PLOW: LOOK FORWARD AND MAKE OURSELVES“The walk-behind paired with the transport carriage (thanks to “M-K”!) made. And now to get-to bring something on the farm for me, as they say, no problem. But good plow still on the road. Wait till the pages so my beloved journal will appear in-depth material on how this plow to calculate and do it.” Similar requests requests come to the editor a lot. Apparently, from those subscribers who failed to see the previous performances of the journal on particular topics (see, for example, “M-K” 1’88, 3’89, 9’90, 5’91, 10’91). And so — a new publication dedicated to the ancient and, as evidenced by life itself, timeless tool of the husbandman.


The invention of the plow historians refer to the end of the fourth Millennium BC, It was then thought to be used for loosening soil pointed a strong branch. Hence the word “plow”, which translated from Sumerian means not that other, as “the Plowman.” And metal tip for this weapon was invented in Ancient Egypt, having, in fact, pechvogel with the sole formed by the horizontally supplied shingles, but don’t have the blade. The latter appeared in the design of the plough until the time of the Roman Empire, and obviously not in a hurry to hand over the won positions (see illustrations).



With all the diversity inherent in the technical solutions of the modern plough consists mainly of working elements, accessory parts and mechanisms. Knife (a disk, as shown in the figure, or stick playable magazine earlier— see, for example, “M-K” 5’91) cuts a layer of soil equal to the width of the hull. Coulter takes the top layer is covered with plant residues, weeds and their seeds, puts him on the bottom of the furrow formed during the previous pass. The casing is undercut the bottom layer equal to the width of your grip, separates it from the fallow fields, wrapping and crumbling, moves to the side and reset in the furrow. Pechvogel back housing podpisany loose soil, not throwing him to the surface. Well, the ancillary assemblies and mechanisms provide the whole process of plowing performed by the working bodies (in this case three) guns.

In a small farm machinery (mini-tractors, tillers) of the above sets of working bodies are used only sometimes the case. And the number of subsidiary units and mechanisms in order to simplify and reduce the cost of the plow is reduced often to a minimum. As is done, for example, in construction, published in No. 4 of the journal for 1984.
The ploughshare and the blade housing form a common share-otvalnuyu surface of a certain geometrical shape. As practice shows, the important task is to choose the optimal option based on the technological requirements of cultivation, kinematic and energy conditions and the real possibilities that the developer and the manufacturer of the plow features. Up to construction materials, availability of machinery, gazoelektrosvarschik, mini-forge, etc.
R and S. 1. Working bodies of the plow
R and S. 1. Working bodies of the plow:
1 – knife, 2 – Coulter, 3 – body, 4 – pechvogel.

R and p. 2. Varieties jointers-dump surfaces and plough bodies
R and S. 2. Varieties jointers-dump surfaces and plough bodies:
1 – cylindrical. 2 — cultural (transition), 3 — polovikova, 4 — screw-surface, 5 — enclosure with a removable chest. 6 — cut, 7 — disc, 8 — roller, 9 — rotor.

R and p. 3. Types of shares
R and S. 3. Types of shares:
1 — keystone, 2 — chisel, 3 — with welded cheek in the front, 4 — toothed, 5 — retractable chisel.

R and p. 4. Triangular wedge underlying the design of the plow
R and S. 4. Triangular wedge underlying the design of the plow.
Fig. 5. Restructuring of a flat triangular wedge in share-otvalnuyu the surface of the plough bodies:
Fig. 5. Restructuring of a flat triangular wedge in share-otvalnuyu the surface of the plough bodies:
1 — cylindrical, 2 — screw, 3 — cylindroiulus types.
Fig. 6. One of the most simple ways of building belt-dump
Fig. 6. One of the most simple ways of building belt-dump surfaces.
Fig. 7. New share — old
Fig. 7. New share — old:
1 — keystone, 2 — chisel.

Fig. 8. Scalloped shingles
Fig. 8. Scalloped shingles:
1 — the basis (“closeprice” share factory-produced), 2 — tooth welded noskovy (a section of spring leaf from the ZIL-150), 3 — tooth weld a straight section of the blade (culled from leaf springs from GAZ-51, 2 EA.).

