“Dear editors of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor”! There is such a difficult craft — the ability to control manual welding. It is necessary not only for professionals in manufacturing, but also for those who loves tinkering with their hands in the home— in the garage, and in the country. However, they possess really few.

As the author of the tutorial “Welding eyes practice” claim that the presence of the welding apparatus and conditions for direct practical tutorial you can successfully learn the skills first in this specialty,” — wrote to us from the city of Shlisselburg in the Leningrad region, Sergey Alexandrovich Arkhipov. Highly skilled welder, he worked for many years in response stenasa such industries as shipbuilding and repair. Rich experience in practice and formed the basis of his unusual tutorial in which the author lucidly reveals the secrets of the welding operations and provides specific recommendations that will help you to gain the necessary skills of welding, not only wishing to master this profession, but also a large army of enthusiasts of technical creativity, auto-motor-fans, gardeners and farmers, Amateur designers, DIY.
The book by S. A. Arkhipov, published in St. Petersburg is small, unfortunately, edition. So give an opportunity to the interested readers of our magazine to familiarize yourself with some practical sections.
The old joke says: to prepare a shish kebab from a lamb, you need to have at least a rabbit. And in the case of electric arc metal compounds: to take the first steps to the secrets of this technology, you will need the transformer, electrodes, and that without which, even if available, will not be able to work any welder — plate with a color filter and the electrode. To find most of these necessary things now — not a problem: the industry and trade offer a wide choice. But for their improvement, as practice shows, the field for creativity is wide. It is even possible to manufacture a more comfortable, homemade. And not only after mastering the technique and knowledge in this area, but also on the approaches to it, for example, the design of the electrode holder (we’ll tell about it below).
But before you purchase equipment, you need to learn practical information about its features and interrelation with the work that you have. And it’s not enough to have an idea that the electric arc stick electrode welding is the joining of metal parts by progressive heating of the place of their junction to a liquid state due to thermal energy of electric arc discharge between opposite electric fields: work design (ground) and the electrode. After all, the arc can have different power sources. For example, welding AC transformers or welding rectifiers and DC generators. What is the difference? And it is even within one of these species. For example, when using a power source of the electric arc DC there are two types of connections: direct and reverse polarity. In the first case, the welding wire is ground, which is connected to ground — welded construction, fixed on the welding rectifier to the terminal “plus”, and the wire from the electrode holder to the “minus” terminal. Such a connection and the current of direct polarity is suitable for metal cutting and welding thick-walled parts requiring a large amount of heat for their heating. Changing the wiring on the rectifier, will receive a current of reverse polarity used in the welding of thin parts. The trick here is that on the negative pole (the cathode) temperature lower than the positive (anode), whereby the electrode melts faster and the heating of details regarding reduced — reduced risk of burn-through.
Self-made electrode holder
Homemade electrode holder:
A, B, C, D, e — the sequence of stages of manufacture; 1 — area; 2 — the hole 04 the ejection of calcine; 3 — region of saujanya area; 4 — clamp electrode; 5 — pressing of welding seam; 6 — handle-insulator; 7 — wire welding; 8 — tube crimping wires; 9 — weld end of wire tube; 10 — seam tube, welding; 11 — electrode in the working position.

And when working on welding transformers AC no straight or reverse polarity welding current due to the periodic change in the welding circuit the positive and negative poles; here are the other features work.
Some practical tips to the first steps in the development of welding took place more successfully.
The most appropriate electrodes for beginners is the AC electrodes with a diameter of 3-4 mm. For the first trial welds is better to use a metal plate with a thickness of 4-6 mm. And the welding flaps recommend as the most convenient naked-Lowry flap. Its advantage over manual is that the free hand can hold the welded metal piece. For cleaning weld seams from slag, it is useful to also have a heavy chisel with a lever-arm. Finally, one of the most important parts of successful work — holder. It is necessary to emphasize here.
The fact that there are many varieties of designs of electrode holders of both professional and homemade. It is not surprising, because this simple tool is presented a lot of requirements, ranging from security to convenience.
Want to offer your readers the option of the holder, is extremely simple in construction and reliable, tested in practice and proven. It has several proven to work qualities as compactness and lightness, ease in manipulating the hand when welding, the strength of fixation of the electrode in the holder, the possibility of a simple and fast replacement of the waste calcine to a new electrode.
To manufacture such elektrodvigatel enough to pick up from the available suitable materials and perform a series of simple steps (see figure). You will need metal corner shelves I with sizes of 20×20 mm and a length of 100 mm. Departing from the one end 10 mm, drill hole 2 with a diameter of 4.1 mm. It is necessary that you can easily and quickly change the electrode: inserting into the hole the exposed end of the new, push out of the holder the electrode-piece.
Departing from the same end of 40 mm arbitrarily taosim the remaining part of area 3, as shown in the figure. Further, from the cut of a reinforcing bar diameter of 6 mm and a length of 80 mm (or spring wire of the same diameter) will produce a clamp 4 crank shape. Putting this spring at the level of the cut area and weld its shank in the center of the area (welding seam 5 on both sides of the shank). Pen holder, while its insulator 6 will cut duratough or thick-walled rubber hose with a small internal diameter and 150 mm in length. passing through it, the welding wire 7 and the cleaning end, supressed, xplosiv thin-walled steel pipe 8 of a suitable (small) diameter and a length of 50 mm. Projecting from her end of the wire 9 for best contact will weld to the tube, and the latter put on the tapered part of the area of the holder and also weld the U-shaped seam 10. Remains to push the insulator into the area, and the electrode is ready.
As shown, this electrode holder is convenient and even essential when welding in confined spaces. Recall that when working with him, as with all such devices of the open type, it is necessary to observe safety precautions and to prevent short circuits, that is, long-term contact with its ground.

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