From experience we know that the appearance of ultralights “beetle-42” generates a lot of emotion and, of course, questions. Emotions lower, and all of the many issues leave one of the most significant: why is he not three-, and four-wheel chassis? Before you answer, remember that a vehicle with a tricycle landing gear and a forward driven wheel is unstable on turns and uneven ground and prone to rollover. The same can be observed in three-wheeled Beltelecom in the most critical modes of operation — the landing. And especially on unprepared sites. As practice shows, from tipping there, no one is immune: not a beginner, nor a master.
What is the reason? And the reason is that the traditional three-wheeled, or, as they say, classic chassis ultralights is very sensitive to the longitudinal and lateral tipping moments caused by the inertia of the high wing significant weight when the machine is on uneven ground. These moments act around the axes of a rollover, which connect the center of the front wheel centres rear. At rectilinear motion ultralights on level ground forces seeking to Bank right or left, are in balance and cancel each other out. However, at the slightest bump, fell under the front wheel is not strictly along the longitudinal axis of the machine, the fragile balance is disturbed and formed an uncompensated moment around one of the side rollover axes. Pilots tricycle deltalyo know what dangerous in this respect becomes the speed of 45 — 50 km/h.
One of the most effective ways to improve the sustainability of ultralights on takeoff and landing is the application of the fourth wheel. Have a four-wheeled chassis which moves on a rough terrain, overturning moments from forces of inertia high wing is not as dangerous as the axis of tipping is far from the center of gravity. To smooth the soil such moments do not occur at all.
Of course, the new scheme is not without drawbacks. For example, a more complex design of the trike increases its mass.
How much? The calculation shows that the steering gear, the telescoping column u-joints, gear rods and the fourth wheel attachment adds a “Beetle” 5% of its takeoff weight. Little it is, considering that on the other scale — the increased stability and therefore safety.
What else? Front axle increases drag, and this leads to additional fuel consumption. However, you can live with that considering the advantages of the new scheme of the chassis. Here is one of them. Unlike the ultralights classic design with one front wheel, almost protecting the crew in a collision, for example, with the tree, the beetle has a front axle that is able to perform (and once it was fulfilled!) the role of the bumper taking the hit.
In addition, the scheme allows to successfully place the seats together and on the same level. Low centre of gravity of the crew is another factor increasing the stability of the apparatus. This allows you to use it as a learning.
If you look closely at novice pilots, you will find that most have the skills of driving a car and foot control front wheel ultralights classical scheme is to have certain difficulty. And not only in the learning phase. Therefore, when designing the chassis of the “Bug” has been applied to the automotive approach: allows for camber and toe-in of wheels, the steering mechanism and pedal (since the leg of the pilot was released), the drive control gas and brake. All this allowed to bring the feeling of a disciple to the usual “road”, has dramatically reduced the time of adaptation to the apparatus on the ground, facilitated the most dangerous phases of flight — takeoff and landing. The more that the steering gearbox considerably reduces the efforts on the “steering wheel” in comparison with the classical scheme.
“Bug 42” in options:
1 — ultralights with wheel, ski and float landing gear, 2 — aircar, 3 — snowmobiles, 4 — aerocamera.

