WHAT KIND OF STOVE WITHOUT A PIPE?Indeed, without a good chimney to withdraw from the furnace the products of combustion? Would not be without it and traction is needed.

There are three main types of pipes — the wall (inside the major brick or stone walls, also called wall chimneys); indigenous (standing separately from furnace brick risers); shell (directly on pracrise furnace).


The passage of the chimney through the roof and the attic floor.

The passage of the chimney through the roof and attic floor:

1 — filling, 2 — beam, 3 — cut, 4 — steel roof, 5 — otter, 6 — crates, 7 — cap.


Pass the chimney through interfloor overlap.

The passage of the chimney through interfloor overlap:

1 — cutting, 2 — asbestos 3 — beam, 4 — floors of non-combustible materials.


Cutting furnace installed in the opening of the wall.

Cutting furnace installed in the opening of the wall:

1 — partition made of combustible materials, 2 — wood, 3 — asbestos 4 — cut, 5 — sheet metal.

Wall flues


The device in stone or brick walls of the flue risers convenient because they do not require additional expenditure of material. This is the most economical pipe, laid in the process of masonry walls.


Often the flue riser feature in the inner walls. Doing it exterior walls is possible only in exceptional cases and only taking steps to ensure that they are not cooled flue gases: this leads to the formation of condensation on the inner surface of the pipe and decrease thrust. To like this happened, at the place of transmission pipes include pilasters, the walls of which should be in the thickness in a half-brick, not less. The total thickness of the outer wall “to smoke” (feed pipe) is calculated under the then prevailing low temperature. When the frost is 30°C or more the thickness of the exterior walls should be 2.5 bricks (650 mm); at temperatures from minus 20°C — the wall in 2 bricks (510 mm), for a more mild winters, enough masonry 1.5 brick (380mm). To prevent condensation, the outer surface of the wall with the flue riser to insulate the plaster slag sand, a layer thickness of 25-30 mm.


Even if the walls are built of stone, cinder blocks or solid concrete, flues spread of red solid (without gaps) brick. Next to them should be the ventilation ducts. Sometimes the channels are arranged in asbestos cement pipes of the necessary diameter. Calcium silicate bricks do not use.
Than smoother and smoother the inner surface of the channels, the more easy will be passing them smoke, and thus better traction.
For each furnace should have its own separate flue; but ventilation can be one for two smoke. If one smoke channel to connect the furnace to the different floors, the possible interruption of traction. In exceptional cases, however, use the same flue for two furnaces, but doing the splitting, that is a brick wall with a height not less than 750 mm, and the channel (chimney) must be at least 1X1/2 brick.
When the oven is not adjacent to the side wall, and is at some distance from it, to attach it to the wall apply the so-called chimney flue pipe or loose-leaf sleeve, made of brick and having a smoke damper. This horizontal channel length of not more than 2 m is placed on two steel angles supported on the masonry stove and the wall. The thickness of the horizontal walls of the sleeve is not less than a half-brick; if the sleeve is hard steel sheet (most often roofing, painted), the lower part may be in 1/4 of the brick, and the upper is still in a half-brick (two rows of quarter brick) is important in relation to fire. Cleaning of the sleeves from black carbon is manufactured through a special door which should be closed tightly. Usually used iron hermetically closed doors.
In houses with two floors (e.g. attic) furnace is most often placed one above the other. In this case, only the chimney top floor straight, and the bottom oven is connected to it the so-called drift. It runs at an angle of 60°. Especially odd in that the lower part they are closed by solid bricks laid flatwise. And the place where it strikes the weight while cleaning the chimney, laid a more solid material — such as natural cut stone. In the monolithic walls with the odd round may serve as channels, which provide the desired cross-section of asbestos or ceramic pipes.
The chimney for two furnaces.
The flue for two furnaces:
1, 2 at the connection points of the furnaces to the chimney, 3 — brick wall-splitting.
Diagram of chimney for stoves in two levels.
Diagram of chimney for stoves in two levels:
1, 2 — furnace, 3 — flue of the furnace top-level, 4 — vent, top-level, 5 — pipe, 6 — flue furnaces, lower level, 7 — vent low level 8 — the grille.
Flue pipe (reversible sleeve).
The flue pipe (reversible sleeve):
1 — steel corners, 2 — brick, 3 — case (sheet metal), 4 — cleaning access door.
Sloped channel — withdrawal.
Sloped channel — drift:
1 — masonry, 2 — a reinforcing layer (hewn stone).

