STOVE-STOVEThese small, simple oven have a different design and used for different purposes. Entirely metal and heating, are made of sheet steel of different thickness. They are divided into simple and frame. The first enclosure formed by the sheet, the second under it as under his shirt, hiding the frame — the steel frame. The latter is more convenient for manufacturing. Metal furnaces come in round, square, rectangular shape.

A small heating furnace can be folded from a brick square or rectangular. They are suitable for heating, drying room, food, lumber, etc.
Furnace from a roofing steel suitable only as temporary: they will quickly be out of business. For protection of the body from burning and to improve the heat transfer it from the inner side lined — veneer brick e a quarter or a half; you can do the same glinobeton or clay. Glinobit — very thick clay, hard mash runes; clay — the same glinobit, but with the addition of small brick stones.
Lined kiln heat up more slowly, but hold heat longer. It should be recalled that earlier in the countryside produced a lot of ovens from glinobit and they served for decades.
Furnace linings may be of different thicknesses: from 10 to 120 mm. To 70 mm its better to run from picopeta or clay, again of brick.
All furnaces require very strict observance of fire-prevention measures. It should be recalled that the metal is heated very strongly, often red-hot. They should put as far as possible from flammable items to a distance of 1000 mm.
Close easy light partitions plaster layer of lime, lime-gypsum or cement mortar with a minimum thickness of 28 small, felt, upholstered lathing or frequent metal grid. Plaster is sometimes revet the same surface on felt with a brick.
To avoid fire butt before each oven is attached so-called predtopochnyj sheet of roofing steel size 500X700 mm. Laid it on the felt soaked in a clay solution. Doing it this way. Cut from a sheet workpiece is dyed on two sides with oil paint and dried. The felt soaked in a clay solution of creamy (it will protect the felt from overheating and also from moles), is placed on predtopochnyj the sheet is well dried. Then, the resulting “sandwich” carefully placed under the firebox of the furnace with metal up and nailed to the floor with nails.
Regardless of the shape and thickness of the sheet from which they are made, the joints they are connected to sacri recumbent folds by welding or sclavonian.
The furnace may be on the policy or not. The latter are placed on the so-called trenches — brick pillars with a height of not less than 130 mm. Then the air circulates under the trenches, will cool the floor. On both furnaces must be put to the felt impregnated with clay, to close its roofing steel, and already put on top of the oven — on legs or the trenches.
Fig. 1. Furnace from a roofing steel
Fig. 1. Furnaces of the steel roof (A simple oven, B — (improved oven with steel plate, G — with a pipe in the rear wall, D — frame oven with cast iron stove):
1 — legs, 2 — ashbox’s door, 3 — door of the firebox, 4 — box or casing, 5 — nozzle, 6 — grating, 7 — ash pan, 8 — iron stove.
Consider the main types of structures: metal home made furnaces.
Simple oven (Fig. 1 A) consists of a steel box with a nozzle at the top and door of the firebox on the opposite side. To futerovki this oven is more complicated. It is more practical to make it with a removable top.
This furnace may be without a blower, but it will work better if you drill at the bottom of the door or under it a few holes PA 15-25 mm above the lower edge of the furnace. These holes Molen to close a special valve, adjusting flow to the furnace the air required for complete combustion of the fuel.
Improved stove (Fig. 1B). It consists of a box or casing, legs, door blower, firebox, grates made of cast iron or of sheet steel with punched holes — of the pipe with a metal pipe, or blower and ash pan. Pipe is assembled from several sleeveless and two track.
At the furnace there is a massive case that can store heat, so she, like the previous one, heats up quickly, but Leah quickly cools.
During firing the furnace temperature reaches 700°C, so it is best to futurewhat. And for convenience in work should have a removable top. Near the firebox and ash pan lining can be slightly thicker than the rear wall.
A furnace with an additional improvement (Fig. 1 C, D). Two previous furnace moleno to use for cooking and heating food. To do this it will be easier and faster if a few to modernize the furnace. Recommended distance of 50-70 mm from the top install steel sheet to form a horizontal channel. This is best under the sheet in two places to stretch the wire, and the sheet to bend the sides. The sheet stack so that it densely entered between the side and rear walls, on the loose, they were removed for replacement in case of burn-out. If the tube of the chimney is attached to the back wall, then attach the sheet to the form specified by PA in figure 1 G.
Steel frame furnace (Fig. 1 D) the most versatile. For its production you can use a commercially available cast iron top plate — blank or one-two-burner size. The size of the plate and is made of angled steel frame in such a way that between its sides and the plate had a gap of at least 10-15 mm for thermal expansion of metal when heated. If the plate, for example, the size 1000X600 mm, frame Х615 X 1015 mm.
To the frame attach strut and lateral bracing of steel angles, revet them with a sheet steel welded or riveted, lined, placed the fire grate and steel sheet for the horizontal channel. This stove easy to cook or warm food, it is well-heated room. It must be emphasized that the bottom of the furnace also poteryatsya.
This stove boils water fast, cooks or zaparivat cattle feed. Fuel requires much less than for other similar furnaces. It can be portable or stationary.
The furnace design shown in figure 2. B the casing is made of roofing steel, are inserted into galvanized or enameled cone-shaped pot with lid. Attaches to the stove pipe d 100 mm, like the samovar, vatrogasci. The tube fits over the inlet of the pocket and fastened to the side OI the casing by rivets. In the cover, the iodine is cut a pocket hole. Two sides of the casing, attach two handles for possible carrying furnace installed in the policies. The size of the door — 150X170 mm. Under the firebox door ash pan lurches.
At the bottom of the casing is placed a tray with holes, which serves as a grate and protects the DNA from a fast burn-out. For this purpose, the pallet insert, the diameter of which PA 20 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the casing. Box strictly against the door is equal to her hole.
Fig. 2. Oven-pressure cooker
Fig. 2. Oven-pressure cooker (A — General view, B — front view, b — lateral view, G — version with cone-shaped casing):
1 — casing, 2 — conical tank, 3 — tube, 4 — pocket with nozzle, 5 — handle, 6 — feet, 7—ash pan, 8 — dverka toplivnika 9 — tray, 10 insert, 11 — hole blew.

