ECONOMIC WALLEach individual Builder wants his house was not only beautiful it’s durable, but cheap. Design and materials of the walls is about a third of all costs. Is there the possibility of saving? I propose to make the wall monolithic, lightweight concrete-filled; the role of the formwork perform asbestos-cement sheets, they also then have to serve as a lining. The cost of these walls is lower than the brick, and the use of lightweight aggregates (sawdust, slag, reed) will improve their thermal insulation properties. In addition, they can be more subtle and light. In the end, will reduce transport and construction costs.

The use of a casing of asbestos cement sheets accelerates construction by eliminating the need for time-consuming operations such as plastering. Monolithic wall work durable, have high strength, not afraid of moisture, is practically fireproof.
The forming of the walls begin with installation at the perimeter of the Foundation with vertical rods — wooden racks of a skeleton. The distance between them depends on the thickness of the uprights and horizontal sheathing material for fixing asbestos cement sheets. Between adjacent racks are fixed with struts. The upper ends of their associated horizontal bars.
On the front side on the base, retreating from the outer edge 30-40 mm, put provalnosti or wavy sheets of outer lining with overlapping at the half-wave. They attach to the crate, previously tightly fit to the base.
From the inside hung a flat plate inner lining. In contrast to the outer attach them back to back, trying to get a tight seam and smooth surface. Between the plates and racks insert temporary spacers; filling a space between the wall concrete mixture they removed.
There are other design walls: for example, with rounded outer corners (from asbestos roofs to cover skates), with the use of notched sheets.
To avoid significant shrinkage of the walls, part concrete with aggregates it is necessary to reinforce the height. It is convenient to use a metal grid with large cells (it can be manufactured in a home workshop, using the advice of the magazine “Rabbit breeding and farming”, № 2, 1933).
Provalnosti asbestos cement sheets, exterior cladding attached with screws to the frame, starting from the base to the eaves, lapping at the lower range of 5-6 cm; at that, edges of sheets combine the height, which gives the wall a more aesthetic appearance. In places where it is not possible to obtain tight stitches, they are daubed with cement mortar (one part cement, 3 parts sand). Regular rows of facing sheets are attached to the frame after hardening of the concrete fill in the previous row. For such wall constructions eliminates the need for on-lattice formwork and reinforcement of the resulting monolith.
The context of “layered” walls:
1 — top link, 2 — brace, 3 — inner wall plate, 4 — blocks of crates, 5 — strut-rods, 6 — insulation, 7 — the Foundation (rubble concrete), 8 — sand bags, 9 — base, 10 — drain bias, 11 — hollows in the wall, 12 — sheet external cladding, a 13 — strut.

Starting from 15-20 cm from the base in the middle of the wall and above it is advisable to do two rows of cavities, the width and the interval between which is 35-40 mm. For the device of such sinuses in the concrete of the next row is inserted kinzhaloobraznye forms of boards wrapped with roofing material. After solidification of the filler Board pull out, the paper is removed. There are other ways of creating a hollow wall. To window sills and ceiling voids do not lead to 30— 40 cm In these “sinuses” you don’t fall asleep. They reduce the consumption of concrete wall, and due to the profiled surface of the lining and voids in the monolith building does not overheat in hot weather, the air is cleaner, the necessary humidity.
At the top of the walls in the concrete close up clips of sheet steel or long bolts to secure the top cord; in addition, from the inside to leave a special socket for installation of the ends of beams of garret overlapping. Nests do some the big sizes, than the ends of the beams; between the outermost beams and the adjacent wall leaving a gap of at least 5 cm For the connection of the walls overlapping the ends of the secondary beams are buried in the wall.
Window and door to zamonolichivat is not recommended. They produce transient, to 2 cm more and reinforce openings cut asbestos products and on the crate. The sides of temporary boxes put antiseptirovannye wooden plugs for fixing postoyannyh blocks. A gap between the walls and boxes of regular caulk.
In the lower part of the walls, from the opposite sides of the house, free from additions, to a height of 30-40 cm from ground level, make one or two vents (produhi) underground. In the walls of rural houses usually they replace the manhole for packing of potatoes underground. Produh close the common grid (see the magazine “Rural building”, No. 1, 1983),. Box all holes antiseptic, protect the waterproofing and zamonolichivajut in the wall.
So the concrete gave less shrinkage, use of large aggregates and provide humid conditions. For the manufacture of keramzitobetona in a mixture of cement and sand and a ratio of 1:3 poured concrete block, pre-moistened with water and thoroughly mixed.
Concrete with aggregates is placed between facing sheets twice a day layers with a thickness of 20 — 25 cm, carefully pristykovyvayas a shovel, a crowbar or other suitable tool, especially in the corners and restricted places, and then compacted with a tamper, achieving the best fill total. On freezing concrete periodically check the integrity of the formwork, the distance between the veneer sheets and the density of alignment.
From stands and wall sheathing released after the concrete has set, after a few days, and removed the lumber used in the construction of load-bearing structures of pitched roofs of the building.
‘Lag for nastilki floors rely on brick or concrete columns of the Foundation. The distance between them depends on the size of the building, the thickness of the joists and floorboards. Columns located at the perimeter of the Foundation, it is not recommended to link with base and wall of the house. Floors should be at least 15 cm above the waterproofing of the cap. Around last make the pavement with cement mortar (1:2), giving a bias to the side of the house, and zheleznjat, that is, smoothing with a metal sheet of pure cement paste. The drain bias prevents the ingress of moisture in the lower part of the walls.
After complete drying of the walls of the outer lining and water-resistant paint or silicate paint.
The surface of the plates inside the building can be painted, polished, do a relief (in the kitchen, in the bathroom), Wallpaper. These walls fully comply with sanitary-hygienic and aesthetic requirements for the interior of the house.
V. SAMOILOV, Mason-Builder, Cheboksary

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