TILLERS FOR ANY SOIL

WALK-BEHIND FOR ANY SOILBased on its first walk-behind tractor I took the “Vyatichi”, technical description, sketches, key components and parts of which were published in the journal “modelist-Konstruktor”. However, my opportunities, logistical and industrial base differed from what had the author of “Vyatichi”. The result was a homemade, little resembling the original design. Collected, as they say, every little helps, a farm machine though and does not look flimsy, but in front of a heavy loam of our black earth gave in — slip and quickly buried in the ground. Was not helping, lightweight or powerful enough engine of the scooter “Electron” or “bus terrain” with studs, welded on lugs. Namayavshis with such would – be tillers in the seed, I had to disassemble it in order to fly to make yourself a stronger metopomancy, working equally well on different soils and under any weather conditions.

The main condition in the design of the walking tractor, which I set myself, was the widespread use of used nodes of domestic appliances with a minimum of their alterations. Besides some experience I already had. Plus accrued knowledge coupled with patience and hard work… the result was adapted to the local conditions, reliable farm machine (Fig. 1) I called NLS-2, or just “nil”. Sure if there it ever any failure, problems related to repair, I will not. In most cases it will come down to replace the failed node or part.
 
Take, for example, powertrain and skin Torno frame. They, like many others in the design of the NLS-2, — industrial production (from sidecar, SZA without any changes). The reducer or adapter: it is used as a main transmission from the same sidecar (i=2,08) with locked differential. To do this — to block — is not difficult. It is only necessary to weld the neck of an output axle shaft to hub, on which “sits” bearing. Such a weld can be made, even without disassembling the differential, you only have to protect the ball cage with asbestos or other fireproof material.
The successful work of the cultivator is largely predefined kinematic diagram of the multistage transmission providing, in contrast to the “typical” counterparts, increased transmission ratio and corresponding torque and traction at the exit. In addition to the reducer-adapter in the kinematic scheme is still homemade in the main gearbox, which together with the main gear and a pair of wheels taken from a decommissioned domestic electric cars, highly efficient propulsion.
 
The tension of the driving chain provides a special mechanism that attaches to studs made of steel angle slides. The latter also can be moved by loosening or tightening drive chain. To this end, the sliders made the slots and provided mounting bolts and two M10 adjusting screw (not shown).
 
Fig. 2. Layout walking tractor
 
Fig. 2. Layout walking tractor:
 
1 unit power IZH-P-3; 2— frame under engine; 3 — circuit high-speed transmission; 4 — reducer-adapter (main gear with locked differential); 5 — circuit low-speed transmissions; 6 — the mechanism of a tension of a chain, skid; 7 — bracket auxiliary wheels; 8 — wheel accessory; 9 — main gear box; 10 — wheel basic (from electric car, 2 PCs); 11 screw lock wheels; 12 — grouser; 13 — knife cutting; 14 — mounting nut M16-regulatory-vechnoy studs; 15 — node adjustment of the length of the plow in the ground; 16 — node mounting of the cutting knife; 17 — beam; 18 — plow; 19 — bracket shift knob speed; 20 — bar tiller with cultivator (2 PCs); 21 — handle speed switch; 22 — handle reverse; 23 — handle bracket reverse; 24 bracket fuel tank. Parts 1,2,4 — motorized SZA; 7, 8, 13, 16, 18, 20,21, 22 from discarded farming machinery.

 
Fig. 3. Kinematic scheme of transmission
 
Fig. 3. Kinematic scheme of transmission:
 
1 — power unit; 2 — reducer-adapter, 3 — differential main gear (electric vehicle); 4 — axis (from electric cars, 2); 5 — wheel arable (electric vehicle with welded lugs); 6 — intermediate shaft (PTO); 7 — shaft.

 
Fig. 4. The main gear
 
Fig. 4. Main gear:
 
1 — the case is welded (steel, sheet s10); 2 — feed-through bearing cap (2 CC.); 3 — screws M6 (46 pieces); 4 — gear cover (steel sheet s 10); 5 cap bearing cap (2); 6 — headstock implements, welded (steel plate s16).

