Water supply is an acute problem for many novice members of garden cooperatives, owners of household plots.
To supply water from local sources using fuel or electric pumps it is possible far not everywhere, tested the same time the old way — well Yes, the tub — heavy and inefficient.
After all, for a garden plot with an area of 0.01 ha in the summer, it takes about 2-3 m3 of water per day. That’s why readers are increasingly drawn to the practice of using wind energy: in some parts of the country and abroad have proved themselves micromechanically pumping units, many of which are designed and manufactured by Amateur authors. Unfortunately, often such designs are made on a primitive level, due to the almost complete lack of popular literature on the design and manufacture of modern wind turbines.
Today we decided to acquaint readers with the device micromechanical household unit “Daisy”, developed in Scientific-production Association “of vetroen”. Technical and economic indicators of “Daisy” belongs to the modern domestic devices of this class and superior to a number of parameters foreign samples. It is simple constructively, does not contain scarce components and parts, safe to use, comfortable and maintenance free.
All this allows to recommend “Chamomile” for self-production.
Installation of the “Daisy” designed for lifting water from any water sources (boreholes, wells, open water, etc.) with a depth of water up to 8 m and can be used as fixed plots and on summer pastures.
Wind turbine designed for use in areas with a temperate climate and average annual wind speeds of at least 3 m/s is the European part of the USSR, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. Dignity installation — autonomy: permanent presence or any interference during its operation is not required.
“Daisy” (Fig. 1) — the wind turbine in the support stand which is mounted the pump. The tubular strut is fitted with six wire stretch marks and three drop-in anchors.
Fig. 1. Wind turbine
Fig. 1. Wind turbine “Daisy” for lifting water (A — operating position B — stop):
1 — tubular front, 2 — bearing part with pump, 3 — stretches, 4 — anchor, 5 — wind turbine.
The wind turbine (Fig. 2) — multi-blade, slow-moving. Its a two – or three-section strut can be 4 or 6 m At the top of the head with a 12-blade wind wheel with three degrees of freedom. When the direction of the wind, it is automatically self-aligning with the downwind sides of the support by rotation of the head. For effective samostalne the wind wheel and stabilize it in the wind flow, and also for unloading from the bending moment of the blade axis is inclined to the axis of the propeller and make with it an angle of 75°.
Fig. 2. The device of the wind turbine.
Fig. 2. Device of a wind turbine:
1 — a rod with a blade, 2 — hub (AMG-6), 3 — bolt M6, 4, 5 — thrust washers, 6 — bushing (PT. 45), 7 — cap (AMG-6), 8 — bearing No. 60205, 9 — M6 screws (6 pieces) 10 — plate (St. 20), 11— axle Ø 30 mm (Art. 20), 12 buffer (rubber Ø 20 mm), 13 — flange (PT. 3), 14 — tube L 1830 mm, 15 — coupling 16 — bushing (polyamide, PTFE, 2 pieces), 17 — clutch (St. 20), 18 — pipe L 2000 mm, 19 — thirst (PT. 20 Ø 6 mm), 20 — axis (CT. 20), 21, 22 and thrust ring 23 — bearing No. 1000908, 24 — pipe (PT. 3), 25 — Circlip, 26 a case (St. 20), 27 — swivel (Art. 45), 28 — nut (PT. 45), 29 — ring (wire Ø 1.6 mm), 30 — cycle bearing, 31 — ball Ø 10 mm, 32 — clip (PT. 20 Ø 6 mm), 33 — pipe L 420 mm, 34 load, 35 — lever (St. 3), 36 — Bush (St. 20), a 37 — axis Ø 16 mm (Art. 20), 38 — washer (PT. 20), 39 — M12 (St. 20), 40 bearing No. 60201, 41 — Bush (Brag-9-4), a 42 — sleeve (Brag-9-4), 43 — drive shaft (St. 45), 44 — nut M10, 45 — lock washer (12 PCs), 46 — ring (Art. 20), 47 — housing of swivel (Art. 20), 48 — ring (Art. 45), 49 — sleeve (Brag-9-4), 50 — stud M10 (Art. 20), 51, 54 — cheeks (PT. 3), 52 — pin M10 (Art. 20), 53 — axis (CT. 20).
