YOU, FARMERS!

YOU, FARMERS!As evidenced by the mail, under the heading “Small mechanization” is very popular among people whose work directly or indirectly related to agricultural production. Of particular interest to readers are self-propelled mini-tractors — tillers. After “M-K” has published a description and drawings of “Vyatich” (see No. 7, 1981), built by engineer S. A. Ilyicheva, Amateurs agricultural design write and call the editor with a request to continue the conversation on this topic.

Today we talk about the design, proposed by V. N. Arkhipov from Kaluga.
 
According to the participant of the first stage of review Amateur of tractors and tillers, held last summer in Solnechnogorsk under the all-Union competition of young scientists and specialists on development of small tools (see “M-K”, 1981, №10).
 
Machine its simple and easy to repeat. But the beauty of it is that it has the original suspension of tillers, wacky wheels, and the trunk (which no one heretofore known tillers).
 
For the past five years as a V. N. Arkhipov care of the cultivation of potatoes on the plot put on “the shoulders” of his mechanical assistant. Using self-made walk-behind he plow, harrow, planting and plowing potatoes, vpahivat tubers, rakes the leaves, transporting crops and fertilizer.
Tillers is a uniaxial two-wheeled self-propelled machine with an engine from a scooter trip-150M.
 
Arkhipov chose this engine because it has forced air cooling of the cylinder head, which is very important: after the cultivator has to operate with maximum load at minimum speeds.
 
Fig. 1. General view of the cultivator
 
Fig. 1. General view of the cultivator:
 
1 top support, 2 — pedal, kick starter, 3 — engine, 4 — fuel tank 5 — trunk, 6 — shift lever, 7 — clutch lever, 8 — throttle lever, 9 — sprocket secondary Pala, 10 — plow, 11 — wheel, 12 — engine mount.

 
Fig. 2. Frame
 
Fig. 2. Frame:
 
1 — rocker arm shaft 2 — thrust plate 3 — pipe, 4 — blade mounting regulatory thrust, 5 — curved pipe, 6 — bracket, 7 — axis engine mounts, 8 — node mounting the main thrust, 9 — mount the bearings of a secondary shaft, 10 — U-shaped frame.

 
Most of the details of Commerce and production.
 
Scooter also taken part engine mount, part of frame (double arc), chains, handles and control cables.
 
Everything else is made independently. Axle turned on a lathe. A u-shaped frame welded from tubes Ø 60 mm. From the pipes and trunk. Homemade three main hinge and control rods that connect the tillers with plow and the wheel. Own construction and device shifting. Rams welded to the steel pipe axis on the end. O installed a swinging rocker to tension the cables going to the gearbox and the engine. The gear shift knob is also a piece of pipe welded to the yoke.
 
PA applied tillers chain with a pitch of 12.7 and 15.9 mm Number of teeth of sprockets: the output shaft of the engine 11, a secondary shaft 60 and 20, axle — 40.
Going to the tillers. On running shaft installed: asterisk (it is welded), cases with bearings, overrunning clutches acting as a differential, wheels, then the frame. To the last is fixed telescopic pull the wheel and plow.
 
Now about the wheels. Due to the special form they better adhere to the soil and not clogged with earth. Unlike rubber, these wheels practically not compacted soil, but rather loosen it.
 
Two curved tubes of the frame of the scooter connecting part engine mount and the frame of the cultivator. Between the pipes is a fuel tank.
 
Fig. 3. Suspension shaft Assembly
 
Fig. 3. Suspension shaft Assembly:
 
1 — shaft, 2 — star, 3 — cover, 4 — bearing, 5 — Seating area, 6 — bearing No. 308, 7 — the case of the overrunning clutch, 8 — axle dogs, 9 — dog, 10 — ratchet 11 — bearing No. 307, 12 — washer, 13 — wheel 14 — spring dog.

 
Fig. 4. The trunk.
 
Fig. 4. The trunk.
 
Turn over the engine. To a U-shaped frame left console bracket is welded with the end of transverse steel axle Ø 36 and a length of 150 mm. engine along with the suspension is hung on the axle and is attached to the curved tubes of the frame. Is installed in its place the secondary shaft and stretch goals. Stretch the control cables.
 
In comparison with other similar constructions tillers Arkhipova has a number of design advantages. To him, the tractors and the machining tools were connected rigidly among themselves, making it difficult for the turns. Arkhipov with a swivel that allows you to “keep” the furrow or to change direction within a small range without removing the plow from the ground.
 
This element provides another advantage in that the permanence of a given depth of plowing without using additional efforts. The depth of plowing is not supported on the raising and lowering of the plow, and changing its angle relative to the furrow that occurs automatically: if the plow starts to dig, then it applies the lifting force created by the field Board; if the blade comes out of the soil, the angle of attack it increases and again it deepens into the soil to a predetermined depth, providing a stable balance.
During operation, the plow overcomes the resistance of the soil, often puts also in the side, and the farmer, working with motor-plow rigid structure, have to make considerable efforts to align furrows. Arkhipov such an inconvenience eliminated: the vehicle of the plow located under some angle to the direction of movement. This position is governed by three hinges thrust. Walk-behind tractor during plowing slightly rotated to the left, compensating for the drift.
 
When carrying out the first furrow (most important moment) to hold a direct direction by the plow because the tiller arm is rigidly connected with him, not with the tillers. When they turn with little effort all the device changes the direction of motion. For example, it is necessary to turn to the right. Plowman rejects… arm in the opposite direction. And as the plow cannot move there — he seems to be pinned to the ground, then thrust, going behind the arms, turns the tillers to the right.
 
The second and subsequent grooves control is simplified because the right wheel is in a furrow as the copier.
 
Cultivator, harrow and rake set by the regulatory thrust exactly in the middle of the track. Attach those two bolts, and plow. The brackets of these guns slightly expanded in the vertical plane to compensate for the angle at which was installed the plow. To the harrow bracket welded in the middle vertically. Such a harrow when driving a farmer can manage, omitting, if necessary, one or the other side and smashing large clods.
 
Fig. 5. The wheel.
 
Fig. 5. Wheel.
 
Fig. 6. The management node
 
Fig. 6. The management node:
 
1 — connecting axle, 2 — strip, 3 — tube, 4 — arm.

 
Fig. 7. Connecting elements
 
Fig. 7. Connecting elements:
 
1, the main rod 2 and control rod.

 
On uneven ground, the harrow does not respond to various inclinations of the tillers. (And in rigid connection with them, it copies them, leaving the blemishes.)
 
For planting potatoes Arkhipov uses the cultivator is removed from the dumps. Installing it in place of a plow, he spends a furrow in the ground and puts them in the tubers. Then puts in place the blade and plowed the tubers, allowing the cultivator between the furrows. Similarly asociada and germinated planting.
 
Cultivator Arkhipov and digs — vpahivat — harvest. Grip width changes the dumps.
 
Tops remaining after harvesting, and missed the potatoes is removed by the harrow or rake. The latter, incidentally, conveniently raking in heaps of mowed grass.
 
In addition to agricultural work, tillers Arkhipova applies, in particular, for snow removal. In addition, it sets only a small dozer blade. Can and sidewalk sweeping, putting additional sprocket and a roller with a round brush.
 
Those interested can consult V. N. Arkhipova, by writing to the address: 248025, Kaluga, Tarutinskaya str., 2A, office 1.
 
Yu SOLJANIKOV, Kaluga

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