View the trike from the side and back
View the trike from the side (nose fairing, windscreen, seat, engine and its system, not shown) and the back (the mast is conventionally shown in a vertical position, motor frame and thrust removed):
1, 24 — upper pole mast, 2 — lock, 3, 30 front pylon, 4 — steering wheel 5 — wheel hub, steering, 6 — telescoping steering column, 7 — pylon 8 — front wheel, 9 — tube amplification of the spar, 10 — seat passenger, 11, 31 — straps for seats, 12 — frame seats, 13 — rear wheel, 14, 25 — right brace of the mast 15 is a motor frame, 16 — thrust engine frame, 17, 28 — tube amplification of the strut, 18 — notched washer, a 19 — tube amplification of the upper pole 20 — eye fastening, 21,38 — bolts M8 22 — sleeve-rivet, 23 — hole for fastening the abutment with wing, 26, 29 — holes for mounting the engine frame rods, 27 — strap lock, a 32 — bar on the seat of the passenger, 33 — front steering, 34 cap, 35 — sleeve-rivet, 36 — notched washer, a 37 — pipe lock, 39 — eye mounting strut, 40 — tube amplification (length 250 mm).
Invite to flight
Invite flying!
The view from the top of the trike (mast front pole and a motor frame not shown)
The view from the top of the trike (mast front pole and a motor frame not shown):
1, 2 — tube frame seats, 3 — front steering, 4 — telescoping steering column, 5 — tube—limiter pedals, 6 — swivel pin, 7 — lateral tie rod, 8 — Central tie rod, 9 — brake pedal 10 — foot mounting rack steering, 11 — accelerator 12 — front cross member, 13 — cable-for-motoroloa reducer, 14 — left front wheel location / suspension, 15 — front axle, 16 — rack front pylon, 17,27 — front and rear struts, 18 — carrier tube footrests, 19— step, 20 — steering, 21 — rear cross member, 22 — suspension straps fuel tanks, 23,25 — mounting holes of the struts of the mast 24 to the rear axle 26 of the right rear wheel, 28 steering wheel hub, a 29 — screw MB (3 piece), 30 — MB bolt attaching the hub to the steering gear (2 PCs.), 31 — hub cover, 32 — the rotary shaft (bolt MB, 2 PCs.), 33 —.hub body, 34 — Teflon bushing-bearing (2 PCs), 35 — bolt MB (8 PCs), 36 — loop docking with a telescopic steering column, 37 — cardan, 38 — Cup rack steering, a 39 — top tube spar 40 to the bottom tube of the side member, 41 —PTFE sleeve bearing, 42 — M4 screw (4 PCs), 43 — jumper and the spar, 44 corner, 45 — lintel of the front axle, a 46 — trim, 47 — spring 48 — pressure washers, 49 — cable steering gear, 50 — tubular rivets.

Telescopic steering column
Telescopic steering column:
1 — loop coupling with the steering box, 2,3,4 — pipe column, 5 — tubular rivet with a reinforcing sleeve (4 piece), 6 — loop docking with a steering mechanism, 7 — Teflon liner-bearing (4 PCs.), 8 — rivet (8 PCs).

1 — nose fairing, 2 front pylon, 3 — indicator of liquid circulation in the cooling system of the engine 4, the receiver air pressure, 5 — instrument unit (avakompas, variometer, altimeter, airspeed indicator), 6 — telescopic steering column cover, 7 — front steering, 8 — accelerator 9 — brake pedal 10 — bolt to the front crossmember, 11 — pointer coolant temperature, 12 — tachometer 13 — grid output window for air cooling the radiator.

Rope gear
Cable gear:
1 — telescopic steering wheel, 2 — camera, 3 — front cross member, 4 — caprolactone bearings, 5 — axis reducer, 6,14 — bolts M8 (8 PCs.), 7 — tube front axle, 8 — pin, 9 — brackets axle reducer, 10 — pressure washer, 11 —Central tie rod, 12 — wire reducer, 13 — nut the tension of the cable.

The suspension of the front wheels (front view; brace and strut pylon not shown)
The suspension of the front wheels (front view; brace and strut pylon not shown):
1 — pipe of front axle, 2 — intensifying pipe lengths, 3 — the Central steering rod, 4 — spring, 5 — jumpers 6 — leg screw M8 spring (2 PCs), 7 — plate, 8 — bolts M8 mounting leaf springs (2 PCs.), 9 — pipe pendants, 10,11 — loop knuckle, 12 — bolt M8 with cap, 13 — notched washer 14 plug, 15 — pin, 16 — steering knuckle with the wheel axle, 17 —eye front brace, 18 — axle steering knuckle (bolt M8), 19 — tubular rivets, 20 — wheel hub, a 21—bearing No. 104 (2), 22 — speed washer-shifter mount, wheel/skis.

Suspension of the rear wheels (rear view; a brace is not shown)
Suspension at the rear wheels (rear view; brace not shown):
1 — right strut mast, 2 — M8 screws mounting springs (2 PCs.), 3 — tube rear axle, 4 — spring, 5 — jumper, 6 — panel, 7 — amplifying the segments of pipe, 8 — pipe suspension, 9 — bolt M8 with cap, 10 — notched washer 11 — the plug-emphasis, 12 — lug rear brace, 13 — axle wheel, 14 — axle drive brakes, 15 — hub drum brakes, 16 — brake drum wheel 17 — wheel hub, 18 — bearing number 103, 19 — bearing No. 104, 20, plywood spacer, a 21 — disc wheels, 22 — foot bolt M8 spring (2 PCs.), 23 — lug mounting brace of the mast 24 — the area of the axle bracket to the spar, the 25 — tubular rivets.