Internal brick walls, which are usually flue risers, end on the upper floors. Higher chimneys are actually chimneys that appear across the top of the building above the ridge or below it depends on the distance from the ridge, counting on a horizontal line. If the pipe is not more 1500 mm from the ridge, its height should be 500 mm above the ridge. At a distance of 1500-3000 mm top tube should be flush with ridge, and more than 3000 mm below the ridge, on a line drawn at an angle 10° from horizontal. But in all cases the chimney can be raised above the roof surface of not less than 500 mm, in order to avoid zavalivanija it snow.
The height of the pipe and the rods in the kiln are interrelated; therefore, you need to “try on” a pipe of roofing steel, raising it until then, until you get a good result. Then put the main pipe.
The dependence of the height of the pipe from the distance to the ridge of the roof.
The dependence of the height of the pipe from the distance from the roof ridge.
It should be borne in mind that the wooden purlins or rafters must be removed from the pipe at least 1.50 mm. And from the roof the water does not leak through the pipe to the attic space, make the laying of widening, called otter, and underneath the collar from a roofing steel.
In the attic the pipe whitewashed lime plaster: it is easy to notice the appearance of dark cracks that should be repaired immediately.
Indigenous pipe
They are satisfied when there are no wall channels, for example, in a wooden building with brick interior walls. Put these pipes on a good Foundation should not adjoin the building’s Foundation. The laying is carried out with careful ligation sutures.
The wall thickness of pipes for heating stoves and kitchen centers (plates) should be in half brick. If there is a need to connect to two or more furnaces, used rocker arms, which feature indoors (in contrast to the previously used in the attics of the so-called hogs, are not recommended as the fire protection point of view, and to prevent condensation, which is inevitable when placing the channel in the attic).
Indigenous pipe (two options).
Radical tube (two options):
1 oven (stove), 2 — root pipe, 3 — vent, 4 — flue channels, 5 — brick cutting, 6 — thermal insulation (felt), 7 — the wall (tree) 8 — brick wall 9 is a metal sheet.
Shell pipe
They are built directly into the furnace and are its continuation. Much better to put the mounted pipe is not directly on the neck of the furnace, and the pre-laid on her concrete slab with a hole (or holes). This option is convenient because it gives you the opportunity to repair the furnace without dismantling the pipe itself. The walls of the furnace in this case dealt with and repaired on the stove relies on the other three walls of the neck of the furnace.
Masonry chimneys on three channels
When laying need to pay attention to good bandaging of seams: they should be overlapped by a half brick.
Depending on the conditions of the tube have to put on two or three of the chimney or pipe. Bandaging of seams in this case plays a huge role. For clarity, shows the laying of odd and even rows with the use of bricks of different sizes: three quarter, half and Quartet. (In one embodiment, channels with cross-section 1/2X1 brick shown in the fifth row solely in order to tie stronger than the masonry through the four rows.)
Masonry chimneys on the three channels.
Masonry chimneys on three channels (A — masonry “a half-brick to half-brick”, B — “a half-brick three-quarters”, “half — brick on a brick” G — variant “a half-brick on brick”, D — “brick by brick”):
1, 3, 5 odd rows 2, 4, 6 — even-numbered rows (the point marked a quarter of a brick, a dash of three quarters).
Laying pipe with the fuzz and otter
Before laying the pipe, you should know what parts it consists. It is known that the shell tube is always mounted on the neck of the furnace, which is not adjusted to two-three rows of masonry to the floors or the attic floor.
