WINDOW OF EUROPEThe glass their hands. Scientists are constantly talking about global warming, but nature in winter so additional “tightening” frosts and blizzards, which casts doubt on this assumption. In those days, in the homes included all the available heating devices. It isn’t getting warmer. Then you have to think about how to provide a comfortable temperature in the house is in any cold weather.Experts say that about half of the heat from the premises goes through the Windows. And this despite the fact that the window area does not exceed one tenth of the area of all other enclosing structures (floor, ceiling, walls).

In the middle zone of Russia in homes since ancient times installing Windows with double glazing (single or paired binders), but frost on the glass in the cold to prove that this is not enough.
These circumstances suggest that home insulation is necessary to start with Windows.
Residents of high-rise buildings in cities are forced to pay attention to Windows and other reasons, mainly the street: increased noise, dust, excess solar energy in summer. The inhabitants of the lower floors still care and protection of hearth and home from intruders.
Diagram and working principle of glass with protective films
Diagram and working principle of glass with protective films
Film structure
The film structure
In cities now many companies that manufacture so-called Euro-Windows with double-glazed Windows of different shapes and sizes that really solve these problems. But for financial or territorial reasons, not everyone can avail the services of these firms.
And what if to make these Windows with their hands out which frames and sashes with “native” lenses?
Before you proceed, it is necessary to understand what are these window system (professional title of “European Windows”).
The design of the glass. The main unit of this system is a glazing, consisting of two or three spaced apart sheets of glass, hermetically connected along the perimeter with a single bound. In the first case, the glass is called single-chamber, and the second triple. Camera normal 1 zapolneny inert gas — argon or krypton, and sometimes just dry air. Airtightness is achieved by fitting the connection parts, good seal soprikasalis surfaces, gaskets and sealants. To avoid fogging the Windows in the hollow spacers placed between glass panes silica gel.
To dampen the resonance effects of external noise, the glass in the glazing set are usually of different thicknesses, the inner 2.5 – 3.5 mm, outer 4-6 mm, since the latter must still resist wind loads.
Glass thickness (minimum 2.5 mm) depends on the area of the spine, and the size of the glass should be such that approximately 3/4 overlap resistant seam.
As a rule, glass packages — special, with thermal and insulating properties. In addition, it prevents the entry of excess solar energy. These properties, as separately, and in combination, can be with glass applied to the surface of the special coating during the production process or subsequent sticker on the ordinary building glass (can be performed in the home) the thin Mylar films. Coatings and films come in clear, tinted and mirrored.
In addition, the films make the glass mesoscales, fireproof, shock-proof and even bulletproof.
The technology of the sticker films is simple, but requires accuracy. Before work (which is better to run together), you need to carefully study the manual.
Usually to set the adhesive already applied to the film and is located under a plastic covering, which is removed after patterns of the film before its installation.
The climate of our country, it is advisable to combine in a single glass protection solar energy in the summer and saving heat in the winter. A special coating or film thus applied to the internal chamber surface of the glass: solar control — exterior glass, and heat on the inside.
This is the General design principle of the glass. However, further to the question of its design, while also imparting certain properties to his glass we have a differentiated approach, taking into account many factors: the position of the Windows in the sides of the street or courtyard, the purpose of the room. It is often necessary to limit the entry of light in the bedrooms, the noise in classrooms, children, and the same bedroom, heat through Windows facing South, etc. from these conditions depends on the specific choice of glasses and films for them.
Sequence stickers protective film on the glass
The sequence of the decal protective film on the glass:
a — clean the glass; — cut parts of the film and separation of the protective coating with a piece of sticky tape; label protectors; g — sequence direction smooth film roller: d — removal of moisture from the edges of the film
The distance between the panes in the pane is usually 8-10 mm. bigger is better, how will allow the transverse dimension of the cover. Because the thermal insulation is provided not by the thickness of glass and air gap between them, as air is a poor conductor of heat.
Frames and sashes. “Windows” are made of different materials, including traditionally — made of wood.
Penetrating the construction of aluminum, fiberglass and polyvinilchloride (PVC) frames and sashes, you know that the complexity of their profiles, to ensure rigidity of the frame and the heat resistance.
Solid wood in itself guarantees these mechanical properties, so the wooden frames and sashes is simple and reliable. They maintain performance in even the most severe climatic conditions, providing good insulation space. Besides the tree — an environmentally friendly, tractable, and, most importantly, available material. Glassware with the proper care, which boils down to the timely touch up, are very long.
Wooden frames and sashes of window systems are almost the same as in our homes. Their difference is that they have not one, but two (or even three) of the contour of the porch. But glass looks much more solid conventional glazing.
But without a good seal of the valves in the arches Windows by themselves do little. Apply a special lip seal made of porous rubber, which provide such high integrity that even disturbed natural ventilation. In this case, the noise insulating window install ventilation valve.
In practice, manufacturers of non-food use for residential buildings the following glazing options: single or double-glass in one cover; single-chamber glass in the interior and a single window in the outer cover (most common); one-part glazing to two casements or double-glass — inside and single glazing on the outside.
Design of frames and sashes
Construction frames and sashes “Windows” made of different materials:
1 — frame; 2 — cover; 3 — bead; 4,6 — 9 inner and outer seals of the porch; 10— metal reinforcing Pro-glass; 5 seals (sealant); 7— spacer; 8 — a lining; fil; 11 —heater; 12 — fiberglass thermostate