The tank can be with handles or without them. If the handles measure its diameter at 20 mm below the handles and on this diameter makes the cover. If the pot without handles, that, departing from the top edge of the sides 70 and 100 mm, measure its diameter. Into the casing from a roofing steel tank must log on tightly, then hot gases do not seep into these areas and heat tank within the housing.
The tank is made of galvanized steel or aluminum. The first is suitable only for heating water or boiling Laundry. In the latter case, on the bottom of the tank it is necessary to put the tray with holes’ PZ galvanized steel, aluminum or wood to linen, not burnt.
The housing may be a composite of several sheets which fasten to shut by welding or rivets.
The flue hole is arranged at 47 mm from the bottom of the casing. The door should be 10 mm larger than the flue the holes along the length and width. Under the firebox for conveying air iodine pan has 4 holes d 15 mm.
Moleno to make the cover and of thicker metal for durability, but its upper part runs a round that between it and the tank had little clearance.
If you can’t buy or make a cone-shaped tank, use direct or large saucepan; then make a cone-shaped casing. He can be right, but for this top it is covered with a lid with a hole, which is inserted into a pan with handles or other vessel.
A furnace of this design sometimes stacked of brick, glinobit or clay. It is stationary under the canopy. Over time, Adobe or penobetona oven is fired, from the inside — a solid crock-pottery. With proper care this oven is a long time.
This original oven can be composed of two old steel drums (Fig. FOR). One gets the firebox with podduvalom and water tank, in the other — heater, a heated room and giving a pair if you pour water heated stones.
Arranged it so. The bottom ash pit, and above it a grate above the firebox. The barrel is inserted into the tank. So the heat used rationally, in the middle of the barrel through the hole and attach the nozzle. It connects the second barrel, the nozzle of which is located at the bottom. To this barrel was kept PA right level, put it on a stand. Side it cut a hole, cover it up. Through the hole barrel is filled with stones. In the upper end of the barrel is a hole for mounting branch pipe, which is put on the sleeve of the pipe d 100— 120 mm.
R and p. 3. Oven-heater
R and S. 3. Oven-stove (A — General view, B — section of a furnace — Kamenka with drying chamber, Mr. heater with a separate firebox):
1 — trap, 2 — fire, 3 — casing, 4 — tank, 5 — outlet, 6 — door in the heater, 7 — stones 8 — dryer.

In addition to the direct purpose, can serve as a heater and dryer. For this stones put a little smaller hole for the door increase, inside with two sides fixed guide parts, which slide in the barrel-the dryer trays with products.
Dryer square or rectangular shape (Fig. SV) easier, it is easier to fasten guide parts. The hole for planting trays done in its entire width, the same and the door.
The dryer you can do with your firebox (Fig. ZG), but Molen run, and combined, having put to the first barrel via the nozzle heater.
A. SHEPELEV, engineer

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