Ski (left)
Ski (left):
1 — snake, 2 — power box, 3 — cheek, 4 — bushing hitch, 5 — guide, 6 — loop for a safety cable.

Node docking mast with wings
The abutment of the mast with a wing:
1 — pinch bolt M1O, 2 — nylon ferrule, 3 — cheek (D16T), 4 — upper pole mast, 5 — notched washer 6 eyebolt M1O.

Motor frame
Motor frame:
1 — side channel, 2 — suspension, 3 — hole shaped mounting plate (4 pieces), 4 steel hub 5 — bolt M8, 6 — rubber Bush 7, a side cheek 8 — hole for Allen key MIO, 9 — support beam, 10 — rubber-metal shock absorber, 11 —tubular rivet, 12 — bolt MIO, 13 — bracket of the shock absorber, 14 — box.

Powerplant ultralights
Powerplant ultralights “beetle-42”
The layout of the additional equipment on the engine and frame (except for cooling)
The layout of the additional equipment on the engine and its frame (except liquid cooling):
1 — suspension frame (steel), 2 — side steel channel (steel) 3 — support beam (titanium), 4 — a plate (titanium), 5,7 — front and rear clamps (D16T), 6 — shaft driven gear (titanium). 8 — driven gear reducer, 9 — toothed belt drive, 10,16 — restrictive cheeks of gears (D16T), 11 — propeller 12 — bolts M10 (4— 6 pieces) 13 — washer (D16T), 14 — spacer (D16T). 15 — splined sleeve, 17 — pinion gear (D16T), of 18.21 —carburetors, 19 — resonators (steel), 20 conversion of carbs (D16T), 22 engine, 23 — pump.

1 — exhaust pipe 2 , Rheinmetall cal attenuator, 3 — bracket to crankcase, 4, 10 elements of the case, 5 — pipe connections with the cylinder, 6, 8 hooks (4 PCs), 7 — springs (2 PCs.) 9 — funnel, 11 — ster-Jen-rivet, 12 — flanging of the housing for welding.

Liquid cooling system
Liquid cooling system:
1 — radiator, 2 — lead plastic hoses, 3 — surge tank, 4 — pump, 5 — temperature sensor, 6 — “shirt” cylinder head, 7 —drain valves, 8,13 — outlet rubber hoses, 9 — connection ports (6 PCs, two conventionally not shown). 10 — outlet manifold (steel), 11 —inlet manifold (steel). 12 — tie mounts. 14 — “shirt” cylinder, 15 indicator of the circulation of the coolant.

The driven gear reducer (gear profile similar to the profile of the driving gear)
The driven gear reducer (gear profile similar to the profile of the driving gear):
1 – housing (caprolactam). 2 — rubber tube, 3 steel tube-damper.

Improved cylinder
Improved cylinder:
1 — a technological hole (lower hole for coolant), 2 — crooked cooling fins, 3 — stud mounting of the resonator.

Front (by flight) cylinder with a
Front (by flight) cylinder with a “shirt”:
] the cylinder body, 2 — body “shirt”, 3 — fixed the technological holes, 4— outlet, 5 — inlet pipe.

Head back (in flight) of a cylinder with a
Head back (in flight) of a cylinder with a “shirt”:
1 — casing head, 2 intake pipe. 3 — hole for spark plugs, 4 — case “shirts”, 5 — outlet, 6 — bushing for stud fastening

Head front cylinder with
Head front cylinder with “shirt” and the sleeve of the temperature sensor.