To reduce the frontal pressure of the air flow and to eliminate the influence of gyroscopic forces when sudden side gust of wind, a wind wheel mounted on a yoke that can be rotated about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the axis of rotation and intersecting the bearing axis. Thus, under the action of strong winds as the tire would “float” in the air stream. At this point the forces of RAM pressure on the blades (with respect to the horizontal axis of rotation of the rocker arm) is balanced by the weight moment, is equal to 0,2—0,3 KGM, this ensures that the beginning of the deviations of the propeller from the starting position when the wind speed is 5-6 m/s For compensation of the weight of the wheel rocker on the windward side equipped with a load-counterweight into the hole which is inserted a wire loop. The latter serves to stop wind turbine: just a light pole with a hook on the end, catching the loop, move the wheel axle in a vertical position.
The mechanism of transmission of force from the propeller to the pump — the Cam-lever, with a vertical rod, a reciprocal motion. Thrust takes place inside a tower of a wind turbine in the sliding guides. At one end duplicera lever mounted on the axis between the cheeks of the rocker, a roller (ball bearing). It interacts with the inner side surface of the plate, an eccentric mounted on the hub of the propeller. During the rotation of the blades of the roller, objetivas on the plate, said lever oscillating motion. The other end of the lever via a hinge and a swivel connected to vertical thrust. Axle suspension swivel (hinge) at the middle position of the lever coincides with a horizontal axis of rotation of the rocker arm. Thus, there is no influence operating in the transmission mechanism forces the position of the propeller and the rocker arm in the wind flow.
Because the axis of rotation of the lever is located below the axis of rotation of the rocker, the amplitude of the vertical displacement of the pump thrust increases with increasing wind speed and the deflection of the rocker with the wind wheel. This provides an increase in pump performance, optimal use of the power of the propeller at different wind speeds and increase the efficiency of the unit.
The blade (Fig. 3) is a blade with riveted thereto steel heat-treated core. The blade is trapezoidal in plan, stamped from sheet duralumin D16 or Мг6 a thickness of 1.2 mm; profile — arc of constant radius. For stiffening of the T-shaped ridge. The axis of the rod runs parallel to the leading edge than is achieved by the geometric twist of the blade 18°. Leaning on the flatted end of the rod provides the same angular position of the blades in the hub of the propeller (angle equal to 23° on the end and 45° at the butt), flatted helps samosatene of the blade by centrifugal force when loosening securing bolts (however the bolts after tightening, it must be in pairs to counter with a wire or othername washers). The mass of the individual blades is not more than 400 g, and the difference of the masses should not exceed 5-10 g. Imbalance of the propeller relative to the axis of rotation — no more than 2.5 GM.
Fig. 3. The blade of a wind turbine.
Fig. 3. The blade of a wind turbine:
1 — shovel (AMG-6), 2 — terminal (CT. 45 Ø 10 mm), 3 — rivet 4 — puck.
The pump (Fig. 4) — self-priming, horizontal flow rubber diaphragm has three cavities. Each chamber is connected with a suction sleeve, podaralla communicated with the receiving through six holes, closed with a suction valve, radiofreqency cavity bottom connected with pediatricheskoi also six holes, closed discharge valve, and the top — with the drain hose and with the cavity of the support of the wind turbine. The last “saves” the wind turbine from damage in case of accidental perejatiem drain hose.
Fig. 4. Pump.
Fig. 4. Pump:
1 — tube, 2 — mesh, 3 — ring, 4 — suction sleeve, 5 — valve, 6 — diaphragm, 7 — housing (AMG-6), 8 — intake valve 9 — M5 screw, 10 — nut M5, 11, 14 — spring washers 12 — bolt M6 (6 PCs.), 13 — nut M6, 15 — bottom (PT. 3), 16 — gasket, 17 — ring (Art. 3), the 18 — plate (St. 20), 19 — discharge valve, 20 — spring 21 — cone (Art. 3), 22 — ring (Art. 3), 23 — axis (CT. 20), 24 — ring (Art. 3), 25 — irrigation hose.
The diaphragm is peripherally clamped between the upper and lower pump casing with six screws and in the center between the upper and lower plates with holes or three screws. The upper plate is pressed on the axis of the pump, which is screwed thrust of the wind turbine. The axis is made a groove, on her worn plate discharge valve. Recoil with a force of from 5 to 10 kg through the upper plate draws the diaphragm, ensuring its return and power circuit of the transmission mechanism of the wind turbine.
Suction sleeve — plastic (polypropylene) pipe length 10 to 30 m internal Ø 20 mm and a wall thickness of 2 mm, which allows to avoid the compression to atmospheric pressure when the vacuum in the pump. The end of the sleeve is equipped with an extraction sieve with cells 1-1. 5 mm.