In the neck of the furnace put a smoke damper or the damper (or both together for a tighter closure). Over the neck of the furnace at the approach to a mezzanine or an attic ceiling a pipe laying userauth gradually to form a cutting or fuzz thickness (including “smoke”) 260 or 380 mm. This is done for fire safety: the thicker the fuzz, the better. Lay out several rows in height. Above it in the attic space will be hard, that is, the smooth part of the pipe which is brought up to the roof. Above the roof perform a second fuzz called otter that hangs 60-100 mm above the roof on all four sides: this facilitates extraction of stekaemoj for the water pipe on the roof. Above otters put the neck pipe of the same diameter as the riser. On the clutch again userauth, forming the well head. To protect pipes from breaking over her set cap or the cap from a roofing steel, which in addition to the safety features, and improves traction in furnaces.
Widening the pipe — otter (the option of using reinforced concrete slab).
The broadening of the trumpet — otter (the option of using reinforced concrete slab):
1 — the riser pipe, 2 — reinforced concrete slab, 3 — masonry raspushki, 4 — neck pipe.
The exposed portions of the pipe above the roof should be covered with roofing iron or handle (to smear, to plaster) with cement mortar, giving it the emphasis on protruding parts, ensuring the drainage of water. The pipe itself need plastering, so it will last longer.
As mentioned above, the channel cross section of the chimneys are different, therefore, to lay the fuzz and otter have different, but strictly bandaging joints. Consider laying raspushki and otters, with a flue duct cross-section 130X260 mm, that is one brick.
The technology stack
Depending on the thickness of the seams, the dimensions of the channels can be 10 mm longer. Masonry raspushki and otters are also with the expectation that they are due to joints increase in length and width for each row of the 1/4 brick (60-70 mm).
Masonry raspushki begins at the neck of the furnace at 1-2 rows below the ceiling. In this example, the fuzz consists of six series.
The first number is the neck pipe is made of five bricks with the dimensions of the flue, as specified above, and with external parties 510-380 mm.
The second number is the actual beginning of raspushki, with exterior dimensions 590X450 mm. To obtain such a widening and lengthening compared to the first row in the clutch and put four halves of a brick. Inside raspushki to store the dimensions of the channel insert “plate” — crushed brick thickness of 30-40 mm.
Third row raspushki has dimensions 650Х510 mm, and inside put a “plate” of bricks with a thickness of about 60 mm. the size of the fourth number will be 710X570 mm, and the thickness of the inserted records “” 90-100 mm.
The fifth series is already completely out of whole brick; and sixth, only strictly adhered to with the bandaging of seams. If you increase the height of the masonry of the fifth and sixth rows repeat.
The seventh row is the beginning of a laying of the riser pipe in the attic that runs in five bricks. The riser is put on one or two rows above the level of the roof.
Then start laying otter, with careful ligation sutures, nine rows, each of which acts as front, rear or sides of the ka 1/4 of the brick, thereby increasing the external dimensions of the otter. The smoke channel remains unchanged due to the brick plug-in “plates” of the desired thickness.
The first row of five bricks: it is the riser pipe.
The second series of the clutch increases the length of the ledge 1/4 of the bricks on both sides, which have to insert half and trehchetvertku, and inside is again a record made of brick.
The third row is placed so that its length remains unchanged, and the width of one bottom side is increased by a half brick to form the overhang.
Fourth row increases the overhang and on the sides.
Forming plate otters of reinforced concrete.
Forming plate otters of reinforced concrete:
1 — the riser pipe, 2 — wooden decking under a solution of 3 — clay layer 4 — reinforcing bars.
A — otter of reinforced concrete boxes:
1 — the riser pipe, 2 — box; 3 — backfill (slag, expanded clay).