Moreover, due to the same gear the front wheels in the air is always oriented to the flight direction, which also contributes to safe landing.
And the last one. The wheel is combined with a trapezoid wing. So on takeoff when the wheels are off the ground, the pilot switches to control the wing, he did not have to move hands with some of the controls on the other.
Four years flies “bug 42”, and no design solution, embedded in it, has not yet been questioned.
Now learn more about how del’talet.
“Beetle-42” consists of a wing, motor and trike.
Wing — type “Apogee-16M”. Design it here will not be considered, since fender bought ready deltaclub town of Meleuz (Bashkortostan). Present for information only main characteristics: wingspan 10.2 m, with an area of 16 sq. m, the elongation is 6.5, the sweep is 30 degrees, the length of the root chord — 2.25 m, double plating — 75%.
Engine — type RMZ-640 from a snowmobile “Buran”. Have undergone so serious a trouble, something to say about it in this publication is not possible. A full description of the upgrade the engine will be set forth in a separate article, which will be released in a later issue of the magazine.
Here we will discuss on the design of the trike. It consists of a frame of rectangular shape, on which are placed: a nose cone with instrument panel, pilot’s seat and the passenger controls, suspension front and rear wheels, gas tanks, batteries, mast coupling with motor frame and the wing.
The trike frame is assembled mostly from duralumin tubes of different diameter (from 22 to 60 mm) with wall thickness of 1,5 mm. Consists of front and rear axles and side members. Between the pipe bridge and the side members are connected by bridges made of titanium, as well as parts and tubular rivets in stainless steel. The most loaded places have been reinforced with additional pipes and titanium plates.
All cross members of the frame, and it is basically a pipe attached to the side members by bolts M8 curved washers, one end of which is flat, the other concave cylindrical surface.
We emphasize an important design feature of ultralights: without exception, all the bolts on the “Beetle-42” — splintery. Rear frame mounted mast, with which the trike is suspended under the wing. The mast is composed of two struts, a powerful upper pylon and the connecting of the castle. In working, slightly tilted back position it is held by the front pylon and pipes of the frame of the seats. If necessary, the height of the mast can be reduced by removing the front pylon and reseeding castle.
The struts of the mast a long and highly loaded engine, so in the middle of the reinforced outer tubes of larger diameter. The top pylon is also loaded, so it is a twin pipe, reinforced from the inside (in the middle) cut the third. In addition, it has additional equipment (not shown on drawings). First, it is the safety-rope, passed through the pole: the lower end of it is geared for the middle bolt of the lock, and the top thrown through the keel tube of the wing while attaching it to the trike. Second, a steel block with a diameter of 45 mm, attached to the pylon on the outside a short segment of the same rope: he moved through and is routed to the engine leash with a trigger handle.
The wing pylon is attached a separate node, the design of which will be discussed below.
The middle of the trike is intended for the pilot and passenger. They are located on a soft (foam, covered with leatherette) seats, resting on the straps of the frame. Under the seats on those belts are two aluminium tanks (each 400х220х180мм) fuel total capacity of 34 l. They strapped the rubber harness at the rear crossmember and the bridge. This setup tanks. –
em due to the depreciation safe to operate them on all flight modes with overload up to three “g”s.
Before the pilot left on Board, located the gas and brake pedals, and also a complex control that consists of a “wheel”, a steering mechanism, a telescopic column, the gear rods and the rack (used on the trike without the wing, that is, in embodiments, the “aeromobil”, “snowmobile”, “aerocamera”). In a variant of “del’talet” when docked wing, strut removed, and the steering mechanism is transferred to the trapezium of the wing. Telescopic column with universal joints securely, without jamming, transmits to the wheel the slightest turn of the “donut” in a wide range of deviations of the steering linkage.
While driving ultralights feet of the passenger are on the wide footrest and arms on the armrest. To the seat he and the pilot, wearing safety belts (not shown on drawings).
Power assisted steering and telescopic column is structurally very complex, so to stay they will not. Let us dwell only on the cable of the gearbox. It consists of pipes, navorachivayutsya two nylon bushings-bearings on which is wound in several tight turns of rope with a diameter of 2.4 mm. the Ends of the latter fixed the two holes of the Central tie rod, spaced apart at distance of 280 mm. Nuts on the ends of the cable are used to maintain the desired tension.
This reducer allows you to choose the desired gear ratio, runs almost silently, and, most importantly, very reliable.
