its place. In the stern the same way I watched the dynamite gun: Holland continued to believe in the offspring of your previous companion. In General, the inventor has tried to cover the whole range available at the time of the destruction of the enemy from under the water.
It should be noted that it is studded with “silos” create made a certain impression in Maritime circles. However, the very Sea, the Ministry was again treated hollandska the creation of a very cool, quite understandably, the tone it was asked by experienced sailors who understood that such “shells”, if adopting, will have to serve and fight them or to their children and colleagues. The formal pretext was the failure of immersion time: only to remove the pipe and close all the holes and hatches, took almost a minute. And five times more time was required to fill ballast tanks, after which the water surface would disappear, a tiny cutting “sevens” of Holland.
However, the experience gained during the development of this project, are not left useless. The designer had to think about that with the release of a solid by weight and volume of ammunition will seriously disrupt the balance of equilibrium is relatively small boats. For payment he provided a special small tank after the shot quickly zapolnyatsya appropriate amount of water. Finally established and characteristic for the “Hollands” scheme of location of the vertical and horizontal rudders in the form of a “cross” in the aft. (It is worth noting that the scheme is not indisputable and not quite successful: to keep the boat at a predetermined depth using the aft rudders small area proved to be very difficult. To date, these “fins” moved to the wheelhouse.)
Meanwhile, the financial situation of the new company became more “breath-taking”. “Plunger-2” was built, but the Ministry has not been adopted, the new bill also “stuck”. However, Holland was not going to stop. He was ready the next project eighth of the boat. The main difference was that from the very beginning as engine for surface course provided for a four-stroke internal combustion engine, running on kerosene. Power helicopter, of course, to put it mildly, left much to be desired: only 45 HP But the motor worked quite reliably, although the stated range is more than 1,000 miles after the first test turned out to be inflated as much as three times! However, it is the “Plunger-3” became the first boat, adopted less Moody marine Department of the United States.
However, until this happy moment had to wait four years, of which actual construction was only one. Work was going full swing, and the “Plunger-3” was launched even before the failed “big brother No. 2”. They are mainly distinguished by engine: the desire to stay within a very modest budget programshow the firm did not bow to the “frills.” Armament was limited to a single 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose and single gun Zelinskogo traditionally directed at an angle to the horizon. Architecture is the third “Plunger” more like the seventh boat of Holland, with a round body and a large superstructure at the top, form a kind of “deck” and gave the “product” view, closer to the contours of conventional surface ships. And already on this deck stood a cabin. In principle, this decision has become traditional for the vast majority of subsequent submarines. And this was not the only distinguishing feature of “progenitor”, as reproduced in the many sons. Much more important was the principle of the constancy of the center of mass, thus avoiding the notorious “move on a vertical sine wave” at the slightest movements of horizontal rudders. Now the boat responded to their relocation, but without the “geometric frills” in the path of motion. Promoted such “obedience” and the control ballast allows to maintain a constant mass. In particular, at start-up of torpedoes, after which the tank automatically did the required amount of water.
Diagram of the submarine Holland-7:
1 – torpedo tube; 2 – pneumatic device for throwing vystraivanii min Erickson; 3 – the container for ammunition; 4 – surge tank; 5 – tank for kerosene; 6 – lever to control the rudders of depth and rate; 7 – compressed air cylinders; 8 – battery; 9 – main ballast tank; 10 – air compressor; 11 – kerosene motor; 12-generator; 13-electric; 14-vertical rudders; 15-pneumatic dynamite gun Zelinskogo with compressor
Submarine “Plunger-3” (Holland), USA, 1897
It was built by the firm “Crescent street Shipyard” in Port Elizabeth. Type of construction-single -. Displacement underwater/surface 63/74,5 tons Dimensions: length of 16.4 m, width 3.12 m, height of 3.23 m hull Material: steel Depth to 45 m. Engine: kerosene engine power 45 HP + electric motor power 50 HP, speed, surface/underwater 8/7,5 ties. Armament: 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose (3 torpedoes), pneumatic dynamite gun Zelinskogo (7 projectiles weighing 100 kg). Crew: 7 persons Enlisted in the Navy in 1900 under the name “Holland” (1915 – SS). Excluded from the lists in 1913, sold for use as a Museum exhibit. Put the metal in 1932.