 
Fig. 5. Mover
 
Fig. 5. Mover “Niels”:
 
1 – housing of the main gearbox; 2 — differential; 3 — bolt M10 (12 PCs); 4 — stocking axle (2 pieces); 5 — grouser straight (steel, plate 200×100, s 16, 32); 6 — drive wheel (2); 7— M16 nut (12 PCs); 8 — nut M10 fittings (12 pieces); 9 — screw M12 wheel lock; 10 — a cylindrical coil spring (2 PCs); 11 —hub-Cup (2 PCs.); 12 — a casing (2); 13 — grouser scythe (steel plate 250×20, s 10, 32); 14 — axis movable.
Details 2,3,4, 6,7,8, 11, 12, 14 — from the electric vehicle.
 
Fig. 6. The node adjustment of the length of the plow in the ground

 
Fig. 6. The node adjustment approach of the plough into the soil:
 
1 — the headstock implements; 2 — the case of a knot, welded (steel, sheet s 16); 3 — screw M16 (6 PCs); 4 — nut M16 adjusting; 5 — pin M16 (L130); 6 — bushing (2 PCs); 7 — axis (M10, 2); 8 — nut M16 (2); 9 – the heel of the beam (steel, plate, 200x 118, s 16); 10 — beam (channel No. 5, L800).

 
The main gearbox is one of the labor-intensive designs. Case have it welded (Fig. 4) from the prepared steel plates 10 mm thick disks of amplification in the place of installation of bearings with screw-on lids. Seams — solid, eliminating drips of oil. To the rear (relative to motion of the motor-block) wall reducer welded bracket-bracket for mounting a cargo truck (paired with which “nil” is transformed into a mini-tractor with “broken” frame) or trailed agricultural implements. For example, the plow — through a special node of the depth (adjustment of the length of the blade in the soil).
 
Gear cover is also made of steel plate thickness 10 mm. Screws M6 it is attached to the housing with oil-resistant gasket.
 
Shafts and spur gear taken from worn-out agricultural machinery. But if possible, it is better to make a new one, remembering in particular that the intermediate shaft is for the PTO. The total gear ratio i = 6, the gear module m = 2 mm width of the working part of the tooth is 15 mm.
 
Differential main gear tillers “nil” is taken from a decommissioned electric cars of domestic production, produced before 1980, when it was made shorter.
 
To give a more detailed description of the design of the gearbox is hardly appropriate: after all, every homebrew their capabilities. It is useful only to note the type of grease. “Nils” for work more suitable nigral or avtol. In the reducer, it is recommended to fill up to 1/3 of its height.
Quite interesting from a design point of view, and most importantly — necessary for tillers technical solution is the wheel lock. “Niels,” she follows. The splined end of the right axle shaft machined cylindrical neck a little deeper spline groove, and the opposite end is made a threaded hole. When rotating the adjusting screw M12 side shaft under the action of a cylindrical compression spring moves inside the differential, out of engagement with the splined bore of the “native” gear and connected with adjacent, interlocking wheels.
 
Workers (arable) wheels DL-2 is made on the basis of standard (from the same charged electric vehicle). Used in this technology to be rather-simple. In the rim of each disc slotted grooves 16, which are welded steel plates that serve as the basis of the cleats. And welded between them to form a zigzag jumper rims wheels arable.
 
As, as practice shows, very effectively executed, the node adjustment of the length of the plow into the soil (Fig. 6). It consists of a U-shaped welded hull, the installation-retaining projections which includes the heel of the plow beam that can be rotated in a vertical plane on the stub-axial joint. And here specifies the angle (with its subsequent fixation of the nut) stud M16. And because the channel of the beam is welded to the turning the heel with a slight turn to the blade of the soil from the plow, is provided for proper installation during the last ploughing.
 
The beam is fixed and a cutting knife. Setting it at the required angle to the soil and to the desired value is carried out using a standard clamp with plate-plate and two bolts M12 with nuts. And in front of “Nils” at the V-shaped bracket is an auxiliary wheel. The purpose of it is to provide ease of transportation or backwards movement of the cultivator.
 
Controlled NLS-2 two booms from motocorsa (mounted with a slight offset to the left on a course for better retention of tillers in the furrow) from the handle, and auxiliary handles switching speed and reverse.
 
The main portion of the plow “nil” in second gear, and extra heavy soil — at first. Guaranteed performance — up to three to five acres of land per hour.
 
S. KISLYAKOV,
The Ivanovo region.

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