“KALUZHANIN”: MICROTRACKER-UNIVERSAL

Regular readers of our magazine are already familiar with the Kaluga Amateur designer V. N. Arkhipov, author of easy and productive tillers (see “M-K” № 6, 1982). However, Valentin Nikolaevich considers that it is not so simple as it may seem: to walk on the plowed land, driving a two-wheel tractor and trailer at the same time, is quite tedious and is not for everyone. That’s why Arkhipov undertook the construction of a mini-tractor with four wheels that “ride” him: to various agricultural work, while not on m itself. The attempt failed, and the light appeared a kind of chair on wheels — tractor “Kaluzhanin-14”. Not so long ago, the author had submitted it to the popular TV show “you can” and received the approval of the competent jury Today at the request of viewers and our readers the journal publishes drawings on which you can build the same “iron horse” helper of your household and garden plots.

Arkhipov produced and an Arsenal of mounted and trailed implements: now “Kaluga” can plow, harrow, hoe, conduct cultivation, plowing, pulling a trailer. In the winter he clears the yard and the road in front of the house from the snow. Serves as a kind of “power center” — activates the pump, circular saw, grindstone, winch, even a generator.
 
Another advantage of the tractor that the designer has tried to lay in it for a minimum labor consuming operations in the manufacture of parts that are simple and easy to handle. Original a number of constructive solutions used V. Arkhipov: the drive system on all four wheels, the combination of mechanisms turning and braking, the use of axes instead of bridges; I’m sorry it’s easy to use node attachment to equipment.
 
Start with a list of essential pieces that you must have before starting and work. You will need sheet metal 4X200X600 them and two sheets of 1X300X800 mm, poloni 3X25X1800 mm, tube Ø48, 38, 25.4 mm, 26,8, 21 mm (length, respectively, 6000, 1200, 1000, 1500, 4000 mm) rods Ø50 100 mm and 800 mm length.
Of finished parts and assemblies (purchased, the decommissioned agricultural equipment) you will need a sprocket with number of teeth 13, 20, 54 and pitch 19,05 mm and the corresponding circuit, a pair of pulleys from the reel mower on the brake, the clutch, the wheels or metal disks for them Ø 600 mm. From the sidecar С3А use the main gear with the differential, universal joints, muffler. The motor — scooter “Tula 200”. I should note that any of these parts without much damage to replace other relevant. Including the engine, but subject to one condition — the capacity of at least 10 HP and the presence of forced air flow. Suitable, for example, the engine from С3А.
 
Fig. 1. Microtracker
 
Fig. 1. Microtracker “Kaluzhanin-14”:
 
1 — engine, 2 — tank, 3 — the console mounting axis of the arms clutch, 4 — driver seat, 5 — arm drag 6 — a support of the intermediate shaft 7 front footrest, 8 — front wheel hub, 9 — frame, 10 — bearing axle main gear, 11 — rocker arm shaft, 12 — grouser, 13 — silencer 14 — axle shaft rear-wheel, 15 — navesnoy HS, 16 — the yoke of a plow, 17 — disc clutch, 18 — Klondike solitaire, the main transmission (transmission casings removed).
 
Fig. 2. The rotation mechanism
 
Fig. 2. Turning mechanism:
 
1 — arm, 2 — disk clutch, 3 — base plate, 4 — V belt, 5 — console (area ЗХ25Х25 mm), 6 — bolt-axle М10Х60, 7 — retaining bolt М10Х80.
 
Fig. 3. Frame
 
Fig. 3. Frame:
 
1 — protective pipe, 2 —wheel under the seat, 3 console bearing, 4 — step, 5 — strength steel frame, 6 — cushion support, 7 — brackets rocker arms, 8 — bearing housing of the intermediate shaft 9 — bearing housing rear wheel, 10 — area of attachment of the handles of clutches, 11 — rocker arm shaft, 12 — front tube of the frame 13, the bearing housing front wheel, 14 — gusset plate main gear 15, and the rear tube frame, 16 — front support frame 17 is a bearing housing main gear.
 
Fig. 4. The node axle main gear
 
Fig. 4. The node is the axle shaft main gear:
 
1 — housing, 2 — power tube frames, 3 — drive sprocket, 4 — disk clutch, 5 — dowel 7Х8Х130 , 6 — axis, 7 — spacer, 8 — back cover bearing housing 9 — bearing 10 — front housing cover, 11 — upper pillow mounts.
 
To ensure the ease and reliability of ignition system it is better to abandon the battery and the generator and put the magneto from starting the engine of the tractor “Belarus”.
 
Frame the “Kaluga”, welded, of flat tubes of the above diameters. In the front it is runing, serving as a support for feet of the driver, the top is welded to the transverse area for mounting the arms of the friction and metal strips to install the seat with the back, bottom — bearing wheel hubs. In addition, the lower power tubes put pillow bearing housings of the axle differential and the intermediate shaft, the brackets of the axis of the rocker arm mounted implements. On the back of the tube — gusset plate mounting main gear and vertical brackets, where on the axis of the bolt suspended engine position: front it relies on the cross was utolok. Imposing on the latter the shims, it is possible to change the position of the engine (tilt), than adjusted the chain tension from the engine output shaft to the main transmission. Behind the backrest of the seat is the gas tank (scooter “Electron”), fuel is supplied by gravity.
 