Gear stress rods is transmitted to the rotary pins, and from them to wheels. The geometry of the rods, king pins and steering knuckle is chosen so as to provide a normal “car” traffic control on the ground, and at a fairly significant velocity.
The design of the front suspension wheel ultralights is a little different from the rear. The same reinforced pipe, titanium bonded bridges and steel hollow rivets in the root, the same bolt with the head — end. Join the suspension to the axles is also the same: tubular struts and springs — bars of steel 55S2 size 236x44x16 mm, hardened after machining to HRC 50.
The only difference between the suspension setting (rear are original
the collapse at 4° taking into account the future load — crew and engine), the assignment of wheels (front — steering, the rear — brake) and as a result the design of the hubs, wheels and axles (have front steering knuckles — axles with screwed in pins in them, the rear — brake drum-type).
In the winter instead of skis wheels are used (figure below left). The right ski differs from the left only by the location of the loops that are on the other half of snake and is designed for attachment of safety-adjusting cable with a length of about 640 mm. Around the middle rope attached to the steel plate with a hole, with the installation of skis it fits over the head bolt of the appropriate suspension. The exact position of the plate is levelled while suspended from the ceiling trike: the front half of the cable must be of such length that when landing ski not dug a toe into the snow. Parallel to the front half of the cord stretched rubber band, which in the air holding a ski with the toe above the horizon. The elastic band should be tight so that air flow was not able to deploy the ski with the toe down.
Ski made of sheet aluminum with a thickness of 1,5 mm. Collected using spot welding. In its absence you can use rivets.
Operating experience on the “Bug” showed that the width of the rear of the ski should be increased to 240 mm.
There is also the use of floats. Two float length 3400 mm, width 450 mm front and 300 mm rear, with a step height of 50 mm deltalyo easy to take off when fully loaded and to sit on the surface of almost any body of water.
But back to the wheeled version. Before you get in the air, it is necessary to check whether the device is balanced. For this, a curb trike hanging from the ceiling
for the abutment with wing, to achieve such a position it in space (pilot) to the front wheels was 150 mm higher than the rear. This difference in height should not change when replanting passenger.
The abutment of the mast a wing is a parallelepiped made of caprolactam, are clamped by bolts between the two dural cheeks. To the upper pole of the mast of the trike node is attached to the eyebolt with nut-“Barash-kom”. In the center of the box has a hole in which is inserted the keel of the wing. The location of the node on the keel is determined empirically.
The engine “Bug” attached to the motor frame, docked with the rear struts of the mast. The frame is a U-shaped rectangle, welded thin-walled (1.5 mm) SVEL lerov. With the struts of the mast and tie-rods suspension it connects at four points with bolts M8, for which the frame provides power units with shock-absorbing rubber and metal bushings.
The side channels are welded inside four boxes of clipanime in them “moskovichevskoe” rubber cushions shock absorbers. The design of the dampers slightly modified — “ears” of the mount bent back at 90°, and the two front faces of the cushions cut at a 45° angle (for greater mobility it bolted to the support beams). To the latter screwed a plate to the engine mounts.
This publication ends the story of deltarate “beetle-42”, which began in previous issues of “Modeler-con-structor”. Then it was about the design of the trike. Now consider all that relates to the power plant.
Power unit (SU) “Bug”, like most aircraft of this class, located on the mast of the trike behind the crew. It consists of motor, gear drive, a pusher propeller, power systems, cooling, monitoring and control.
Heart SOUS — engine PM3-640, manufactured by the Rybinsk engine plant and designed for snowmobiles “Buran”. He is unpretentious, develops considerable power and also weighs a little. The last argument in favor of the RMZ-640 makes it quite suitable to use and deltagate. But, of course, in a modernized form, since pure “snowmobile” motor could not provide “Beetle” reasonable speeds in different flight modes.
What was the upgrade?
First, to increase the capacity:
for each of the cylinders have been installed the carb К62И (from a motorcycle “IZH-Planeta-5”) and a homemade resonator. This has led to some increase of the propeller thrust.
Second, the translation engine with the air to liquid cooling, so a new mode of operation did not lead to the increase of operating temperature in the cylinders and they will not overheat.