According to the manufacturers, “Windows” reduce the level of street noise from traffic from 60-70 to 30-35 decibels and reduce heat loss two to three times.
Alteration of the binding. A window consists of frame and covers. Frame through the layers of waterproofing and insulation rigidly attached to the walls in the window opening and glazed sashes mounted in a frame. Covers can be or openable, integral or composite — with doors, Windows, vents. The frame, if they are not rotted, and the gaps between them and the walls are not blown and not freeze, leave without alterations. For the installation of glass covers removed, inspect and modify.
The easiest glass to make a pair of binding, carefully fold in germetizirujut glass and glazing bead. The need of revision arises only when you need to mount dual-chamber package. In this case, the third glass is installed between the sashes in shallow (thickness of glass) a rebate is made on the inner perimeter in one of the frames.
Installation of glass in a single bound is more laborious. Removing the binding (or some its component) and taking out a glass, the product is dismantled into its individual parts: bruski obvjazki, and also the mullions and sash-bars, if they are available. To do this in the corners to knock or drill the pins, turn steel parts, melted over a flameless heater glue serially in each finger joint and, gently rocking the mating elements, divide them.
Then thoroughly clean the folds of the parts from the putty, and get accidentally left inside the nails or brackets fixing glass and glazing beads.
Model window with paired casements
Typical window with paired casements:
1 — bars of frames (boxes); 2 — inner cover; 3 glasses; 4 — beadings; 5 — external cover; 6— connective mortgage bolt nut; 7 — outer casing; 8 — insulation; 9 — wall; 10 — inner casing

Model window with separate sashes
Standard window covers posted:
1 — bars of frames (boxes); 2 — inner cover; 3 glasses; 4 — beadings; 5 — external cover; 6 — outer slope; 7 — brick wall and a quarter; 8 — insulation: 9 — waterproofing; 10 — inner slope

Gusset bars of the binding
Gusset the bars of the binding:
1 — bruski cover (front lower bar); 2 — steel autolok; 3 — pins

Replacement of interior spikes of the rail
Replacement internal spikes of the rail:
1 — new inner tires; 2 — bar; 3 — pins

Fixing rail
Fixing rail:
1 — new part of the bar with external spikes; 2 — bar; 3 — pins

Replacement of wooden Weir steel
Replacement of wooden steel Weir:
1 covers; 2 – wooden Weir; 3 – Weir of galvanized steel; 4 — galvanized screws