The fifth row is performed, as shown in the order.
The sixth number spread so that the overhang on the sides longer. Its width and length are equal to two bricks.
Seventh row completes the formation of overhang on three sides.
The eighth series provide an overhang from the last, fourth side.
The ninth number is put as the eighth, with careful observance of bandaging of seams.
The tenth series starts laying the neck pipe of five bricks. Fully laying out the neck of the pipe, proceed to the formation of the cap, the masonry of which is performed in the same order as the fuzz.
In the education option of an otter should pay attention to the fact that her right side, starting from the second row, usherette a quarter of the bricks compared with the masonry of the riser. You can not do this, and leave it the same as the riser.
This order of formation raspushki and otter saved for the flue of any size.
From this example we can see that the clutch raspushki and otters of brick — work is quite complex. Much easier to carry them from the concrete slab with a minimum thickness of 50 mm. It can be moulded directly on the tube.
For reinforcement use steel rod Ø 5-10 mm, four or five cuts on each side of the plate. Two rods of rebar should lie on the brickwork, if the stove reaches the channel. When a channel is placed around the half brick, split along the length (it turns out a quarter of a brick), the brick rests only one wire going to it not less than 60 mm.
The stove is convenient because it facilitates the subsequent clutches (with careful grouting of chimney sparks that may cause fire). The figure shows the concrete slab under the fuzz, made on her walls. However, in this case masonry can replace installed on all four sides of the plate sides the desired height of reinforced concrete slabs with a thickness of 20-25 mm. Their connecting wire, and the space between the bricks and rim fill light fireproof materials: slag, expanded clay, dry earth. You can apply and sand, but he, like the earth, heavier than the slag and expanded clay. For fire safety around the brickwork you can put a thin concrete or reinforced concrete slabs on a clay solution, then complete the filling.
The concrete slab can be made in advance, and then put it on an oven laying, ka thin layer of a clay solution. However, it is easy to plate and molded in place by putting the formwork on a level with the top of an oven laying. With the outer sides of the formwork fasten the boards with the height equal to the future thickness of the plate. The channel also put a timbering from boards, to prevent sinking concrete during its installation, and the edges of the plate were strictly in the same plane with the walls of the channel.
Concrete placement is performed. The brick is applied and spread a layer of clay mortar thickness of 3-5 mm so that the future plate doesn’t mix with brick. The layer in the formwork placed concrete with a thickness of 20-25 mm, a valve and a second layer of concrete, also leveled. The next day the formwork is removed from the channel and continues laying, and in three weeks removed the rest of the formwork.
Freshly prepared concrete must be used within one hour. Grade of cement is not below 300 (and generally the higher the better). To 1 volume part of cement is taken and 2.5 parts of sand and 4, and 3 parts gravel or crushed stone of different size — from 5 to 20 mm. is Prepared the solution is quite thick, put, good compacting (ramming).
The thickness of respose-cutting is best (including “smoke”) 380 mm, that is 11/2 brick. If the fuzz is the thickness in 1 brick (250 mm), wood pieces adjacent to the cutting, it is necessary to upholster asbestos cardboard or two layers of the felt is well soaked in a liquid clay solution. In General, such a precaution does not hurt, and in the cutting of a 380 mm thick: it is being done for fire safety.
The figure shows the root tubes and attached separately the oven and the kitchen hearth or stove. To one duct can be connected and two furnaces, including at different levels, however, as already noted, there may be interruptions in traction, particularly in the upper ovens.
Fire protection requirements
At a laying of furnaces and pipes need to comply strictly with fire safety rules. So, if the wall is wooden, it can not immediately adjacent to core tube: first brick gets cut, then fire-resistant insulation of two layers of the felt soaked in a clay solution. The brick wall may directly join the native pipe.
Recall that before the fire door to the floor be sure to attach the steel sheet, which is placed on a layer of felt soaked in a clay solution.
If the oven and cooking hearth are placed on a wooden floor, not the Foundation, then under them will be also put two layers of the felt soaked in a clay solution. It is desirable to cover the felt with roofing iron.
It is strictly forbidden to connect any of the furnace to the vent: it may not be a fire breaker.
Highly desirable wooden walls and ceiling near the stove, plaster: it is quite a reliable fire event.
A. SHEPELEV, civil engineer

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