Thus, the designer managed to cope with most of the “childhood diseases” underwater vessels inherent in the creations his predecessors and contemporaries. This is acknowledged even by the admission Board of the fleet, which frost and Holland hastened to present their latest product. However, the sailors did not hurry to give a positive conclusion. Formally, the submarine did not meet all the requirements outlined in the specification. So you can go on to keep on the hook of the innovators: in fact many of the requested elements was able to bring only more than half a dozen years before the 1st world war.
Then Holland decided on a desperate step. The United States entered the war with Spain. In the port of Santiago in Cuba, the American Navy managed to block the squadron of Admiral Servers. And “mad Irish” gave an advertisement in a new York newspaper, which undertook to attack the Spaniards, and to sink any ship on request! If only the Navy paid for the towing of the “Plunger” to the shores of Cuba and, if successful, of course, would have acquired this weapon.
Remember that in the history of submarine building such statements were made not once, not twice. And again, as in previous cases, the author was showered with ridicule. The Newspapers came out with “funny” cartoons. But Holland still lucky. If desired, of course, to say – in full accordance with the norms of Protestant morality, saying that hard work will sooner or later be noticed and rewarded. The weighty word expressed by the fans among the young naval officers, who believed that a new weapon of war is already quite “ripe”, and that his triumphal procession interfere only “old people”. Particularly distinguished himself in this affair Lieutenant William Kimball, who later became one of the prominent admirals. Two years before the war he boldly claimed that six submarines of the Holland under his command will stop the miserable Spaniards, and any British squadron! Now the supporters of the submarine had insisted on another “acquaintance” with her Commission. The decisive word was said by Admiral Dewey, the winner in battle in the Philippines. He ventured to say that a pair of such “goods” in the hands of the Spaniards would not allow him to take the risk and enter with a squadron into Manila Bay. The boat is again inspected by representatives of the Navy and… was again left in doubt.
The situation for company “Holland Torpedoboat” became very critical. Some losses are very substantial, in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, and no profit. Had to resort to the extreme remedy: it was absorbed by the larger “shark” in the face of the owner “Electrodynamics company” Isaac rice, an old friend and companion frost in a variety of risky endeavors. A victim of the merger fell… Holland: “great uncle” done behind his back, and one of the owners, he became the hired hand. While the companions observed the piety, and instructed the Irishman seems to be an important job: to go to Europe and try to sell the “Plunger” is there any of the leading Maritime powers. Meanwhile, the financial experts connected to the case of the Irish lobby in Congress and after some alterations (rearrangements dynamite cannon in the nose and add a pair of surge tanks) in April of 1900, three years after launching, Navy Department surrendered. The boat finally adopted, and under the name “Holland” at the end of the same year, she joined the U. S. Navvy.
For the Holland of this belated victory was truly peers. His former companion – frost along with his new companion and owner of the greater part of the stock the rice was removed “singing teacher” and “taught” from the management of the engineering activities of the firm, which continued to bear his name. At the same time frost was able to renew in his name almost all the patents previously held in “joint ownership” with the Holland and author are, in fact, he was. The pretext for this “resignation” was that the revision of the “Plunger” conducted supposedly only professional engineers employed by the companions-“pirates”. (Recall that the Irish designer at this time was sent to Europe as a kind of salesman.)
Undoubtedly, the “brilliant individuals” came to an end, but hardly taught Holland really deserved such a fate. Moreover, just at the beginning of the new century boat in his name (and mostly they also designed), finally, literally conquered the world.
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