Liquid cooling system required installation of the radiator (from a car VAZ-2108), hoses (rubber and plastic internal diameter about 20 mm), surge tank (capacity 1 l) with bleeder pump (from avtoelektroniki NC-300), inlet and outlet manifolds, connecting pipes, tees and clamps. In addition, it was necessary to modify the head and upper part of the cylinders of the engine is to supply them with their backs to cool. First, each cylinder drilled six upper cooling fins (holes in the top and then stirred up, the rest are now more channels for the coolant, in this case antifreeze). Then the ribs from the second to the sixth inclusive sawed from all sides and shut case “shirt” — a well customized aluminum strip 2-mm thickness, is welded to the first and the seventh rib (counting from the top) arc welding in argon. The band has warily two pipes for inlet and outlet of the antifreeze.
Modification of the cylinder head was a bit more complicated. Cooling ribs she had removed altogether. Instead, case made of aluminum sheet of 2 mm thickness — case “shirt” with inlet and outlet nozzles. The holes for the studs to cylinder reamed and warily aluminum sleeve with a stepped hole.
In addition, one of the heads have a threaded bushing — seat for the temperature sensor.
Assembled cooling system operates as follows. Pump, attached to the shaft of fan, pump antifreeze (2.5 l) in the “shirt” heads and cylinders. From there, the hot fluid enters the radiator placed in the nose cone, the trike and thoroughly blown RAM air. what in the front and rear walls of the fairing is provided with a rectangular opening and is closed by a metal grid with small cells. Cooled in the radiator antifreeze again rushes into the pump, and the excess in the expansion tank located above the engine.
The temperature and circulation of the coolant is controlled by a temperature gauge and a simple indicator (made from the neck of the bottle, two brass meshes and bulb) installed on the dashboard.
Modernization, of course, led to the complication and weighting of the power plant “Bug.” However, in the end, everything is justified by the fact that the engine is running in
optimal thermal mode, and its increased power will more than compensate for the weight of additional equipment.
To the frame, and more specifically to a notched plate lying on the support beams, the engine is hung from the same eight vertical studs that connect his head, cylinders and crankcase. Only instead of the top nuts on the studs screwed a long threaded sleeve. Itself the plate has eleven holes, eight of which are located respectively to the studs on the engine. Through these holes in the threaded sleeve screwed the bolts tractor engine to the frame.
Now for the drive of a propulsion — propeller. Torque from the crankshaft is transmitted to the screw wide timing belt is Kevlar. In
unlike traditional gear, belt less complicated due to the lack of oil bath and more reliable. And opting the timing belt done due to its benefits perebyjnis wedge: it is not slipping on the gears and has a high efficiency.
Gear ratio — 1:2,2. Its pinion gear is mounted on the shank of the crankshaft, not directly, but through the keyed bushing. Led, conversely, rotates in bearings (No. 7205 and N° 204) mounted on shaft fixedly attached to the notched plate clamps. To prevent slippage of the belt back (for flight) the ends of both gears is provided with a restrictive cheeks made of aluminum.
In the development of the power plant ultralights much attention was paid to the mover. Tested propellers of various designs and made of different materials. Preference was given to a lightweight and durable stack-aplastica, allowing you to change the pitch of the blades and thus to choose the optimal mode of operation of the engine at maximum thrust. However, this publication describes a wooden propeller as the most simple, available and cheap.
Driven gear screw spontannyi connected by bolts through rubber bushes-dampers.
It should be noted that when the trike is used as the Aero-mobile, snowmobile or aerocamera, around the air screw is installed a safety fence of steel rods. In the embodiment of ultralights, it is removed to reduce the weight of the apparatus.
Fuel for the engine (a mixture of gasoline And-76 with the oil) is contained in two aluminum tanks with total capacity of 34 liters, installed behind the seats of the crew, and served in the carburetors regular fuel pump.
Engine starts with a special handle. It hangs above the pilot’s head on the rope, which from the block on the upper pole of the mast extends down to the regular launcher device.
The powerplant pilot controls, as already mentioned, instrument panel nose cone: tachometer, temperature gauge toso-La and the indicator of its circulation in the cooling system. And controls the motor using the electric switch mounted on the tube of the spar under the seat and the gas pedal under your right foot.
Here, perhaps, and all. It remains to say that the realization of a long-standing dream of human free flight, the most noticeable behind the wheel of a trike. With the separation of the wheels from the ground feeling new and unknown burst into the consciousness along with the oncoming wind. Climbing higher, I notice that houses and cars are smaller, and with them… our everyday problems. Having absorbed the energy of the universe, land then updated, as if rejuvenated, and most importantly, confident.

A. ZHUKOV, A. TIMCHENKO, and G. the f and

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