All four-wheel mini-tractors leading the rotation, they passed through the main chains of transmission and intermediate gearbox. On the axle shafts of the main transmission installed universal joints, friction disks and sprocket (Z = 13). The outer ends of the axle embedded in the bearing housings facing in the supports on the frame. On the shafts of the intermediate gears (two of them — one on each side of mini tractors) are large, each of the 54 tooth sprocket and two 13 teeth, transmitting the rotation of the front and rear wheels. Shafts at one end are introduced into the support bearings other bearings consoles, the latter are welded to the front tube of the frame. Axle wheels have one driven sprocket (Z=20). All connections of their keyways.
Thanks to the main transmission with differential locking is possible individually by either right-wing or left-wing wheels and, consequently, rotate in one direction or another. The lock is handle with belt slip with friction discs: clinging to the disk, it slows down the rotation of the axle shaft. The crank is bent from the pipe: it can be rotated on an axis fixed in the angled console frame. At the end it is welded to the base plate under the cleat — cut drive belt, fastened through it and the pipe with two bolts. Many believe that if the clutch to put down the tape, completely encircling the pulley, the braking will be more effective. However, as practice has shown, it is enough to touch the disc in one place. Tape often “prihvatyvaet”.
 
Wheel put on the axle shafts resting on bearings. On the one hand these buildings are the wheels, the other driven sprocket ( Z = 20). Due to the fact that the leading — on the shaft of the intermediate gear drives posted, comes in different planes to put the followers. It made to make the bearing housings (and therefore axle) different lengths: front — 110mm, and the rear is 85 mm. the Extra tension of the chains is absent here: helps adequate coverage of the sprocket. If the chain stretches over time, it is only necessary to shorten them to remove a few links. Thus, in the whole of the transmission is regulated only by the circuit from the output shaft of the engine.
 
Fig. 5. The node intermediate shaft
 
Fig. 5. Intermediate shaft:
 
1 — housing of the outer bearing 2 and driven sprocket Z = 54, 3 — star, rear wheel drive Z =13, 4 an intermediate shaft, 5 — console 6 — case inner bearing, 7 — shaft key 7X8X181, 8 — peredney drive sprocket wheel Z = 13, 9 — strength steel frame, 10 — top cushion supports (the bearing housings are identical).
 
Fig. 6. Kinematics
 
Fig. 6. Kinematics:
 
1 — engine, 2 — bearing housing front wheel, 3 is the intermediate shaft bearing, 4 — bearing axle main transmission, 5 — body rear wheel bearings, 6 — housing of the main transmission, 7 — the axis of the main transmission (step all stars 19,05 mm).
 
Fig. 7. Axle shaft Assembly
 
Fig. 7. Axle Assembly (front wheel, B — rear):
 
1 — axis, 2 — front cover bearing housing, 3 bearing housing, 4 — back, 5 — Bush, 6 — sprocket Z =20, 7 — dowel 7Х8Х75, 8 — pin, 9 — spontaniczna puck.
 
Fig. 8. Rocker mounted agricultural equipment
 
Fig. 8. Rocker mounted equipment:
 
1 — front shoulder, 2 — arm rocker, 3 — shoulder guns, 4 — flange mounting guns, 5 — strength steel frame, 6 — axis arm, 7 — sleeve, 8 — bolt clamp.
 
The wheels are made of metal discs Ø600 mm and a thickness of 8 mm. On them on the circumference of the welded rings (70 mm) of the bands 6Х30Х200 mm: they make it easier to rotate and at the same time help to make sufficient traction — the wheels are not skidding even on the ice when cleaning snow, not “salted” and when working on wet ground.
 
Agricultural implement is hung on a yoke, passing under the frame of the mini-tractor. Cultivators, harrows, rakes usually have so that they had in the middle of the track. But with the plow harder. The point here is that the resistance of the plow when plowing turns the car’s wheels in this case are on the one hand in a furrow or the virgin, and on the other on the already plowed land. Therefore, depending on the operating conditions (density of soil, depth of plowing, etc.) necessary to move the plow. And how much is determined already, as they say, almost. To be able without much difficulty to move the plow, the yoke I put on the sleeve, which “goes” left to right across the frame on an axis. In heat fixing of the plough should be at the level of the wheel axles. Otherwise there is a turning moment in the vertical plane and the machine will “stand up” or, conversely, overloading the front end. One more thing. Obviously, the furrow when plowing should be deep throughout its length. But it is difficult to reach, moving all unevenness in the field!
 
On the “Kaluga” to provide an even plowing easier than for tractors with guns, hung directly on the norm, when any inclination of the machine affects the quality of the soil. My car suspension point of the rocker arm of the plow is located on the Central axis of the base, and it is not fixed in a vertical plane and can “swing”. So no, the trim does not affect the depth of the furrow — depth of the plow will be almost constant. Also in the center of the tractor suggest to set the seat — the driver will be much easier: less pitching. After all the “excitement” when driving over bumps and potholes quite considerably. The throttle, reverse, transmission, francione better to endure a little forward, but so that all was as it should be at hand. In this case, when the stretch “Plowman” from site to site and can “lead” him, stepping after him.
 
V. ARKHIPOV, Kaluga

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