If some parts of the sashes or parts of them rotted (most of these weirs, the bottom bruski obvjazki, the lower ends of the struts), they are replaced. The most suitable material to replace the wood of spruce, but quite acceptable pine, other conifers.
Refurbished and new parts are treated with antiseptic and covered with two layers of varnish.
To mount the glass in a single bound, go to one wide seam, as is done normally in the signature window, or on the usual two — second perform on the opposite side of the bar.
In case of insufficient thickness of the bar to make an extra back cover and connect it rigidly with the main through the seals, or put on a sealant (for design of coupled binding). Folds neatly it is advisable to choose a circular saw — then cut strips to use as spacers in insulating glass (with extension option of a fold) or fillet (in other cases). If you choose pulchellum or milling machine, these parts must be procured in advance. By the way, milling machine folds out without dismantling the cover, if it sticks do not require repair. After this manufacturing operation folds, beads and spacers is treated with the abrasive cloth and impregnated with hot linseed oil, natural better.

Finalization of the bars of the binding (a — widening the existing seam; b — sample counter-rebate)
Completion bars of the binding (a — widening the existing seam; b — sample counter-rebate):
1 — blocks; 2 — bar spacers; 3 cuts; 4 – strip for the bead; 5 – batten

Additional cover with a batten
Additional cover with a batten:
1 — bar cover; 2— stalic; 3 — extension bar with nachalnikom


Typical profiles of seals (M,E,R,0) of cellular rubber
Typical profiles of seals (M,E,R,0) of cellular rubber:
M,E — open; P,D with closed cavities

Details of the cover are collected on waterproof glue, carefully fluff the surface of the pins and eyelets (sockets) connections. Adjusted the Squareness of the structure for equal diagonals is inserted into the existing holes for two dowel at each corner and, if necessary, bolted steel angles. Then cover, spacers, and beads color. Choice of colour — it’s up, but preferred bright colors, and better than traditional white. However, the outer surface of the outer cover should be painted the same color as all other Windows of the house, so as not to disrupt the architectural design of the facade (especially apartment buildings).
When the paint dries, the projections of the porch of the sashes (or frames) install the gasket. Their selection is quite large: from modern self-adhesive profile from porous rubber to the felt archaic, in some cases, such as bad ventilation, even more preferable — they provide a small but constant exchange of air. The most common in the recent past the foam pad in the case was not justified: they are short-lived and hygroscopic, and in the wetted state are losing sound and thermal insulation qualities. Pick up the glue for gluing the strips were not working.
On the inner cover seal doing 7 at least two circuits on the outer you can do one. It is important that the arches were without cracks, otherwise, the installation of glass is largely meaningless.
If you need additional loop seal provided by the design of the cover, the batten — slip bar, acting for its size. Additional cover in that case it is better to make a ledge.
The Assembly of glass — the most responsible stage of work. It is performed in dry hot weather, in the space between the panes (in double glazing) remained the dry air and the Windows in cold winter weather didn’t fog up. With the same purpose, is placed between the panes moisture-absorbing materials: charcoal, dry sawdust and silica gel in any breathable (paper or fabric) tube.
The Assembly begins with the distribution layer of gasket sealant to fold around the perimeter of the cover.
Good sealants — neverdie self-vulcanized silicone or acrylic latex. You can use the “raw” rubber or sealer to prepare yourself (see “modelist-Konstruktor” No. 4,’99). Window putty is not suitable for this purpose.
Then bound on a bed of sealant on the base seam neatly stacked inner glass sheet so that the laminated layer (film) was inside the glass. Further, the perimeter spacers, attaching them to the binding by small nails or screws. Spacers to stack the second sheet of glass laminated with a layer of down. On the edge of the glass on the perimeter put a layer of sealant on it and laid a bead. Pressing the bead simultaneously to the glass and glazing rebate, it is fastened (with nails or, better yet, screws) to the binding. Beat beadings around the perimeter, getting ready the glass.
The advantages of the “European Windows” with double-glazed Windows compared with ordinary Windows, the obvious, and spent their production time, labour and material resources pays off not only heat saving during the cold period, but all year round comfortable environment in the house.
Development A. POLIBIN (for periodicals)

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