R and p. 9. The blade of a plow
R and p. 9. The blade of the plow:
1 — the blade is worn (culled from PP-40 or other plow), 2 — defective part, 3 — scan of the blade homemade plow.

Many opt for the plough for General purposes. And try to use a housing with a cylindrical (see figure), and even cultural share-moldboard surface. When plowing these plows are well crumble, but not fully wrapped layer. That is why, and are mainly used for processing stereophonic soils, which average strip of Russia, as you know, not deprived.
Body with polovinoy share-moldboard surface of the wrap better, but worse loose formation. They are used for processing Saturnalia sterophonic, drained peat and bog soils. Case with screw jointers-otvarennymi surfaces, plowing of virgin, fallow, meadow and other heavy soils, as they are well wrapped layer. Significantly less likely to apply to housings with replaceable chest, cutout, disc, rotor etc.
In each of the above designs advantages. And accordingly its drawbacks. For example, roller blade reduces friction losses, but it is difficult on the device. And widely publicized in a number of places speed dumps other cases more intense, it turns out, crumble the soil more densely placed on the surface of the field, which leads, in turn, a significant growth of energy consumption.
Or take the shares. The most prevalent, according to statistics, received the keystone and chisel designs (see illustrations). Working in challenging conditions, the cutting layer of the soil and directing it to a blade, they wear out quickly and break. Serrated tines more difficult to manufacture. But they reduce the traction resistance of the case, as gap formation takes much less effort, than the slice of soil. To work in severe conditions, apply tines with welded cheek in the front. And when processing very dense soil or deep plowing, the results show good tines with a sliding chisel. All this is impossible, of course, not be taken into account. As, however, and differences in the structures of the field of the boards and pillars of the buildings, due to certain requirements or conditions.
And again. It is easy to notice that the basis case of the plough rests (see illustration) triangular wedge ALSO whose parameters are largely determining factors when designing a particular design, giving it certain operational and technological properties.
In particular, the angle and located in a longitudinal vertical plane, contributes to the bending and crumbling of the soil layer. Using the angle lying in a vertical transverse plane, there is a wrapping layer. A corner located in a horizontal plane facilitates the movement of the latter to the side. This layer accordingly bends and crumbles. The specified parameters of the triangular wedge connected trigonometric relationship:
Therefore, it is possible to arbitrarily change the angle, and the third is determined by the values of the first two. Conclusion for the designer is important. As, however, and the fact that the triangular wedge depending on changes of a particular parameter may purchase share-otvalnuyu the outer surface of the plow of a particular type (see illustrations): cylindrical in the development of angle a, screw with a corresponding change In angle and cylindrically — with the development of corners and that the standard plough bodies. Their geometric parameters, is developed for serial tillers and small tractors, it is strongly recommended to adhere to when designing a handmade motobolistov:
There are several practical ways to build share-dumping surfaces of the plough bodies. The most basic one involves the movement of the horizontal generatrix AB on two rails parabolas 1-1′ and 2-2′, which are located respectively in the plane of the walls of the grooves and in a plane parallel to it at distance of the width of the housing. For more options guides need some values to ourselves and others to determine the calculated or experimentally.
In particular, it was found that some parameters of the body of the plough depends on the width of the processed layer, the resistivity and density of soils, speed, and other factors. Accordingly, the length of the blade with sufficient for practice accuracy is determined by the ratio:
When calculating the useful plough is another not less valuable, according to experts, the ratio according to which the width from the projected housing needs exceed the possible depth of plowing 1.5 times. It is necessary for the normal turnover of the reservoir. Application in the design of the Coulter leads to a decrease in the fraction just mentioned. But for small-sized tillage equipment skimmers, as already noted, are not commonly used. And it follows, of course, be taken into account.
Armed with the above assumptions and mathematical formulas, it is possible to develop ploughs, to the maximum extent to meet modern agricultural requirements, characteristics of specific compact machines, varying soil and climatic zone. For beginners it is recommended to keep a reference to the geometric parameters of the serial prototype, and also on samples produced by industrial mini-tractors and tillers designs.