To prevent rich gas from the water (cavitation) at large depths of suction, the receiving cavity of the pump is provided with a compensating chamber (annular groove in the lower body). Podaralla cavity pump is made possible with a smaller free volume, which allows to increase the degree of vacuum and maintain suction with depths up to 8.5 m. Longitudinal spline groove width and depth of 2-3 mm on the bottom plate side of the valve prevents failure of the valve at small gaps between the suction valve and the bottom plate of the diaphragm.
All the parts of the pump operating in water should be carefully protected St corrosion. The outer surface of serial wind turbines coated with primer FL-UGC and painted with enamel PF-115 in white or light gray color, and the ends of the blades, the hub cap, the load-counterweight, coupler support and pump — red. The friction surfaces and the bearings have grease (ciatim 201 or LITOL).
“Daisy” is designed for use in warm time of the year when the air temperature is not below plus 1°. Before the frost it is necessary to stop moving the wind wheel in position “stop”. In the winter, to increase the service life of the diaphragm, a wind turbine, it is advisable to disassemble, dry and store indoors.
“Daisy” is mounted by two or three people on the open for wind place so that the distance from the propeller to the closest obstacles (trees, buildings, etc.) was not less than 25-50 m. distance from a water source depends on the length of suction hose and height of rise of water, but should not exceed 15-20 m. the Upper end of the suction hose should be placed at the opportunities below. At high the top of the well (wells) the sleeve appears through a hole in the side wall of the cap done in 150-200 mm from the surface of the earth.
Install a wind turbine on a dense compacted soil, or a solid platform base. Hammered anchor no closer than 2.5—3 m from wind turbine stands evenly around the circumference, to a depth of 400-800 mm. On soft ground (sand, peat) instead of advisable to use anchors buried to a depth of 500-1000 mm anchor plate with minimum area of 0.06 m2.
Before the rise of wind turbine pre-stretching cling to the support flanges and the holes in hammered the anchors, then stand with the wind wheel is raised to a vertical position, the lower part of the support (pump) fed into the center of the site. Left to pick up the slack of the stretch marks and eventually to fix them. The tension of the upper tier of stretch marks provided by dazabuli anchors; the lower — layer safety may be a little SAG.
Before the first start should be poured into the pump through the drain hose and 1-2 liters of water is to moisten and seal the pump valves. At the wind speed of 2.5—3 m/s in a few minutes after start-up the unit will start pumping water.
During operation of the installation may occur by a knock at the Cam-lever mechanism, sometimes difficult to start the propeller. This interference is eliminated by adjusting the length of thrust of the wind turbine: nevinovna (or screwing) of the swivel on the upper threaded end of the pull rod.
The adjustment must be done before the lifting of the wind turbine and diaphragm pump should not reach the extreme lower position of 2-3 mm with the deviation of the rocker arm with the wheel at 45° from the initial position. After the adjustment, the thrust necessary to safely lock to prevent loosening.
To secure water supply for the wind turbine is operated with odonatoptera the capacity of 1.5—2 m3. It is recommended to set no further than 10 m from the pump. In the event of tank overflow should provide a special drain pipe or hose.
Characteristics of the turbine obtained from tests at suction height of 8 m and an overall height of lifting water up to 10 m, are shown in the diagrams (Fig. 5 and 6). The maximum wind speed during the tests was 40 m/s.
Fig. 5. The dependence of the performance of wind turbine
Fig. 5. The dependence of the performance of wind turbine “Daisy” from wind speed.
Fig. 6. The average daily production of wind turbine
Fig. 6. The average daily production of wind turbine “Daisy” for areas with different average annual wind speeds.
Experience one year of operation of wind turbines “Daisy” has shown their reliability, simplicity and ease of maintenance.
Technical characteristics
Performance (at a wind speed of 5 m/s and the total height of water rise 10 m) l/h: 300
Maximum suction depth of water, m: 8,0
Minimum operational wind speed, m/s: 2,5
The maximum wind speed, m/s: 40
Maximum discharge height of water, m 3,5 (5,5)
The rotor diameter, m: 1,2
The number of propeller blades, PCs: 12
The maximum utilization factor of wind power: 0,36
The maximum efficiency of the wind turbine: 0,22
The nominal speed of the propeller (the ratio of the peripheral speed of the blade and wind speed): 1,1
The maximum speed of the propeller at idle rpm, not more than 250
The height of the wind turbine to the propeller axis, in m: 4 (6)
Length suction hose, m: not more than 30
The mass of the wind turbine with a set of anchors and stretch marks at a height of 4 m, kg: not more than 37

S. NIKONOV, the chief designer of the project, NGO “of vetroen”

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