Of course, not forbidden, and blind imitation of any for one reason or another plow. Including to use the ready development of those successful designs, which at different times appeared on the pages of “M-K”. But it is better to approach the matter creatively, taking inspiration from the most interesting technical solutions. For example, the form stick to the knife, field the Board and the share-moldboard surface with the corresponding tabular data, as well as the principle of the rotary mechanism, published in the fifth issue of the journal for 199).
A lot of valuable can be gleaned from, say, design a home-made plow, the body of which is made of old, rejected as unnecessary Coulter with welded steel plates (see “M-K” 3/B9). And how interesting will find beginner samudayik (and not only) in the material published in No. 1 magazine in 1988, where with sufficient completeness the technique of manufacture of the blade, the blade and support the blade from the cut… 550 mm pipe!
Someone who is familiar with blacksmith work, fully capable of performing would be great, I must say, the ploughshare of worn, but having a stock of metal on the back side. The required size and configuration to achieve here hot cabin (dimensions L and L1 — see illustration — design) and forging a sling. This was culled the shingles lay flat in the furnace and slowly heated the blade to a width of 70— 80 mm to a temperature of 500-600°C (until the light), after which the heating rate is gradually increased. Bring it up to 1100-1200°C (light-yellow heat). Moreover, in order not to expose the metal of the danger of burnout, to prevent a disruption between the grains of steel and improve its brittleness, usually heat only the portion of the blade, which is currently subject to stump or procrastination. The rest of the surface poured fresh coal (to reduce heat loss and at the same time, in order to prevent burnout of carbon from the surface layer of the metal and, consequently, reduce its hardness).
Quickdraw shield stop, as soon as the temperature is lowered to 800″C (the light-lovespy color heat). Because otherwise cracks may occur. Therefore, in order to prevent harmful for metal re-heating, try to keep the quickdraw shield “without delay”. Then work on fine-tuning each of the areas of the future product can be performed with one heating.
During guy changes the curvature of the plow blade. Shift sometimes the mounting holes in it. So the product needs to change shape, which is usually performed on a concave mandrel shank is fastened to the anvil. The mandrel is made under the new shingles. The curvature of the surface is set at a clearance between the blade and the plate: chisel products clearance should be about 3-5 mm. as to the offset mounting holes, it is fixed upset face and a corresponding edit of the back of the blade.
Drawn, but not yet cooled the blade is clamped in a vise and gash his blade. And the cooled — sharpen on the sandpaper with the front (working) surface. The width of the ribbon (chamfer) and it should reach 5-6 mm, the thickness of the blade 0,5— 1,0 mm. And finer sharpening is not necessary. Otherwise, warping of the blade during hardening, and in the process — chipping.
For quenching the blade first heated to В00—840°C (light cherry color heat) along the entire length of the blade at 1/3 of the width. After lowered back down into salt (1-1. 5 kg/l), heated to 30-40’C water. And chisel ploughshare to immersion in a salt solution and still needs additional cooling. Is it to avoid cracks, for which the transition from the blade to the toe make for 2-3 seconds wet cloth.
And another, this time common to both types of shield, a feature. To reduce the fragility of the product after quenching, spend their holidays at 350°C With subsequent cooling in air. On the degree of heating is judged by the color of the tint.
Quality of training is determined by the file: it should not leave visible traces on the blade of the plow blade. This corresponds to 444-653 units of the. After checking the hardness of the blade is controlled by the line straightness of the blade.
Very promising seems the design of the blade serrated. Because he works for plowing dry soil 7-10 times longer than standard. The teeth are made from rejected automobile springs and are welded to the base (front side) at the same distance from each other (see figure). The angle of the front face of the teeth to the cutting edge of the blade 4B°. Sharpening of the teeth of the upper, at an angle of 45°.
Cutting teeth of the spring leaves is facilitated by heating the latter in the forge to a temperature of B50—1000°C (orange heat). Helps heat treatment and in the implementation of the homebrew another valuable idea: the making of blade thoroughly worn case serial of plow (see illustration). As practice shows, will not be superfluous, unclaimed, and other knowledge and skills. So go ahead, and your diligence, perseverance in achieving goals will be rewarded handsomely.
MONAKOV V., candidate of technical Sciences, associate Professor, pedagogical Institute, Armavir, Krasnodar Krai

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